User:Konanen/sandbox

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Here, you shall find yet another section to be inserted to Gulf Arabic. I am just not finished yet. And how do I reference a heading without incorporating the reference into the heading?

Assimilation[edit]

Assimilation in Gulf Arabic occurs mostly, when /t/ is involved.[1] This pattern can be followed as a general rule of thumb:

  • /h/ after /t/ (-t + -h):
    • /t/ is dominant, thus the (medial) sequence of /th/ assimilates to /tt/
      Example: bēt (بيت [beːt̪], "house") + -hin (ـهِن [hin], 3rd person feminine plural possessive suffix) → bēttin (بيتهِن [ˈbeːt̪ːin], "their(f. pl.) house")
  • /t/ before /d/, /s/, /z/, /t͡ʃ/, /d͡ʒ/, /θ/, // or /ðˤ/:
    • The /t/ is recessive, fully assimilating with the following consonant:
      • Any word-initial or word-medial sequence of /td/ assimilates to /dd/
        Example: t- (تـ [t̪], Imperfective verb prefix for the 2nd person) + dawwer (دوِّر [ˈd̪æwːer], "search") → ddawwir (تدوِّر [ˈd̪ːæwːer], "you(m. sg.) search")
      • Any word-initial or medial sequence of /ts/ assimilates to /ss/
        Example: t- (تـ [t̪], Imperfective verb prefix for the 2nd person) + sīb (سيب [siːb], "leave") → ssīb (تسيب [sːiːb], "you(m. sg.) leave")
      • Any word-initial or medial sequence of /tz/ assimilates to /zz/
        Example: t- (تـ [t̪], imperfective verb prefix for the 3rd person singular feminine) + ziḫḫ (زخّ [ziχː], "lay hands (on sth./sb.)") → zziḫḫ(i)č (تزخّكِ [ˈzːiχːit͡ʃ], "she lays hands on you(f. sg.)")
      • Any word-initial or medial sequence of // assimilates to //
        Example: t- (تـ [t̪],) + →
      • Any word-initial or medial sequence of // assimilates to //
        Example: t- (تـ [t̪],) + →

Pronouns[edit]

Personal pronouns[edit]

Done

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

Following vowel chart applies to the Gulf Arabic dialect continuum:[2]

  Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i     u
Close-mid       o
Open-mid            
Near-open æ æː        
Open     ä äː ɑ ɑː

Qafisheh stipulates two qualities of /a/

a has a low back quality in the environment of pharyngealized consonants and frequently before or after /q/. This sound is similar to the a sound in father but shorter and farther back. (...) Before or after the pharyngeals 9 [= ʿAyin] and H [= ḥ], or any other plain consonant, a is farther front than the a in father; its quality ranges between the e in pen and the a in pan

— Hamdi A. Qafisheh, A Short Reference Grammar of Gulf Arabic, p. 16

. He further explains that these qualities also apply to /aː/, so that [ɑ(ː)]~[ä(ː)]~[æ(ː)] can be assumed therefor.

References[edit]

  1. ^ McCarus, Hamdi A. Qafisheh ; in consultation with Ernest N. (1977). "Assimilation". A short reference grammar of Gulf Arabic. Tucson, Ariz.: University of Arizona Press. p. 26. ISBN 0-8165-0570-5. 
  2. ^ McCarus, Hamdi A. Qafisheh ; in consultation with Ernest N. (1977). "Diagramm II". A short reference grammar of Gulf Arabic. Tucson, Ariz.: University of Arizona Press. p. 3. ISBN 0816505705.  More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)