Voiced alveolar fricative

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The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents these sounds depends on whether a sibilant or non-sibilant fricative is being described.

  • The symbol for the alveolar sibilant is z, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is z. The IPA letter z is not normally used for dental or postalveolar sibilants unless modified by a diacritic ( and respectively).
  • The IPA symbol for the alveolar non-sibilant fricative is derived by means of diacritics; it can be ð̠ or ɹ̝.
Voiced coronal fricatives
Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar
retracted retroflex palato-
alveolar
alveolo
-palatal
sibilant ʐ ʒ ʑ
non-sibilant ð ð̠/ð͇/ɹ̝ ɻ̝

Voiced alveolar sibilant[edit]

Voiced alveolar fricative#Voiced alveolar sibilant
z
IPA number 133
Encoding
Entity (decimal) z
Unicode (hex) U+007A
X-SAMPA z
Kirshenbaum z
Braille ⠵ (braille pattern dots-1356)
Sound
Voiced laminal dentalized alveolar sibilant
Voiced alveolar retracted sibilant
Encoding
Entity (decimal) z​̺
Unicode (hex) U+007A U+033A

The voiced alveolar sibilant is common across European languages but is relatively uncommon cross-linguistically compared to the voiceless variant. Only about 28% of the world's languages contain a voiced dental or alveolar sibilant. Moreover, 85% of the languages with some form of [z] are languages of Europe, Africa or Western Asia.

In the eastern half of Asia, the Pacific and the Americas, [z] is very rare as a phoneme. The presence of [z] in a given language always implies the presence of a voiceless [s].[citation needed]

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced alveolar fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant fricative, which means it is generally produced by channeling air flow along a groove in the back of the tongue up to the place of articulation, at which point it is focused against the sharp edge of the nearly clenched teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • There are at least three specific variants of [z]:
    • Dentalized laminal alveolar (commonly called "dental"), which means it is articulated with the tongue blade very close to the upper front teeth, with the tongue tip resting behind lower front teeth. The hissing effect in this variety of [z] is very strong.[1]
    • Non-retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal. According to Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996) about half of English speakers use a non-retracted apical articulation.
    • Retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue slightly behind the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal. Acoustically, it is close to [ʒ] or laminal [ʐ].
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Dentalized laminal alveolar[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[2] զարդ About this sound [z̪ɑɾt̪ʰ]  'decoration'
Azerbaijani[3] z [z̪o̞ɣ] 'sprout'
Belarusian[4] база [ˈbäz̪ä] 'base' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Belarusian phonology
Bulgarian[5] езеро [ˈɛz̪ɛro] 'lake' Contrasts with palatalized form.
Chinese Suzhou dialect[6] [example needed]
Czech[7] zima [ˈz̪ɪmä] 'winter' See Czech phonology
French[8][9] zèbre [z̪ɛbʁ] 'zebra' See French phonology
Hungarian[10] zálog [ˈz̪äːl̪oɡ] 'pledge' See Hungarian phonology
Kashubian[11] [example needed]
Kazakh[12] заң [z̪ɑŋ] 'law'
Kyrgyz[13] заң [z̪äŋ] 'law'
Latvian[14] zars [z̪ärs̪] 'branch' See Latvian phonology
Macedonian[15] зошто [ˈz̪ɔʃt̪ɔ] 'why' See Macedonian phonology
Mirandese daprendizaige [d̪əpɾẽd̪iˈz̪ajʒ(ɯ̽)] 'learning' Mirandese and neighboring Portuguese dialects were the only surviving oral tradition to preserve all seven mediaeval Ibero-Romance sibilants: ch /t͡ʃ/, x /ʃ/, g/j /ʒ/, c/ç //, z /z̪/, s/-ss- //, -s- /z̺/
Polish[1][16] zero About this sound [ˈz̪ɛrɔ]  'zero' See Polish phonology
Romanian[17] zar [z̪är] 'dice' See Romanian phonology
Russian[18] заезжать zaezžat' About this sound [z̪əɪˈʑʑætʲ]  'to pick up' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[19][20] зима / zima [z̪ǐːmä] 'winter' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak zima [ˈz̪imä] 'winter'
Slovene[21] zima [ˈz̪ìːma] 'winter'
Turkish[8][22] z [ɡø̞̈z̪] 'eye' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[23] зуб [z̪ub] 'tooth' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[24] koza [ˈkoz̪ä] 'goat'
Uzbek[25] [example needed]
Vietnamese Hanoi[26] da [z̪äː] 'skin' See Vietnamese phonology

Non-retracted alveolar[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe зы About this sound [ˈzə]  'one'
Albanian zjarr [zjar] 'fire'
Arabic Standard[27] زائِر [ˈzaːʔir] 'visitor' See Arabic phonology
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic [ziɡa] 'bell'
Breton iliz [iliz] 'church'
Chechen зурма / zurma [zuɾma] 'music'
Dutch Standard[28] zee [zeː] 'sea' See Dutch phonology
Friesland ezel [ˈeɪ̯zəɫ] 'donkey' It is always devoiced if word initially. See Dutch phonology
English size [saɪ̯z] 'size' Absent from some Scottish and Asian dialects. See English phonology
Georgian[29] არი [ˈzɑɾi] 'bell'
Greek Athens dialect[30] ζάλη záli [ˈz̻ali] 'dizziness' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew זאב [zeˈʔev] 'wolf' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi ज़मीन [zəmiːn] 'land' See Hindustani phonology
Italian Marked accents of Emilia-Romagna[31] caso [ˈkäːz̺ʲo] 'case' Palatalized apical;[31] may be [ʐ] or [ʒ] instead.[31] See Italian phonology
Japanese[32] 全部 zenbu [zembɯ] 'everything' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian зы About this sound [ˈzə]  'one'
Kalaw Lagaw Ya zilamiz [zilʌmiz] 'go'
Kashmiri ज़ानुन, زانُن [zaːnun] 'to know'
Malay zaman [zaman] 'age, period'
Maltese żelu [zelu] 'zeal'
Marathi [zər] 'if' See Marathi phonology.
Occitan Limousin jòune [ˈzɒwne] 'young' See Occitan phonology
Portuguese[33] casa [ˈkazɐ] 'house' See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਜ਼ਿੰਦਗੀ [zɪnˈd̪əgi] 'life'
Spanish Andalusian comunismo [ko̞muˈnizmo̞] 'Communism' Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants, when it is not debuccalized to [h ~ ɦ]. Present in dialects which realize /s/ as a non-retracted alveolar fricative. Before /d/ it is dental [z̪].
Latin American
Mexican zapato [zäˈpät̪o̞] 'shoe' Some northern dialects. Corresponds to /s/ in other Mexican dialects, and to /θ/ in Peninsular Spanish. See Spanish phonology
Swahili lazima [lɑzimɑ] 'must'
Urdu زمین [zəmiːn] 'land' See Hindustani phonology
West Frisian[34] sizze [ˈs̺ɪz̺ə] 'to say' Apical.[34] It never occurs in word-initial positions. See West Frisian phonology
Yi ssy [zɿ˧] 'generation'
Yiddish zien [zin] 'son'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[35] guanaz [ɡʷanaz]

Retracted alveolar[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan[36][37] zel [ˈz̺ɛɫ] 'zeal' Apical. See Catalan phonology
Galician mesmo [ˈme̞z̺mo̞] 'same' Apical. Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants. Before /d/ it is pronounced dentally [z̺].
Greek[38] μάζα za [ˈmɐz̠ɐ] 'mass' See Modern Greek phonology
Italian Central Italy[39] caso [ˈkäːz̠o] 'case' Present in Lazio north of Cape Linaro,[39] most of Umbria[39] (save Perugia and the extreme south)[39] and Le Marche south of the Potenza.[39]
Northern Italy[40][41] Apical.[42] Present in many areas north of the La Spezia–Rimini Line.[43][44] See Italian phonology
Sicily[39] Present south and west of a line drawn from Syracuse to Cefalù.[39]
Low German[45] [example needed]
Maldivian zaraafaa [z̺aˈraːfaː] 'giraffe'
Mirandese eisistir [e̞jz̺is̺ˈtiɾ] 'to exist' Apical. Mirandese and neighboring Portuguese dialects were the only surviving oral tradition to preserve all seven mediaeval Ibero-Romance sibilants: ch //, x /ʃ/, g/j /ʒ/, c/ç //, z /z̪/, s/-ss- //, -s- /z̺/
Occitan Gascon casèrna [kaz̺ɛrno] 'barracks' See Occitan phonology
Languedocien ser [bez̺e] 'to see'
Portuguese European, inland northern [example needed] Apical. Contrasts with non-retracted /z/. See Portuguese phonology
European, coastal northern [example needed] Merges with non-retracted /z/. See Portuguese phonology
Spanish Castilian mismo [ˈmiz̺mo̞] 'same' Apical. Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants. Before /d/ it is pronounced dentally [z̺]. See Spanish phonology
Paisa Region

Variable[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch Netherlandic zee [zeɪ̯] 'sea' Laminal alveolar, varies between non-retracted and retracted. See Dutch phonology
German Standard[46] sauber [ˈzäʊ̯bɐ] 'clean' Varies between dentalized laminal, non-retracted laminal and non-retracted apical.[46] See German phonology
Italian Standard[47] caso [ˈkäːzo] 'case' Varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical.[47] See Italian phonology
Ticino[42] Varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical.[48] Both variants may be labiodentalized.[42] See Italian phonology

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative[edit]

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative
ð̠
ð͇
ɹ̝
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ð​̠
Unicode (hex) U+00F0 U+0320

The voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative is a consonantal sound. As the International Phonetic Alphabet does not have separate symbols for the alveolar consonants (the same symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that aren't palatalized), it can represent this sound as in a number of ways including ð̠ or ð͇ (retracted or alveolarized ð, respectively), or ɹ̝ (constricted ɹ).

Features[edit]

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. However, it does not have the grooved tongue and directed airflow, or the high frequencies, of a sibilant.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Czech[49] čtyři [ˈt͡ʃtɪɹ̝ɪ] 'four' May be a trill fricative[49] or a tap fricative instead.[50] It contrasts with /r/ and /ʒ/. See Czech phonology
Danish[51] Few speakers[52] ved [ʋɪð̠] 'at, by' Laminal,[51] made with the tip of the tongue behind lower teeth.[51] Allophone of /d/ in the syllable coda; a lot more often realized as an approximant.[52] See Danish phonology
Dutch[53] kaart [kaːð̠t] 'card' One of many possible realizations of /r/; distribution unclear. See Dutch phonology
English Scouse[54] maid [meɪð̠] 'maid' Allophone of /d/. See English phonology
South African[55][56] round [ɹ̝æʊ̯nd] 'round' Apical,[56] present in some urban dialects.[55] See English phonology
Icelandic[57][58] bróðir [ˈproːð̠ir] 'brother' Usually apical,[57][58] may be closer to an approximant. See Icelandic phonology
Italian Bologna[42] caso [ˈkäːð̠o] 'case' Laminal;[42] a hypercorrective variant of /z/ for some young speakers.[42] Either non-sibilant,[42] or "not sibilant enough".[42] See Italian phonology
Sicily[59] terra [ˈt̪ɛɹ̝ä] 'earth' Apical;[60] corresponds to /rr/ in standard Italian.[59] See Italian phonology
Swedish Central Standard[61][62] vandrare [ˈvän̪ːˈd̪ɹ̝äɹə] 'wanderer' Allophone of /r/ around the Stockholm area. See Swedish phonology

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Puppel, Nawrocka-Fisiak & Krassowska (1977:149), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:154)
  2. ^ Kozintseva (1995), p. 7.
  3. ^ Axundov (1983), pp. 115, 136, 139-142.
  4. ^ Padluzhny (1989), p. 47.
  5. ^ Klagstad Jr. (1958), p. 46.
  6. ^ Lin (2001), p. 22.
  7. ^ Palková (1994), p. 228.
  8. ^ a b Adams (1975), p. 288.
  9. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1999), p. 79.
  10. ^ Szende (1999), p. 104.
  11. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". 
  12. ^ Kara (2002), p. 10.
  13. ^ Kara (2003), p. 11.
  14. ^ Nau (1998), p. 6.
  15. ^ Lunt (1952), p. 1.
  16. ^ Rocławski (1976), pp. 149.
  17. ^ Ovidiu Drăghici. "Limba Română contemporană. Fonetică. Fonologie. Ortografie. Lexicologie" (PDF). Retrieved April 19, 2013. 
  18. ^ Chew (2003), p. 67.
  19. ^ Kordić (2006), p. 5.
  20. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 66.
  21. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980:21)
  22. ^ Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 154.
  23. ^ S. Buk, J. Mačutek, A. Rovenchak (2008). "Some properties of the Ukrainian writing system" (PDF). Retrieved April 19, 2013. 
  24. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 22, 38 and 39.
  25. ^ Sjoberg (1963), p. 11.
  26. ^ Thompson (1987), pp. 5 and 7.
  27. ^ Thelwall (1990), p. 37.
  28. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 45.
  29. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  30. ^ Adams (1975), p. 283.
  31. ^ a b c Canepari (1992), p. 73.
  32. ^ Okada (1991), p. 94.
  33. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  34. ^ a b Sipma (1913), p. 16.
  35. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 108.
  36. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  37. ^ Torreblanca (1988), p. 347.
  38. ^ Arvaniti (2007), p. 12.
  39. ^ a b c d e f g Adams (1975), p. 286.
  40. ^ Adams (1975), pp. 285-286.
  41. ^ Canepari (1992), p. 71-72.
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h Canepari (1992), p. 72.
  43. ^ Canepari (1992), p. 71.
  44. ^ Adams (1975), p. 285.
  45. ^ Adams (1975), p. 289.
  46. ^ a b Mangold (2005), p. 50.
  47. ^ a b Canepari (1992), p. 68.
  48. ^ Canepari (1992), pp. 68 and 72.
  49. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), pp. 228-230 and 233.
  50. ^ Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012), p. 226.
  51. ^ a b c Jespersen (1897-1899:?), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:144)
  52. ^ a b Bauer et al. (1980:?), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:144): "Only in a very distinct Danish - as from the stage of the Royal Theater - do we get a fricative."
  53. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:199). Authors don't say where exactly it is used.
  54. ^ Watson (2007), pp. 352-353.
  55. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 236.
  56. ^ a b Ogden (2009), p. 92.
  57. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), pp. 144-145.
  58. ^ a b Pétursson (1971:?), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:145)
  59. ^ a b Canepari (1992), pp. 64-65.
  60. ^ Canepari (1992), p. 65.
  61. ^ Engstrand (1999), pp. 141.
  62. ^ Engstrand (2004), p. 167.

Bibliography[edit]