Close-mid front unrounded vowel

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Close-mid front unrounded vowel
IPA number 302
Entity (decimal) e
Unicode (hex) U+0065
Kirshenbaum e
Braille ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)

The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is e.

The IPA prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of this article follows this preference. However, a large number of linguists prefer the terms "high" and "low".[citation needed]


IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[1] meter [ˈmëˑtɐr] 'meter' Near-front. Allophone of /eə/ in less stressed words and in stressed syllables of polysyllabic words. In the latter case, it is in free variation with the diphthongal realization [ëə̯ ~ ë̯ə ~ ëə].[1] See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic Egyptian ليه [leː] 'why' See Egyptian Arabic phonology
Gulf ليش [leːʃ] See Arabic phonology
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic h [heː] 'yes' Prominent in the Urmia, Nochiya and Jilu dialects. Can be closer to [i] for some speakers. Lowered to [] in other varieties.
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[2] [example needed]
Catalan[3] séc [s̠ek] 'fold' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Cantonese /bei6 [pei˨˨] 'nose' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin /fēi [feɪ̯˥] 'to fly' See Standard Chinese phonology
Wu /ge [ɡe˩˧] 'lean'
Danish Standard[4][5][6][7][8] hæl [ˈheːˀl] 'heel' Also described as open-mid ɛ[9] - the way it is most often transcribed. It is mid [] in the conservative variety.[10] See Danish phonology
Dutch Belgian[11] vreemd [vreːmt] 'strange' In the Netherlands often diphthongized to [eɪ]. See Dutch phonology
English Australian[12] bed [bed] 'bed' See Australian English phonology
General Indian[13] play [pl̥e(ː)] 'play'
General Pakistani[14] Can be a diphthong [eɪ] instead, depending on speaker.
Multicultural London[15]
Ulster[19] Pronounced [ɛː~iə] in Belfast.
Cardiff[20] kit [ke̠t] 'kit' Near-front;[20] corresponds to /ɪ/ in other dialects.
Faroese eg [eː] 'I'
French[21] beauté [bot̪e] 'beauty' See French phonology
Galician tres [t̪ɾes] 'three'
Georgian[22] მეფ [mɛpʰej] 'king'
German Standard[23] Seele About this sound [ˈzeːlə]  'soul' See German phonology
Hindustani दे / دے [d̪eː] 'give!' See Hindustani phonology
Icelandic[24][25][26] vinur [ˈveːnөr] 'friend' Most often transcribed /ɪ/. See Icelandic phonology
Italian[27] stelle [ˈs̪t̪elle] 'stars' See Italian phonology
Kaingang[28] [ˈkɾe] 'thigh'
Korean 베다/beda [ˈpeːda] 'to cut' See Korean phonology
Limburgish Most dialects[29][30][31] leef [leːf] 'dear' The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Rural Weerts[32] beek [beːk] 'stream' Corresponds to /iə/ in the city dialect. The vowel transcribed /eː/ in the city dialect is actually a centering diphthong /eə/.[33]
Luxembourgish[34] drécken [ˈdʀekən] 'to push' Allophone of /e/ before velar consonants; in free variation with [ɛ].
Malay bebek [bebeʔ] 'duck' See Malay phonology
North Frisian ween [ʋeːn] 'blue'
Norwegian Standard Eastern[35] le [l̪eː] 'laugh' Often diphthongized to [eə̯]. See Norwegian phonology
Polish[36] dzień About this sound [ˈd͡ʑeɲ̟]  'day' Allophone of /ɛ/ between palatal or palatalized consonants. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[37] mesa [ˈmezɐ] 'table' See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਸੇਬ [seːb] 'apple'
Romanian Muntenian dialects[38] vezi [vezi][stress?] 'eyelash' Corresponds to mid [] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian[39] шея About this sound [ˈʂejə]  'neck' Occurs only before soft consonants. See Russian phonology
Shiwiar[40] [example needed] Allophone of /a/.[40]
Slovak Dialects spoken near the river Ipeľ[41] dcéra [ˈt͡seːrä] 'daughter' In standard Slovak, the backness varies between front and near-front; most commonly, it is realized as mid [e̞ː] instead.[42] See Slovak phonology
Swedish se About this sound [s̪eː]  'see' See Swedish phonology
Vietnamese tê [te] 'numb' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian skeel [skeːɫ] 'cross-eyed'
Yoruba[44] [example needed]
Zapotec Tilquiapan[45] [example needed] Occurs mostly after [i], otherwise the vowel is central [ɘ].

See also[edit]



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