From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is sandbox 4 of Qp10qp.


Ref break[edit]

<br />•



in link brackets


CMS: Citation and reference styles[edit]

Citations Templates[edit]

Standard templates[edit]

Delete fields you don't want, to save edit clutter. Fields must be lower case, bars must be between each bit.

Doesn't matter what order you put them in they come out right


Most fields can be wikilinked (ie. title = book title), but should generally only be linked to an existing Wikipedia article. Any wikilinked field must not contain any brackets apart from normal round brackets () — don't use <>[]{}.

Don't wikilink first and last but authorlink, with no brackets. You can deprecate first two fields by doing surname comma first name in one yourself.

  • {{cite book |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |editor= |others= |title= |origdate= |origyear= |origmonth= |url= |format= |accessdate= |accessyear= |accessmonth= |edition= |date= |year= |month= |publisher= |location= |language= |id= |doi = | |chapter= |chapterurl= |quote = }}

Here's a basic one.

{{cite book |last= |first= |authorlink= |title= |year= |publisher= |id=}}

A basic one with url. Note, an example of bulleting. You must put accessdate: Full date when item was accessed, in ISO 8601 YYYY-MM-DD format, eg. 2006-02-17. Required when url field is used. Must not be wikilinked.

  • {{cite book | last=Bloggs | first=Joe | authorlink=Joe Bloggs | year=1974 | title=Book of Bloggs| url= | accessdate=2006-02-17 }}

Roberts, C.B. (1950). Cornwall. Dent. IBSN 6543678-98. 

Jones, Alistair (1905). Poetry of France. Longman. ISBN 36475-343-33 Parameter error in {{isbn}}: Invalid ISBN.. 

In the case below, the author name comes out wikilinked, whatever I've put in the authorlink box.

Chandler, Raymond (1956). Selected Letters. Scribner. ISBN 236474-47456-3443. 

This one next shows you can just put author= and then do the names backwards yourself, with a comma

Jones, Jenny (1999). Television Shows. Bigfoot. ISBN 35364-3455-5567. 

Field url= URL of an online book. Cannot be used if you wikilinked title.

Field pages= pages: 5–7: first page and optional last page. This is for listing the pages relevant to the citation, not the total number of pages in the book.

Example:three authors, title with a piped wikilink, edition

Don't mix templates[edit]

Don't mix Template:Citation with the templates that start with Cite such as Template:Cite journal or Template:Cite news. They shouldn't be mixed per WP:CITE#Citation templates.


Many times authors use an edition of a book that was published after the original publication. In such cases, many people put the original date of publication in square brackets followed by the date of publication of the edition used by the author who is making the citation. For example, a citation might be

(Marx [1867] 1967)

Note: Harvard referencing is not complete without the full citation at the end of the page (article) in the References section, as described next.


You can use the "loc" parameter: (Loach 1999, plate 22), or with "nb" (no braces) form, you can just do this: Loach 1999, plate 22. ----

You can make a page number with a p, or without: (Blust 1999, p. 12). The second style uses a colon, as for example (Blust 1999:12).

With P.

Three templates are currently available using this style: {{Harvard citation}}, {{Harv}} and {{Harvnb}}. Except for their different names, the {{Harv}} and {{Harvard citation}} templates are identical. The name of the former has been shortened, making it quicker and easier to type. The third template, {{Harvnb}}, does not display the surrounding parentheses (brackets), so the "nb" in its name is an abbreviation for "no brackets." This style is very useful for placing more than one citation inside a single set of parentheses, which is often done when listing a number of related articles. An example of using a number of citations together inside parentheses might look like this:

"Although most scholars accept the blahblah theory, a few have criticized its main points (e.g. Blust 1999, Tsuchida & Yamada 1991, and Peiros 2004)."

The actual text that you would write in order to display this on the page, including the wikitext of the templates, would look like this:

"Although most scholars accept the blahblah theory, a few have criticized its main points (e.g. {{Harvnb|Blust|1999}}, {{Harvnb|Tsuchida|Yamada|1991}}, and {{Harvnb|Peiros|2004}})."

With colon

Three templates are currently available using this style: {{Harvcol}}, {{Harvcolnb}} and {{Harvcoltxt}}:

  • {{Harvcol}} is identical in every way to {{Harvard citation}} and {{Harv}}, except for the different page display style.
  • In the same way, {{Harvcolnb}} is identical to {{Harvnb}} aside from page display.

{{Harvcoltxt}} is different in that it displays the name(s) or the author(s) outside the parentheses, with the publication year inside. There is currently no template of this sort which uses p. to display page numbers. An example of {{Harvcoltxt}} in use might look like this:

"Moreover, Diamond (2000:12-24) rejected the blahblah theory on the grounds that it was not the topic of any Wikipedia article."

The actual text that you would write in order to display this on the page, including the wikitext of the templates, would look like this:

"Moreover, {{ Harvcoltxt |Diamond|2000|pp=12-24}} rejected the blahblah theory on the grounds that it was not the topic of any Wikipedia article."

Harvnb detail[edit]

{{Harvnb|''Year''|''Location in the text''}}

As alternatives to Location, you may also use the following parameters: p = page pp = pages.


  • The abbreviation Harvnb may be used.
  • The first parameter is the author's last name.
  • The second parameter is the year of publication.
  • The third parameter is the location of the cited material within the reference. This parameter is optional.
  • The parameter p is an optional page parameter (e.g., "Smith 2006, p. 25" yields Smith 2006, p. 25.
  • The parameter pp is an optional page range parameter (e.g., "Smith 2006, pp. 25-26" yields Smith 2006, pp. 25-26.

If Ref=none, then no hyperlink is created.



  • {{Harvard citation no brackets | Smith | 2006 | loc=ch. 100}}
  • {{Harvnb | Smith | 2006 | p=25}}
  • {{Harvnb | Smith | 2006 | pp=25-26}}
  • {{Harvnb | Smith | 2006 | pp=25-26 | Ref=none}}
  • {{Harvnb | Smith | Jones | 2006 | p=25}}
  • {{Harvnb | Smith | Jones | Brown | 2006 | p=25}}
  • {{Harvnb | Smith | Jones | Brown | Black | 2006 | p=25}}


If an author published two books in 2005, the year of the first (in the alphabetic order of the references) is cited and referenced as 2005a, the second as 2005b.

(From a talk page) How to reference websites. I believe the correct format is Surname, Initial. (Year). Title. <Website Address> [Date Accessed].

Harvnb examples, tricky ones[edit]


*{{citation|last=Pool|first=Phoebe |title=John Constable|place= London|publisher=Blandford|year=1964|oclc=3365016}}.

Two authors

*{{citation|last1=Bromwich |first1= Rachel |first2=D. Simon |last2= Evans |title=Culhwch and Olwen. An Edition and Study of the Oldest Arthurian Tale |place=Cardiff |publisher= University of Wales Press |year= 1992 |isbn= 978-0708311271}}.

Don't like the lack of a comma after the first Christian name

Three authors

*{{citation|last1=Parris|first1=Leslie |last2=Fleming-Williams|first2=Ian|last3=Shields|first3=Conal|title= Constable: Paintings, Watercolours & Drawings |place= London|publisher= Tate Gallery|year= 1976|isbn= 0905005155}}.


*{{citation | last= Wyzanski| first= Charles E.|chapter= Introduction |year= 1964| editor-surname=Hand| editor-first=Learned| title=The Bill of Rights|publisher=Atheneum.| place=New York| oclc= 4038843}}


*{{citation | last = Polenberg | first = Richard| title = 'A Conservative among Liberals, and a Liberal among Conservatives': The Life of Learned Hand |date= June 1995 |year= 1995 |journal= Reviews in American History |url= |volume= 23 |issue=2 |pages=pp. 296–301}}. ([[JSTOR]] subscription required for online access.)

*{{citation | last = Chirelstein | first = Marvin |year= 1968 |date= January 1968 | title = Learned Hand’s Contribution to the Law of Tax Avoidance |url=| journal = Yale Law Journal | volume = 77 | issue = 3 | pages = 440–474}}. ([[JSTOR]] subscription required for online access.)


*{{citation|editor-last=Roach |editor-first=William | title=The Continuations of the Old French 'Perceval' of Chrétien de Troyes | place= Philadelphia |publisher= University of Pennsylvania Press |year= 1949–83 |oclc=67476613}}.

Chapter/article in edited work

*{{citation |last1= Smith |first1= C. |first2= R. H. |last2= Thompson |chapter= Twain, Mark |editor1-first= Norris J. |editor1-last= Lacy |title= The New Arthurian Encyclopedia |place= New York |publisher= Garland |year= 1996 |pages= 478 |isbn= 978-1568654324}}.

Chapter/article in work with multiple editors

*{{citation|last=Bromwich |first=Rachel |chapter=Celtic Elements in Arthurian Romance: A General Survey| editor1-first=P. B. |editor1-last=Grout |editor2-first=Armel Hugh |editor2-last=Diverres|title=The Legend of Arthur in the Middle Ages |place=Woodbridge |publisher= Boydell and Brewer |year= 1983 |pages=41–55 |isbn=978-0859911320}}.

Edited work, author first

(Not sure if this is right)

*{{citation|last=Leslie |first=C. R. |title= Memoirs of the Life of John Constable | editor1-first=P. B. |editor1-last=Grout |editor2-first=Armel Hugh |editor2-last=Diverres |place= London|publisher= Phaidon |year= 1995|isbn= 0714833606}}.

Complete citations in a "References" section[edit]

Complete citations, also called "references", are collected at the end of the article under a ==References== heading. Under this heading, list the comprehensive reference information as a bulleted (*) list, one bullet per reference work. Try to make sure that whichever citation system you choose is used consistently throughout the article.

Typical references would be:

or using a template:

* {{cite journal | author=L. Hussein ''et al.'' | title=Nutritional quality and the presence of anti-nutritional factors in leaf protein concentrates (LPC) | journal=International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition | year=1999 | volume=50 | issue=5 | pages= 333–343}}

which results in:

  • L. Hussein; et al. (1999). "Nutritional quality and the presence of anti-nutritional factors in leaf protein concentrates (LPC)". International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 50 (5): 333–343. 

Citations for newspaper articles typically include the title of the article in quotes, the byline (author's name), the name of the newspaper in italics, date of publication, and the date you retrieved it if it's online.

Two lots of numbered links[edit]

The new method of introducing footnotes is illustrated in action potential; you'll see ~5 notes scattered throughout and grouped at the bottom in an automatically numbered way, as you and Qp had asked? I made a version that did the numbering by letters, but Steve's solution was basically done and much better anyway, so that was adopted here. The trick is to use the <ref> and <references> tags as usual, but with the argument "group=note", as you may see in the action potential. Steve also has some examples in User:Sanbeg/ref test, which might be helpful. (talk) 13:15, 6 April 2008 (UTC)

Embedded citations[edit]

Embedded citations can be placed in an article by enclosing a URL with single square brackets — [] — which appears like this: [1] A full citation ought then be given in the References section like this:

*[ Google's website], which appears as:

A newspaper article referenced in an article by using an embedded link might be — [,14173,1601858,00.html] — which looks like this.[2] The embedded link is placed after the period, or when placed within a sentence after a clause, then after the comma.

Then in the References section, a full citation is provided:

*[,14173,1601858,00.html "Sorrell accuses Murdoch of panic buying"] by John Plunkett, ''The Guardian'', [[October 27]], [[2005]], retrieved [[October 27]], [[2005]]

which appears as:

It is particularly important in the case of online newspaper articles to include byline, headline, newspaper, and date of publication, because many newspapers keep stories online only for a certain period before transferring them to the archives. With a full citation, readers will be able to find the article easily even if the link doesn't work.

Here's an example of a reference with external link, used in Martin Luther:


The author comes out unlinked, and the title comes out linked. I did it the opposite way round with:


The authors needed to come after the title this time.

Sandy demonstrating how to do weblinks with templates: [3]

Maintaining a separate "References" section in addition to "Notes"[edit]

It is helpful when footnotes are used that a References section also be maintained, in which the sources that were used are listed in alphabetical order. With articles that have lots of footnotes, it can become hard to see after a while exactly which sources have been used, particularly when the footnotes also contain explanatory text. A References section, which contains only citations, helps readers to see at a glance the quality of the references used.

Citing a news article[edit]

{{cite news}}

{{cite news
  | first=
  | last=
  | author=
  | url=
  | title=
  | work=
  | publisher=
  | pages=
  | page=
  | date=
  | accessdate=
  • title is required, rest is optional.
  • author: Author
    • last works with first to produce last, first
  • publisher: Publisher, if any.
  • accessdate: Date when item was accessed. Use ISO 8601 YYYY-MM-DD format.
  • work: If this item is part of a larger work, name of that work.
  • pages overrides page
  • See Template talk:Cite news for more help on using this template.

Note: {{news reference}} is now deprecated; please use {{cite news}} instead for new references, and gradually migrate existing references.

Citing the web[edit]

{{cite web}}

{{cite web
 | last = 
 | first = 
 | authorlink = 
 | coauthors = 
 | year = 
 | url = 
 | title = 
 | format = 
 | work = 
 | publisher = 
 | accessdate = 
 | accessyear = 



Notes and references[edit]


{The only trouble is that the 2 reference is marked below it.}

You may also use a smaller format if desired, like this:


Notes and references[edit]

Citing a footnote more than once[edit]

To give a footnote a unique identifier, use <ref name="name"> ... </ref>. You can then refer to the same footnote again by using a ref tag with the same name. The name cannot be a number, or the extension will return an error.

The text in the first occurrence of a named ref is used, so text in the second and following occurrence will be ignored.. You can either copy the whole footnote, or you can use a terminated empty ref tag that looks like this: <ref name="name"/>.

In the following example, the same source is cited three times.

This is an example of multiple references to the same footnote.<ref name="multiple">Remember that when you refer to the same footnote multiple times, the text from the first reference is used.</ref>

Such references are particularly useful when citing sources, if different statements come from the same source.<ref name="multiple">This text is superfluous, and won't show up anywhere. We may as well just use an empty tag.</ref>

A concise way to make multiple references is to use empty ref tags, which have a slash at the end.<ref name="multiple"/>

== Notes ==

The text above gives the following result in the article (see also Notes section below):

This is an example of multiple references to the same footnote.[6]

Such references are particularly useful when citing sources, when different statements come from the same source.[6]

A concise way to make multiple references is to use empty ref tags, which have a slash at the end.[6]

One should be particularly careful when deleting the first of multiple named references, because the footnote text will be deleted unless it is copied to the second (now first) ref tag.

Cite:php style: Multiple insertion of the same reference[edit]

On the Edit page, this is placed at the first insertion point of citation:

<ref name=Perry>Perry's Handbook, Sixth Edition, McGraw-Hill Co., 1984.</ref>

This is placed at the second insertion point of citation:

<ref name=Perry/>

This is placed at the third insertion point of citation:

<ref name=Perry/> ..... and so forth for further insertion points

Single insertion of a reference[edit]

For the single insertion of a reference, the "name" parameter is not needed. On the Edit page, this is placed at the insertion point of citation:

<ref>Excel For Dummies, First Edition, Hungry Minds, Inc., 3.</ref>

What is produced at the points of insertion[edit]

These are what is produced and note that the reference numbers in blue are automatically generated. Clicking on any one of the reference numbers causes the screen display to scroll down to that reference number in the Reference List section:

First[7] text word referenced to Perry's Handbook
Second[7] text word referenced to Perry's Handbook
Third[7] text word referenced to Perry's Handbook
The only[8] text word referenced to the Excel book.

Producing the reference or footnote list[edit]

On the Edit page, this is placed in the References or the Footnotes section:


This is what it produces and note that the list numbers are automatically generated:

Notes on the Cite.php method[edit]

  • Clicking on the blue superscript a causes the screen display to scroll back up to the point where the first reference to Perry's Handbook was inserted. Clicking on the blue superscript b causes the screen display to scroll back up to the point where the second reference to Perry's Handbook was inserted. Clicking on the blue superscript c causes the screen display to scroll back up to the point where the third reference to Perry's Handbook was inserted ... and so forth.
  • Clicking on any caret (^) that has no associated superscripts cause the screen display to scroll back up to the point where that single-use references was inserted.

Manually coded footnotes[edit]

An excellent example of how an article can have fact information. The ability to hide footnotes, for those that complain about the flow of reading etc., should be coded in so all parties are happy.

Manually coded footnotes (2)[edit]

References combined with numbered footnotes[edit]

See for example Gymnopédie, an article using numbered footnotes (using the wikipedia:footnote3 system) combined with book and journal references, as mentioned higher on this page. Other source citation techniques used on that same page: in-line external links, and, of course, wiki-links. Examples can be found at {{Ref/examples}}.

Combining references[edit]

John liked sausages and peas.[9]He also liked sandwiches.[10]

Citation and reference styles: dates[edit]


January 1 2000 (no commas)

It is occasionally alleged that putting month before date in this way is an "Americanisation"; in which case it should be pointed out that this has been our style since the first issue of the Manchester Guardian on May 5 1821.

Chicago MOS[edit]

10 May 1992 or May 10,1992

In the date style preferred by the Chicago University Press, no commas are used to mark off the year:

On 6 October 1924 Longo arrived in Bologna.

( The "the" and "th" are understood, and so the usage hasn't the abruptness it appears to have.)

The meetings were held in April 1967

In the alternative style, however, commas must be used before and after the year:

On October 6, 1924, Longo arrived in Bologna.

The press will accept this style if it is used consistently:

The events of April 18, 1775, have long been celebrated.

When a period of time is identified by the month and year, no internal punctuation is appropriate or necessary.

The events of August 1945 were decisive to the outcome of the war.

13 May 1965–9 June 1966


from 1968 to 1962 (never from 1968–72)

between 1968 and 1979 (never between 1968–70)

fiscal year 1991–1992


One may unimpeachably write either May 26, 1994 or 26 May 1994. The latter—the primarily BRE method— is often better in prose, for it takes no commas.

Starting with month then day then year is not inherently logical.


OUP house style requires

25 June 1990

No comma between month and year. Many newspapers and Americans prefer it the other way round, even without a comma.


From: Wikipedia:Manual of Style (dashes)


Traditionally, this was used only for hyphenating words, creating line breaks, or as the minus sign.

En dashes[edit]

It may indicate duration, such as when you could substitute the word "to" (as in a range of dates). An en dash placed between numbers or in compounds does not have spaces around it: for example, Paris–Brussels timetable, in the age range 17–20. Some writers, however, prefer to place a space on either side in complex ranges: 1 January 2003 – 31 December 2004. The en dash can be used as a hyphen in compound adjectives in which one part consists of two words or a hyphenated word: for example, pre–World War II period, post–Anglo-Saxon times; and it is used in compound adjectives referring to multiple people, so as to clarify that for example the name of the Poincaré–Birkhoff–Witt theorem refers to three people while the Birch–Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture refers to two (one of them called Swinnerton-Dyer). The Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI) recommends that the word "to" be used instead of an en dash when a number range might be misconstrued as subtraction, such as a range of units. In the house styles of many publishers (two examples: Penguin and Routledge), spaced en dashes are also used instead of em dashes. This is acceptable in Wikipedia; consistency within an article is the most important consideration.

(Garner:In circumstances involving a disjunction, the en-dash is usually preferable to the virgule—e.g.: "If we manage to get that far, the absurdity of attempting to preserve the 19th century-century possessive–genitive dichotomy [not possessive/genitive dichotomy] will have become apparent. "the novel–novella distinction".)

Em dashes[edit]

An em dash can have spaces on either side or not, depending on the writer's preference or in-house style rules. Many writers prefer to use the en dash (spaced) for this parenthetical use, with many of those also preferring a spaced en dash as a colon substitute.

Simply click the dash buttons below the edit window, or insert the dash with any software supporting these punctuations. If possible, avoid typing their related codes (e.g., &ndash; for en dash) to display dashes, as this clutters the text when editing and may not be understood by new editors.

As with any guideline that permits multiple styles, editors are encouraged not to convert others' dash styles without good reason. However, a significant number of editors feel that to maintain a respectable feel, Wikipedia should use only traditional dash styles; many advocate changing hyphen-based dash styles (a legacy of the days of typewriters and early computers, when true dashes were hard to produce) to more traditional styles based on en and em dashes. Others, however, dispute this, either because they prefer the look of hyphens, think traditional dashes are too ugly or confusing in the edit box, or fear that conflict will arise if editors change each other's styles. A moderate approach is only to change the style of dashes where this is required for consistency within an article.

Harvard referencing[edit]

If you reference without quoting, include the bracket reference after the writer's name, if you use it:

Smith (2000) says that Lawrence died calling for blue gentians.

If you do the same without mentioning the author's name in the text, do it like this, before the full stop:

Lawrence died calling for blue gentians (Smith 2004).

A quote within the text, this time with page number included (which may be a good thing for particular rather than general references); the bracket reference goes straight after the quote but before the full stop (or before any continuation of the sentence):

According to one account, "Lawrence died calling for blue gentians" (Smith 2004:213).

If the quote is indented/block quoted, the reference goes after the last full stop, before the blockquote template. You don't use quotation marks for block quotes:

Bla bla bla...and Lawrence died calling for blue gentians.(Smith 2004)

The full reference is given at the bottom of the article in the references section. The order is: author's surname, initials, book title in italics, city, publisher, IBSN number. City, publisher, and IBSN are optional, but the more the better. The IBSN number is helpful in nailing the actual edition. The whole idea is that the readers should be able to find the source of the reference if they want to.

Non-breaking spaces[edit]

  • In compound items in which numerical and non-numerical elements are separated by a space, a non-breaking space (or hard space) is recommended to avoid the displacement of those elements at the end of a line. A hard space can be produced with the HTML code &nbsp; instead of the space bar: 19&nbsp;kg yields a non-breaking 19 kg.
  • A hard space can also be produced by using the {{nowrap}} template: {{nowrap|8 sq ft}} produces a non-breaking 8 sq ft. This is especially useful for short constructions requiring two or more hard spaces, as in the preceding example.
  • In the main text, notes and citations, the abbreviations p. and pp. should be followed by a hard space (p.&nbsp;42, pp.&nbsp;409–13); similar instances of abbreviations and related numbers should be separated by a hard space (Vol.&nbsp;1, No.&nbsp;5, Fig.&nbsp;2a).
  • In some older browsers, quotation marks separated by a hard space are still broken at the end of a line: ("She said 'Yes!' ").
  • Unlike normal spaces, multiple hard spaces are not compressed by browsers into a single space.

The advice for where a quotation within a quotation results in jostling single and double quotation marks:

use the "', '" and "'" templates for this purpose: ...your right to say it."'" Do not use plain or non-breaking space ( ) characters, as this corrupts the semantic integrity of the article by mixing content and presentation.

Quoting Wikipedia edit pages in Talk[edit]

The one below does that without generating a number for the little book icon. It also shows how to make a text flow along smoothly while using such a link.

From the above work, I learn that . . .

Let me try one myself:

I have just looked at these edits to find out the truth.

How pleasing!

Quoting ref noting in Talk (also boxing a quote)[edit]

His last sermon was delivered at Eisleben, his place of birth, on February 15, 1546, three days before his death. It was "entirely devoted to the obdurate Jews, whom it was a matter of great urgency to expel from all German territory," according to Léon Poliakov.<ref>Poliakov, Léon. From the Time of Christ to the Court Jews, Vanguard Press, p. 220.</ref> James Mackinnon writes that it concluded with a "fiery summons to drive [the Jews] bag and baggage from their midst, unless they desisted from their calumny and their usury and became Christians."<ref>Mackinnon, James. Luther and the Reformation. Vol. IV, (New York: Russell & Russell, 1962, p. 204.</ref> Luther said, "we want to practise Christian love toward them and pray that they convert," but also that they are "our public enemies ... and if they could kill us all, they would gladly do so. And so often they do."<ref>Luther, Martin. Admonition against the Jews, added to his final sermon, cited in Oberman, Heiko. Luther: Man Between God and the Devil, New York: Image Books, 1989, p. 294.</ref>

You put the nowiki things either side of each ref thing. Never mind about the actual words inside.

Disadvantages and future improvements[edit]

  • In the old Footnote3 system, links and auto-numbered footnotes pulled from the same counter, which made it difficult to keep the endnotes consistent. With the new Cite.php module, a different issue presents itself: a casual reader might not notice or understand the difference between an external link and an auto-numbered footnote and may be confused, thinking that the numbers are not in order. For this reason, some editors argue that auto-numbered external links are better not used on the same page with auto-numbered footnotes, which can be avoided, e.g., by making text links for the external references, like this: Kate's Tool, instead of: Kate's Tool[4]. Other editors argue that both citation styles can be used in the same article, and that the disadvantage of using text links like Kate's Tool is that it does not clearly signal to the reader that they are being directed off Wikipedia.


Looks like this and ends up like this.

Summary style[edit]

The convention when you have daughter articles (per WP:SS) is that you use the {{main}} template rather than the {{see also}} template, and that the parent article have only a summary (say, three paragrahs at most), rather than massive duplication between the two articles (a horror to keep both current, and synchronized).


Hiding what's in parenthesis:

Automatically hide stuff in parentheses: kingdom.

Automatically hide namespace: Village Pump.

Blending/deblending links[edit]


To suppress blending, use nowicki tag in between:


Links to parts of page[edit]

is a link to a section within another page.

Wikipedia talk:Citing sources#How does the reader KNOW which facts have been verified to be "common knowledge?"

to another section on the current page.

#Citing a news article
  • The part after the number sign (#) must match a section heading on the page. Matches must be exact in terms of spelling, case, and punctuation. Links to non-existent sections are not broken; they are treated as links to the top of the page.
  • Include "| Link title" to create a stylish link-title.
Amazing info here

Talk: List of Ukrainians#Was Chekhov Ukrainian?


(For "Wikipedesketch1.png", insert file title from Commons.)

When the picture is among the text, it's called "floating".

With placement (left or right) 
With caption (all captions have frames) 
[[Image:Wikipedesketch1.png|frame|right|Here is a really cool caption]]
Combining different options 
[[Image:Wikipedesketch1.png|thumb|100px|right|The Wikipede]]
Linking to pictures without displaying them 
[[:Image:Wikipedesketch1.png|This is the wikipede]]

(Note colon at start; this method takes you to the image page rather than the image, which is smaller and more manageable.)

With caption 
[[:Image:Wikipedesketch1.png|This links directly to the Wikipede's image page]]

The following stops pictures overlapping text or gallery below:

<br style="clear:both" />

The image overlap problem is usually solvable by adding a <nowicki>

</nowicki> immediately before the image. The problem is, that may produce a very large amount of white space for some browsers/resolutions.

Double image{{double image|right|Freedom From Fear.jpg|150|Ben Shahn Lidice poster.jpg|166|Poster version of ''Freedom from Fear''|Example of a [[Ben Shahn]] poster that was passed over.}}

{| class="wikitable" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" align="right" style="margin-left:1em" | [[Image:2205grec.jpg|thumb|center|''[[The Opening of the Fifth Seal]]'' (1608–1614, oil, 225 × 193 cm., New York, Metropolitan Museum) has been suggested to be the prime source of inspiration for Picasso's {{lang|fr|''Les Demoiselles d' Avignon''}}.]] | [[Image:Chicks-from-avignon.jpg|thumb|center|Picasso's {{lang|fr|''Les Demoiselles d' Avignon''}} (1907, oil on canvas, 243.9 × 233.7 cm., New York, [[Museum of Modern Art]]) appears to have certain morphological and stylistic similarities with ''The Opening of the Fifth Seal''.]] |}



When you have a long strip of right floated images together with a number of sections, it usually causes the section editing for the sections which start after the first image and on the screen start before the last image to bunch up to the left of the last image (see Example 1).

== Clearing the floats ==

This can be done if there is no problem adding extra whitespace before the next section (for instance, because the problem only shows in uncommon font sizes, or if the images are logically attached to sections). It consists of adding an element with the CSS property clear: both or clear: right before the next section. An easy way to do it is to use {{clear}} or {{subst:clear}}.

Using a floated div[edit]

This method has the advantage of not visibly changing anything in the article; the resulting appearance is almost identical to the original, with the only differences being that the section edit links flow naturally as expected, instead of ending bunched up to the left of the last image, slightly different spacing between the images, and a slightly different margin size. It also has the advantage of being possible to do mechanically (either with a bot or manually). However, it can only be used when the images have identical width (usually happens when all are either |thumb| or a fixed size in px, and all are more wide than tall; can also happen when thumbnails are not used).

To do this, first remove any |right| from the images, and add a |none| to them (this stops them from floating). Then wrap them in <div style="float: right; clear: right">...</div> (this makes them float together, and also puts them below any other right float instead of to the left of it; it's also what's normally used for the right-floated images). See Example 2 for an example.

Picture/photo copyright[edit]

If the depicted 2D original is still copyrighted, a photo will be subject to the copyright on the original anyway as it is a derivative work. If the depictd work is PD, then we only have to consider the copyright on the photo, and if that copyright (or its "photograph neighbouring right") has not expired yet, then the "quotation right" won't make the image free either. Quotation is a fair use. Lupo 08:41, 18 September 2007 (UTC)Bridgeman quite clearly does not apply world-wide. Bridgeman extended the "mere reproduction rule to photography in the U.S., but other countries do not subsume photographs automatically under the "mere reproduction" class.


There should be a non-breaking space -   between a number and the unit of measurement. For example, instead of 18mm, use 18 mm, which when you are editing the page, should look like: 18 mm.

Keyboard Shortcuts[edit]

Ctrl + Alt + the following:

  • P Preview
  • V Version changes
  • S Save
  • T Talk
  • + (mid right end) Start a new discussion
  • E Edit this page
  • F Find/search
  • L List (watchlist)
  • N Natter (my talk)
  • J What joins (links) here
  • H History

Notes combined with refs[edit]

Kirill: I see nothing wrong with having notes that combine citations and discursive material; it's a style that's fully endorsed by at least the Chicago Manual of Style (and, indeed, pretty much the only style that makes sense if what's being annotated are the citatins themselves), and it helps avoid what would otherwise be an unreadable forest of little numbers in an article that's both heavily cited and heavily annotated


(From [Wikipedia:Manual of Style (headings)])

For each article with more than three headings, a table of contents (TOC) is automatically generated from the section headings, unless:

  • (for a user) preferences are set to turn it off
  • (for an article) in the edit box the code __NOTOC__ is added

The TOC is put before the first section header unless it is placed manually with the code __TOC__. Thus there may be some introductory text before it, known as the "lead". See Wikipedia:Guide to writing better articles#Lead section for recommendations on the length of the lead section.

The TOC can, when an editor chooses, be floated either right or left using {{TOCright}} or {{TOCleft}}. It is not always a good idea to do this. For more on floating the TOC, including guidelines on when it is advisable, see Wikipedia:Section#Floating the TOC.

For more on tables of contents see Wikipedia:Section#Table of contents (TOC).


If you see a vandal at work, slap {{test}} on to the culprit's Talk page as the first action. Simply realising that they are being watched may be enough to put them off.

Vandal templates[edit]

Warn Welcome to Wikipedia. Although everyone is welcome to contribute to Wikipedia, at least one of your recent edits did not appear to be constructive and has been reverted or removed. Please use the sandbox for any test edits you would like to make, and read the welcome page to learn more about contributing constructively to this encyclopedia. Thank you. Information icon Hello, I'm Qp10qp. An edit that you recently made seemed to be a test and has been removed. If you want more practice editing, please use the sandbox. If you think I made a mistake, or if you have any questions, you can leave me a message on my talk page. Thanks! Please do not add nonsense to Wikipedia. Such edits are considered vandalism and quickly undone. If you would like to experiment, please use the sandbox instead. Thank you. Please stop. If you continue to vandalize pages, you may be blocked from editing Wikipedia. Stop icon This is the final warning that you will receive regarding your disruptive edits. The next time you vandalize a page, you may be blocked from editing without further notice. Stop hand nuvola.svg This is the only warning you will receive regarding your disruptive edits. If you vandalize Wikipedia again, you may be blocked from editing without further notice. Information icon Hello, I'm Qp10qp. I wanted to let you know that one or more external links you added have been removed because they seemed to be inappropriate for an encyclopedia. If you think I made a mistake, or if you have any questions, you can leave me a message on my talk page, or take a look at our guidelines about links. Thank you.




Hello, Qp10qp, and welcome to Wikipedia! Thank you for your contributions. I hope you like the place and decide to stay. Here are some pages that you might find helpful:

I hope you enjoy editing here and being a Wikipedian! Please sign your name on talk pages using four tildes ~~~~, which will automatically produce your name and the date.

If you need help, check out Wikipedia:Questions, ask me on my talk page, or click here to ask a question on your talk page. Again, welcome!



Hello, and welcome to Wikipedia! Thank you for your contributions. I hope you like the place and decide to stay. Here are some pages you might like to see:

You are welcome to continue editing articles without logging in, but you may wish to create an account. Doing so is free, requires no personal information, and provides several benefits. If you edit without a username, your IP address (Qp10qp) is used to identify you instead.

In any case, I hope you enjoy editing here and being a Wikipedian! Please sign your comments on talk pages using four tildes (~~~~); this will automatically produce your IP address (or username if you're logged in) and the date. If you need help, check out Wikipedia:Questions, ask me on my talk page, or ask your question and then place {{helpme}} before the question on this page. Again, welcome!

Hello and thank you for lending your time to help improve Wikipedia. If you are interested in editing more often, we suggest you create an account to gain additional privileges and continue participate in our WikiCommunity.

Barnstar template[edit]

Original Barnstar.png

I award this Barnstar to WikiPerson for their great efforts designing articles.


This fist of respect goes to

SssStein.jpg Fist of respect
I award this fist of respect to . . . for fine work in bringing . . . to featured status. qp10qp (talk) 13:00, 20 April 2008 (UTC)


  1. ^ Schaff-Herzog, "Luther, Martin," 72.
  2. ^ Edict of Worms, translated by De Lamar Jensen and Jacquelin Delbrouwire.
  3. ^ sausages are nice.
  4. ^ sausages are nice
  5. ^ sausages are nice
  6. ^ a b c Remember that when you refer to the same footnote multiple times, the text from the first reference is used. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "multiple" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  7. ^ a b c Perry's Handbook, Sixth Edition, McGraw-Hill Co., 1984.
  8. ^ Excel For Dummies, First Edition, Hungry Minds, Inc., 1980.
  9. ^ "He loved his sosses." John's mum, Life of John, 56.
    •"Peas were an intrinsic aspect of the diet of John McTavish." Vita Johannes, 97.
    •"Beef sausages and marrrowfat peas were found in McTavish's intestines after his exhumation." Autopsy Report, viii.
  10. ^ "McTavish's larder contained three chicken sandwiches, a prawn sandwich, and a hamster sandwich at the time of his death". Coppell, The incredible machinations of McTavish, 345.
    •"Oh, for a sarnie, oh for a sarnie." Collected Poems of John McTavish, 45.

See also[edit]