User talk:Wowaconia

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Incoming responses will be addressed, resolved, and then cleared; so that new entries to the page are easily accessed and readable, as per this guideline on WP:USERPAGE that states the acceptability of this practice “On a user's own talk page, policy does not prohibit the removal of comments at that user's discretion.” - Thanks for your time, Wowaconia


Comment on Evo Morales Bio[edit]

There is an internal controversy in Bolivia regarding his Aymaran ancestry and his claim to be the first Amerindian president of Bolivia; nonetheless, "has been declared" is the correct and unbiased phrasing. I forgot the original phrasing when I changed "country's first self-declared" to "country's self-declared first." Thanks for restoring the original.

Links to incorporate in Venezuela articles[edit]

Links to add to Bolivia articles[edit]

2007 mining strike[edit]

2003 events[edit]

1995 events[edit]

Morales bio[edit]
New ambassador
Coca destruction

Approval decline[edit],0,3474908.story?coll=sfla-news-caribbean


Nicole Castioni[edit]

Madeira info to add[edit]

Particular and reciprocal personal transatlantic linkages and exchanges among producers, distributors, and consumers transformed Madeira wine from a cheap, simple table wine into an expensive, complex, highly processed luxury wine over the course of the eighteenth century. Innovations in Madeira wine growing and wine making were the direct result of highly verbal, often contentious epistolary conversations among growers, the distributors’ agents, wholesalers and retailers around the Atlantic, and consumers in America, Britain, and the East. As a result, producers increased the number of grape varieties from four to twenty three, prepared unblended wines that ran the gamut from sweet to dry, fortified their wines with brandy, agitated the beverage to distribute the alcohol more evenly, aged the wine, and intentionally heated it. Fortification is often singled out as one of the hallmarks of Madeira’s wine, but it was introduced into production and distribution only during the second quarter of the eighteenth century, and it took decades to become widespread. Although the practice was first prescribed by an English physician in 1633, the first descriptive mention of adding brandy to Madeira occurred in the 1743 edition of Poor Richard’s Almanack, in which Benjamin Franklin urged his readers who were either shipping or selling Madeira to mix it with brandy. The first reference to island distributors adding brandy as a supplement appeared ten years later and suggests that the practice was gaining acceptance on the island by mid-century. Only after distributors and consumers blazed the trail did growers and producers adopt the technique. The practice of adding spirits to the wine “helped,” it was firmly believed, “very indifferent and clear” grades. It imparted a smooth taste to rough, acidic, or full-bodied wines. As one firm explained to London purchasers, since Maseria’s wine was “sweetish” in the must (the juice of the grapes), it needed more brandy “than was common” to other wines; brandy would “eat off the sweetness” and thereby “prevent fretting.” In addition, fortifying wine added alcoholic strength and thereby pleased consumers in certain markets, in which “they like everything that is powerful and heady.” However contemporaries described or justified it, by 1760 fortification appears to have been adopted by enough export firms to warrant the island government’s banning the importation of expensive French brandy on the grounds that too much of it was being watered down and that diluted brandies sullied the reputation of export wines. Some export firms. especially those specializing in higher-quality wines, initially refused to add brandy; as late as 1807 they were still decrying such “spoilage” and arguing for its use only as a last resort. But despite the remonstrations of a few, the “brandy doctrine” was more or less universally accepted by 1790, even by growers and producers. Brandy became the “indispensable” component of all grades. Widespread fortification with brandy was largely consumer-and distributor-interactive; that is, it was the result of negotiated discussion. Such discourse “on the ground,” among a lot of “small players,” is most clearly seen in the decision of producers and distributors involved in production to add brandy to Madeira—a response to a multitude of local influences and incentives. There were many palates in the wine’s principal market, British America, and island growers and merchants altered wine formulas to suit their clients, negotiating them with American distributors and buyers in each region in response to the preferences of purchasers there. Foremost in customers’ minds were questions of color and taste. With no adulteration, new wine bore a reddish color and sweetish taste; old wine, having experienced additional fermentation and climatic heating, gained a lighter hue and drier flavor. The addition of brandy accelerated both changes. In the British West Indies and the southern colonies of British North America, where there was no concern for the wine spoiling for lack of heat, a love of wines of a darker hue and sweeter taste flourished. To satisfy these customer, who wanted to avoid the lightening and intoxicating effects of additional alcohol in hot climates, Madeira distributors put less brandy in their export; sometimes, in response to requests from Caribbean planters, they left it out altogether and sent a quarter-cask of red must and another of brandy along with a pipe of wine so that it could be colored and strengthened to taste. In contrast, consumers to the north asked for a paler, drier wine, and so producers and shippers added one or two gallons more brandy than they put in Caribbean wine. South Carolininas and Virginians ordered extremely pale, dry white wine (“white as water,” they often requested) that had been heavily fortified, while Philadelphians requested golden wines with slightly less brandy and slightly more sweetness. New Yorkers wanted an amber, somewhat reddish drink that was even less…

Throughout the colonial years Madeira imports always exceeded those of the Azores, Canaries, Portugal, or Spain, but slowly the others gained ground.

Even George Washington in 1794 noted that the duty on Madeira wine mad it “one of the most expensive liquors that is now used,” and accordingly he advised…

Madeira wine metamorphosed from common plonk into the highest status, most expensive wine in America. It was suitable for occasions of state and the tables…

The Madeira trade was extremely valuable since Britain procured most of her gold from Portugal, and shipped many of her dry goods there as well. Madeira was the Portugues port most frequently visited by the British and Americans. Citizens of the World: London Merchants and the Integration of the British Atlantic Community,... By David Hancock Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge 1995

Ocean currents and wind patterns- natural phenomena that allowed vessels from Europe to sail quickly and safely to the island and on to the Americas – impeded the reverse passage from Funchal to London or Lisbon. [alternatives] were all available on the mainland several locally made wines were produced in greater quantities and retailed at lower prices.

Cambridge University Press 2000 The Early Modern Atlantic Economy: Essays on Transatlantic Enterprise By John J. MacCusker, Kenneth Morgan A revolution in the trade David Hancock

The Atlantic Economy During The Seventeenth And Eighteenth Centuries The Case of Madeira David Hancock 2005 University of South Carolina Columbia, South Carolina University of South Carolina Press edited Peter A. Coclanis

Pharaoh's daughter link[edit]

insisted that, while Solomon loved foreign women, he did not actually marry them (y. Sanh. 2.6.20c). Daughter of Pharaoh. Unlike the biblical tradition, rabbinic writers provided names for both Pharaoh and his daughter. “Pharaoh” became Pharaoh Necho (Songs R. 1.6.4; Eccl R. 9.2.1) or Shishak (Esth R. 1.12), while his daughter was either “Bathiah” (Num R. 10.4) or “Bithiah” (Lev R. 12.5). Solomon’s marriage to Pharaoh’s daughter fascinated rabbinic writers who suggested Solomon waited to marry her until after the Temple was built (Lev R. 12.5; Num R. 10.4). At the wedding feast, Pharaoh’s daughter: 1) danced 80 dances (Lev R. 12.5). 2) brought in 1,000 musical instruments, each dedicated to a different god (b. Sabb. 56b; Num R. 10.4), and 3) persuaded Solomon to drink heavily after being abstinent for seven years (Lev. R. 12.5); thus causing him to sleep late and neglect his religious duties. Neither heaven nor earth was pleased with Solomon’s marriage to Pharaoh’s daughter. God decided to destroy Jerusalem (Lev R. 12.5; b. Nid 70b; Num R. 10.4); and an angel, either Michael (Songs R. 1.6.4) or Gabriel (b. Sabb. 56b; b. Sanh. 21b), founded Rome for that purpose. On earth, Solomon’s subjects could not sacrifice while Solomon slept off his inebriation (the Temple’s keys were under his pillow; Lev R. 12.5). Bathsheba and Jeroboam rebuked Solomon for his drunkenness (Lev. R 12.5; Num R. 10.4). Thus, Pharaoh’s daughter caused him to sin the most (Sifre Deut 52). After Solomon’s death, his father-in-law seized Solomon’s ornate throne, but, being unfamiliar with the throne’s mechanisms, was himself killed (Eccl R. 9.2.1).

The Age of Solomon: scholarship at the turn of the millennium By Lowell K. Handy Koninkalijke Brill, Leiden; The Netherlands 1997

See also S.J.D. Cohen, Solomon and the Daughter of Pharaoh: Intermarriage, Conversion, and the Impurity of Women,” JNES 16-17 (1984-1985) 23-37. See also Gooding, “Septuagint’s Version” pp. 328-31

Ohelo berries[edit]


nuns mexico make milk chocolate – vatican vs nuns eating chocolate

Peru - san pedro cactus – boiled juice mescaline – poured down nose

Ayahuasca vine which grows throughout the Amazon.


OSS and Viet Minh Partician of 17th Parallel pending planned elections Ngo Dihn Diem OSS veteran Colonel Edward Lansdale sent by Cia chief Allen Dulles worked as assiastnt US air attache supports Diem counters French intelligence Psywar - convinces 1 million catholic refugees in the north to migrate south Dr. Thomas Dooley works for CIA aids refugees French withdrew all forces at 1955 Kennedy had vistited in 1951 was a member of Friends of Vietnam and knew Diem Since 1958 Eisenhower had funded all of S. Vietnam's military, Lansdale reported that this was being wasted by S. Vietnam corruption and inefficency Diem had blocked a counter-insurrgency program in the countryside aimed at communits gorrillas The Viet Cong. Kennedy was also afraid divided Laos would fall. In July 1962 Geneva confernce endorsed coalition government and all foreign forces US and North Vietnam were to withdraw. Military assistance to cease. Laotian government formed under Prince Souvana Phouma. US recruits Laotian tribesmen and Thai voulunteers to combat Loatian communist and N. Viet troops in Laos. Soviets ignored the covert war in Laos. Ho Chi Mahn trail. CIA runs war in Laos. Use Air America to bomb Pathet Lao. May 1961 Kennedy sends VP Johnson to Vietnam on fact finding mission, initially skeptical is enthusiastic supporter of Deim, calls him "The Winston Churchill of Southeast Asia." The basic decision of SE Asia is here. We must decide whether to help these people to the best of our ability or throw in the towel and pull our defenses back to San Francisco." Set to demonstrate US resolution against communist aggression. 20,000 VC in S. Vietnam, kennedy sends 400 green barrets. US civilian pilots cleared to fly as aircrew on "appropriate missions". The green barrets were to win confidence of rural population and ran couter insurgency. CIA under new head John McCone continue to expand prescence. 1962 Joint Chiefs look at Nam for Kennedy, Chairman Maxwell Taylor had visited in 1961 and recommended that 8,000 more troops be sent to aid in technical assistance in return for political reforms. CIA launced covert seaborne raids on shore installations in N. Viet. In August 1964 - Gulf of Tonkin - Congress authorizes use of US forces to support S. Viet. Marines land at Da Nang. In 1963 there had been 16,000 advisors working with S. Viet, by 1968 there were over 500,000 ground troops. SOG Halo jumps. Son Tay pow raid on Nov. 21, 1970 except there was no POWs there. Melvin Laird goes before Congressional Committee who are not convinced of his arguements. Nixon steps in and awards special forces with medals for killing foreign adviors in fire fight. Incident sours relationship between CIA and Army intelligence, CIA and USAF are also at odds over the effect of bombing. 1968 Tet offensive. Westmoreland thought it would be a last ditch N. Viet. army attack like had happened to French at 1967 had spoke of withdrawls. Project Phoenix by CIA was run by Robert Komer (blowtorch Bob), to counter the VC and communist party. Ralph McGehee also worked for Project Phoenix. Used torture and death, veered out of control. William Colby took over from Komer. Handed over to Viet in 1972. PRUs playing card in mouth. Torture caused bad intelligence. Inside PICs. Macnemera use statistical analysis and quotas. At 1971 US withdraw to 171,000 troops. 1973 cease fire, 1975 N. Viet resumes. Westmoreland replaced after Embassy attack. N. Viet. Gen. Tran Do admitted Tet was failure. CIA leaves paperwork intact in interrogation centers for N. Viet to find that identified S. Viet that had worked for them.

Neil Roberts[edit]


Takhur Ghar[edit]

Notes from History Channel's History of sex[edit]

2100-1600 bce king required to have intercourse with priestess representing the goddess Inanna Healing nature of sex Gilgamesh sends out priestess from Urak to subdue wild man Enkidu.

riots over priest celibacy decree.

codpieces declared garments of the devil by RC

RC condones prostitution in middle ages as necessary evil to relieve men’s pressure. Eras later Protestants condemn it demanding prostitutes marry.

Aquanis women on top is sodomy

Die Winsbeckin and Der Winsbecke – mother daughter poems German peasants

Clasotetl – the filth eater - Aztec intercessor god to the other gods to whom you’d confess sins especially of a sinful nature.

Mayan god - Makelshoxhitl or 5 flower brought sores to the genitals so he would be invoked to cure this

Erasmus – “The war on the maiden” – redefining sexual virtue. – also wrote on how to interact with prostitutes seen as preventative to homosexuality

A free ride – one of first stag films. 1915

World War I US uses abstinence only classes for troops to try and avoid VD, results in 7 million man days lost to social diseases. Close down any brothel within 5 miles of a navy base.

Veterans learn from European women, come back with knowledge that aids in the Roaring Twenties. Women vote, cheaper condoms, cocaine, smoking, prohibition seen as reason to question all law. Freud, films, F Scott Fritzgerald, Flappers, Hemingway. Valentino and Clara Bow. Gay clubs have 7 or 8 balls. Diaphragm and spermicide hit market. Latex condoms instead of sheep intestine. Sanger would import diaphragms in shipments of illegal gin from Holland to subvert Comstock laws. 1921 states make censorship laws targeted at film industry. Will Hayes and Hayes Code instigated. Separate beds for married couples and no toilets in bathrooms. May West’s “Sex” is banned, along with books like Lady Chatterly’s Lover. Great Depression causes dip in birth and marriage rates. 1930s Censorship gains – Joe Breen cuts film kisses from 4 seconds to 1 ½ and banned scenes of cows being milked. Sex ed classes declared kissing transmitted syphilis, premarital sex went up (largely due to automobile). Women in WW2 could work in business. The wolf and the victory girl. Released military documents show WW2 ration of 8 condoms a month. 80% who served 2 years or more engaged in unmarried sex. Veteran return causes baby boom. 1947 FBI keeps files on sex lives of civil employees. In 1950 Senate report “On the employment of homosexuals and other sex perverts in government.” Eisenhower presidential executive order that any company doing business with the Federal government ferret out any homosexuals working in it. More gays than commies driven from government during Red Scare.

Layla and Majnun[edit]

Mohammed was said to have held such unrequited love in the highest esteem. Believing that if a jilted lover died, he or she becam a martyr and went directly to heaven.

Philip IV of France[edit]

Finds out that his three daughters are having affairs with his knights , disembowels men and sends daughters to nunnaries where one of them was murdered.

Courtly love[edit]

courtly love became almost like a second religion, a knight would plead for a lady’s favors much as a sinner begging for Jesus’ blessing and forgiveness.


It is used in all important acts, at births, at deaths, at funerals, at weddings, at signing marriage contracts. In the native context, the coca leaf does not produce addiction it does not produce the mood problems that we associate with cocaine and I think this has to do with several differences. The first is that the content of cocaine in coca leaf is very low. It’s taken by mouth, so the drug is absorbed slowly rather than going into the brain very rapidly as when you snort it or especially when you smoke it. Andrew Weil, M.D. Ancient Almanac History Channel Series Producer = David M. Frank A & C Network 1996

McArthur on Philipines defense act[edit]

The Philippines defense act “to preserve the integrity of the only Christian state in the far east”

MacArthur and Tomoyuki Yamashita[edit]

Clash of Warriors The history Channel 2002

russo-japanese war of 1904 With his father traveled throughout the Western pacific region including Japan served on the general staff in washington as well as in texas and mexico Soon after US entered WWI he joined the American expeditionary force in France as a Major – rose through the ranks and was instremental in forming the 42nd Rainbow division so called because it recruited across the spectrum of America’s states Know by his men as the D’Artagnan of the western front” Distinguishes himself at battles of Meuse-Argonne and St. Mihiel in 1918. Highly decorated. Major General at 38. He was appointed Superintendent of West Point after the war and is credited for modernizing it. In 1922 returned to the Philippines as commander of the Manila district and started a two year tour in the island starting in 1928. In 1930 he became the US Army’s Chief of Staff. Oversaw major reforms in the US Army despite clashes with FDR over the military budget. So called bonus marches in July 1932 during great depression. Roundly critiqued for heavy handedness in dispersing a large group of unemployed WWI veterans. 1935 another term in the Philippines in 1936 he introduced the Philippines defense act. It set up the islands own defense force under his supervison he was also given command of US forces there Dec. 10 Japanese invade – May 1942 falls Ordered to evacuate by FDR in March Summer of 1942 – autumn of 1944 MacArthur had leap frogged his way toward Phil. while Ad. Nimitz advanced across the central pacific. The US navy restricted his resources in favor of its own central pacific offensive. causing constant friction between him and Nimitz. July 1944 FDR calls for a conference between the 2 at Pearl Harbor to decide on the next strategic step on the campaign in the pacific. Nimitz argued for Navy control and aimed at Formosa (present day Taiwan) bypassing the Philippines. McArthur argued it should be the key objective to cut off Japan from raw materials and preserve US vs. Japanese propaganda. FDR rules that Philapeans first followed by Formosa. 1944 invasion at Leyte center of Phil. and Naval Battle of Leyte Gulf. He made a symbolic return to Leyte but it took six weeks to subdue the island. Planned to launch on Jan. 9, 1945 on main island of Luzon and then evict them from the other islands. His invasion forces, supporting fleets, carrier-borne and land based aircrews, and the native philopino troops totaled almost 1 million men vs. 260,000 Japanese land troops.

Tomoyuki Yamashita entered Tokyo military academy in 1903 graduated as an infantry lieutenant in 1906. He became a great friend of Tojo. 10 years later as a captain he was a good student at the Japanese staff college and was selected to serve on the Imperial Army General staff. 1919-21 Embassy staff in Berlin and in Switzerland by 1922 Major was on the general staff at the war ministry in Tokyo and later became an instructor at the Japanese war college. As Colonel was commanding an infantry regiment in Feb 1936 he was appointed by tojo as the principle mediated in a dispute between young officers and the war ministry. The officers were demanding an end to political corruption. His sympathy to the rebels who had remained loyal to their emporer led to a falling out between him and tojo between 1937 and 1939 he led a brigade then a division in China and Manchuria and by 1940 he was a lieutenant general. in 1940 he was appointed the head of Unit 82. a special group of elite officers who in the event of war would plan for Japan’s “Strike South” policy against Malaya the Dutch east Indies, Burma and the Philippians. Was also the head of a special military mission to Germany and Italy in Dec. 1940. Promoted commander of the Japanese 25th Army in 1941. Led it through a spectacular drive through British held Malaya in 1942. Captured Singapore in Feb. 15th over 100,000 UK troops along with commander General Sir Arthur Percival surrendered to his 30,00 men. Marred by atrocities carried out by his troops. At military hospital medical staff and wounded men were mercilessly butchered. Nicknamed the Tiger of Malaya by his men. Tojo jealous of his success sent him to Manchuria then a military backwater. There he took lead of the Japanese first army.18 months later the high command relented and he was appointed commander and chief of 14th Area Army in the Philippines shortly before first US landings on Leyte.

20,000 Japanese garrison US uses Flamethrowers, tanks, self propelled guns. At first attempt to not destroy important buildings but because of resistance Manila reduced to rubble March 3 almost a month later 100,000 civilians died many to Japanese frenzy.

The concrete battleship Manila Bay 13th of April Fort Drum pounded by aerial and naval gunfire once the massive naval guns on the fort’s superstructure had been knocked out Mc troops assualted it. The ventilation shafts were packed with kerosene , white phosphorus, and high explosives, time fuses were lit and then troops withdrew. The massive explosions killed any survivors of Fort Drum.

Battle for April and august 1945 vs. Mountain stronghold in north of Luzon and east of Mindanao Aug 19, 1945 surrender after atomic bomb.

US 8,000 loses 33,000 wounded; Japanese lose 192,000 men

Yam. Surrendered to William Gill

before his arrival against his orders in defense of Manila feb 23, 1946

German Crusade[edit]

“When the crusaders began to reach this land, they sought funds with which to purchase bread. We gave them, considering ourselves to be fulfilling the verse: ‘Serve the king of Babylon and live.’”

Peter “brought with him a letter from France, from the Jews, [indicating] that, in all the places where his foot would tread and he would encounter Jews, they should give him provisions for the way. He would then speak well on behalf of Israel.” The Jewish community of Trier did in fact give Peter funds and his troops passed through without incident.

European Jewry and the First Crusade By Robert Chazan University of California Press, 1987 Los Angeles, CA

William Bull Halsey[edit]

Clash of Warriors Halsey vs. Kurita The History Channel Produce/Director Jonathan Martin 2000

He was a firm supporter of the use of the atomic bomb. "We must make that nation of beasts so impotent that they never again will be able to rise up."

Herod the Great[edit]

Ancient Almanac Herod the Great produced by Gail Willumeen A&E Television Network 1995

Held to "combine Roman politics, greek culture, eastern savagery, and Jewish sensitivity...vigorous, effective, intelligent, active ruler, he left fantastic buildings in a campaign never equaled in the country".

Ceasarea Maritima made specifically in badly exposed coastline to put a harbor to show Herod could conquer nature, Pilate lived there, Peter and Paul preached there, and one of the first Christian communities started there. 20BCE begin built, named after Julius Cesar.

Josephus lived a century after his death.

Nabatea was his mother's land, she was an arab princess. His Jewishness is always questioned.

Hasomans defeat Greek-Egyptian invaders.

after getting kingship from Senate in 40BCE capitoline Hilll temple with Mark Antony and Octavian sacrificed to the gods of Rome.

fights Hasmonean king who has had anti-Roman policies.

Captures Jerusalem with the help of Roman troops.

Adds Roman bath to the palace at Jericho.

By Jewish law only Hasmoanans have legal right to throne, he divorces his first wife and weds a H. princess.

has friends kill aristobulos in swimming pool because jews hail him excitedly when made high priest. Mariamme refuses him afterwards.

his eight wives after Mariamme might violate Jewish law on polygamy and kings.

Temple had been wearing for 500 years, sought ot make it a bragging right across the region.

Pilgrims then flock to temple.

Imports use of Hydrolic concrete for Caserea. city completed in 13 years has dazzling large temple honoring Augustus. Warehouses busy in trade between rome and middle east. Acqeduct fully inclused comes from springs nine miles away. theater holds 3,500. completed when herod is 63. Jewish economy good and peaceful under him, but he's emotionally troubled - retreats to his castles.

Masada palace has Roman influences in architecture and design.

Magi are going to the current King of the Jews to ask where his rival has been born? Pagan priests/wise men visiting king is not noted by his contemporaries?

On his deathbed orders the death of the noblemen, the important men from every village of Judea. Order is ignored.

Buried in Herodium, has yet to be found by archaeologists.


Tertullian Apology Chapter 37 How often you inflict gross cruelties on Christians, partly because it is your own inclination, and partly in obedience to the laws! How often, too, the hostile mob, paying no regard to you, takes the law into its own hand, and assails us with stones and flames! With the very frenzy of the Bacchanals, they do not even spare the Christian dead, but tear them, now sadly changed, no longer entire, from the rest of the tomb, from the asylum we might say of death, cutting them in pieces, rending them asunder. Yet, banded together as we are, ever so ready to sacrifice our lives, what single case of revenge for injury are you able to point to, though, if it were held right among us to repay evil by evil, a single night with a torch or two could achieve an ample vengeance? But away with the idea of a sect divine avenging itself by human fires, or shrinking from the sufferings in which it is tried.

Roman catacombs[edit]

Catacombs of Rome Ex Producer - Craig Haffner A&E Television Networks 1997

Image of Jesus not often placed on the walls of catacombs - divine specific iconoclasm? Use good shepard images

Greek mythology often presented - Heracles

Dolphins (carry souls into the afterlife according to roman myth), peacocks (rebirth)

cold, damp, dark and filled with toxic smells were not used to hide, were known by Roman authorities

despite being in dark were decorated, usually figures from their old testament - Jonah, Daniel, 3 boys in firery furnance

seperate catacombs for roman jews, been there since 160 BCE Judah the Maccabee asked for aid against syria. like christains also mixed there symbols with pagan. Alot of figures from Hebrew scriptures, esp. Moses, also lots of Menorrah's.

At time of Constantine practice of catacomb burial begins to decline, by 5th century it is no longer used at all - christians and jews use above ground cemetarys. Oddly by the 9th century they were forgotten (despite previous cults of the martyrs), by the late middle ages looters were taking bones as relics. Few bones there since. Graffiti written in catacombs, such as names, and some asking for the dead to pray for them.

1578 was the first finding. Antonio Bosio wrote Underground Rome noting his exploration of these catacombs. Giovanni Battista De Rossi studied it in the 19th century with a more scientific basis.

Most recent discovery in 1955.

History of sex from Don Juan to Queen Victoria[edit]

The History of Sex From Don Juan to Queen Victoria Directed by Melissa Jo Peltier 1999 A&E Television Networks

Pregnant unmarried Puritans in early america okay if married later. If no one came forward and girl did not talk she would be harassed for the name at childbirth by 12 older women seeking the name. Whole families of Purtians would sleep in the same bed.

1800s middle class rises in UK and diffine actions of 17th century upperclass as unlike themselves and immoral. Victoria's marriage was inspirationsl becuase it was a love match. Social rules of middle class developed at this time. Ideal developed that women should be sexually indifferent. Dr. William Acton argues for frigid wife. Honeymoon tradition catches on seen as a way to learn about sex. John Ruskin, writer freaked out at sight of wife's pubic hair as didn't look like the Greek statues he was used to seeing. Illegal for males to do an autopsy on a woman or touch any part of her that was not exposed. Legs believed to be especially attractive to men and even table skirts invented to keep table legs out of view. Prostitution and pornography explodes in Victorian England. A lot of pornography around deflowering young virgins. Mistress and courtesans for highest class - Charles Dickins keeps 19 yr old Ellen Ternan for 20 years, brothel houses existed, especially popular were houses of discipline and others with child virgins. Journalist in 1885 William Thomas Stead bought a 13 year-old virgin to show how easily it could be done the outrage that followed raised the age of consent to 16. All but the sex workers at the lowest level used condoms as there was no cures for VD. The only way a man could lose his standing for sexual activity was be a homosexual. There was a homosexual underworld and much experimentation in boarding schools. 1895 Oscar Wilde's trial was a big scandal and its publication and other such cases contribute to the challenge to the social system. Aemilia Bloomer (new less ill-fitting underwear), Victoria Woodhall (proponent of feelove), Josephine Butler (equal vote).

Dark Ages[edit]

Rome as early as third century had fallen into hands if inept emp. 50 year period in the third century nearly all of the two dozen emperors who seized power were slain on the throne. Small pox and measels enter Europe for first time through trade, population fall causes more dependence on tribesmen for border defence.

Petrarch invents term Dark Ages, but its usage is questioned.

His monks in his first monastary attempt to posion St. Benedict twice.

Charles Martel after almost being excommunicated is allowed to take Church property and lands to fund defence from Moors. Defeats Moors at Toor by having a raid during the battle that took booty, Moorish soldiers return to camp to secure their good is seen as a retreat by other troops and disarray causes downfall of the Moorish side. Moors retreated to Spain.

Charlemagne launches over 50 campaigns to expand his empire. Conquered to convert to RC or die. In 782 Kills 4,500 Saxon tribal leaders after they were caught practicing their pagan religon Bloody Verdict of Verdun. Worshipping pagan gods, cremating, disobeying king, refusing baptism are all worthy of capital punishment. Divides his kingdom into counties ruled by a count that reported directly to him, he travelled constantly.

Charlemagne had five wives and five mistresses and twenty children (churches position on marriage unclear at this time).

After Vikings era ends Knights act merely as hired thugs of local counts to force peasants to recognize him as their lord. Church tries to counter this by amassing local relics and forcing local knights to swear to uphold the Peace of God and the Truce of God.

With knowledge taken from Arabs during crusades and end of the mini-ice age Dark ages era ends.


After invasion of Ravenna, Pope Gregory III is unconvinced that the Lombard King Liutprand (a devout Catholic) will not attack Rome encourages the Dukes of the Duchies of Spoleto and Benevento nearby the papal states to revolt in 740. Liutprand wins, dies of natural causes in 744. King Desiderius seeks to take over lands of the papal states ruled by Pope Hadrian who asks the Franks to intervene. Charlemagne's army is the biggest most disciplined in European history since the Romans. Desiderius is banished to a monastary.

Vandal tribe[edit]

Vandal invasion of North Africa pushes Eastward until it reaces the city of Hippo Refius, now Annaba in Algeria. Lay seige to the heavily fortified city. For 14 months keep city under seige while crops not harvested. The city is seen as part of Arian crusade vs. Catholics as Augustine is locked inside and is a popular "best selling" theologian at the time. Seen as a symbol of hope to the RC and is despised by the Arian Vandals. He motivates flock to defie the Arians but within three months he dies of old age and affects morale on both sides. Civil war in rest of Western empire causes lack of troops. There are also a lot of Arians in North Africa that support the Vandals. 435 Empress makes treaty with Vandals. Surrendering area around Hippo, the Vandals begin persecution of Catholics seizing their wealth. 439 takes Carthage and persecute the Catholics there, removing their prencence. Some see them as doing YHWH's work by forcing prostitutes to marry, by persecuting homosexuals and adulterors. The vandals seize the cash and jewels of the Catholic elite. Use carrot and stick approach to get converts. In 440 raid Sicily to spread their religion. 442 Emperor Valentinian III recognizes Vandalia, promises young daughter to prince Huneric. 455 when Valentinian is assaisinated and his presumed assaissin demands to marry his widow and have Valtinians daughter marry his own son, the widow makes a pact with the Vandals to open the gates to them. Pope Leo who faced down Attila mets with Geiseric and an agrement is made to limit bloodshed in Rome and surrender treasure. Geiseric demands dowry citing agreement with dead Emperor and starts taking Italian cities. Catholic persecution continues for a century. Recorded by Bishop Victor of Vita. In 533 Byzantine Emp. Justinian sends general Belisarius who retakes north africa with well disciplined troops in two battles.

Ramses III[edit]

The workforce at Deir el-Medina for Egyptian great tombs went on strike during the 29th year of the reign of Ramses III, demanding better food rations (as told by papyrus). First known strike in history. "Hunger and thirst has driven us to this. There is no clothing. There are no fish. There are no vegtables. Send to Pharoah, our good lord, that we may be supplied with provisions." When wages ceased focused anger on administrative center in the temple of Medinet Habu.

Assembly line[edit]

Method of work known as progresive production. Work moves to the person and past the person. Uniform parts where first invented in 1813 by Conneticut gunmaker Simeon North for his pistol. This allowed parts to be simply attached. The idea of putting work in motion came from the Cincinnati meat packing lines of the 1800s. In the 1850s conveyor belts that were originally used by textile manufacturers to move heavy molds in the production of steel. Can making takes up the use of conveyor belts. 1896 Henry Ford makes model T and in 1908 he sought to speed the production (had yet to met demand) and lower costs. He regularly moved work stations to increase speed of stationary assemly. In 1910 built factory with machines arranged by order of car construction instead of by type. Then he began to move the car rather than the worker following the advice of Frederick "Speedy" Taylor the first major voice in the industrial efficency feild and popular in the steel industry. Saw human intellegance as applied by workers as a hinderance to efficent opporation. Broke down a particular job into smaller and smaller tasks, allowing better control, mechanization, and increased speed. Allowing the hiring of more men with less skills. Taliorizing the work and taking the skill out of the work process. In April of 1913 29 highly skilled employees stood next to each other to make a magneto, each only doing a small bit and passing it on. This continued to make several subassembly lines. Then he had the chasis pulled through the areas and made a car in 5 hours and 50 minutes (halfing the previous time). Installed conveyor builts modeled after slaughter houses, what had taken a single man 728 hours to build could be built in 90 minutes. Production increased from 82,000 cars in 1912 to 267,000 in 1914. Dropped the selling price from $600 to $490. For the workers it was boring, regimented, and monontonous. It was difficult to keep the workers in the plant. Work became degraded. Less thinking and more keeping pace with the machines. Foremen would gradually turn up the line a notch at at time until workers complained and then turn it back one notch. Absentism was great and was called Forditis. Had a 10% absentee rate, and had to have 1,400 extra people availible to fill in if needed. Ford doubled the assembly line wages to $5 a day and cut the work day from 9 to 8 hours. The average anual income at the time was $334 Ford works made 5 times as much. They could afford the cars they were making. Turnover dropped. Made him the first billionare. Made Rouge Factory that included smelting steel and making glass, could make a car from raw materials in four days. First car company to hire blacks in positions of skilled labors. By 1929 cars came off assembly lines 1 every 10 seconds. The union demanded that both workers and management share control of line speed. By the late 20 43% of all manufactured goods were made in america emulating Fords methods. His maximum productin methods required mass consumption to be successful. Foster Gunnison's attempt to make homes by assembly line failed through lack of consummerism because rejected standardized houses. GM comes out with a car that's more expensive than the model T but offered more choices in there Chevrolet. By 1926 Ford had lost 25% of market share. In 1927 was forced to retool to make the Model A. Large turnover and multiple problems, lost a quarter of a million dollars. Because of overspecialization. Gm introduces idea of yearly model change. WWII caused retooling and hiring of women and blacks. There were hate strikes when white men protested blacks and women rising in positions (though they only earned 60% of what white men's wages). After WWII Japan had little resources and could not waste anything. In 1950 Eiji Toyota attempting to get families business back to profitability toured the Ford Rogue Plant. Ford's assembly line worked well with high demand and low verifiablity. Toyota had to build various cars and trucks. Redefine the responsabiltys of labor in a system that is starved for capital and is only serving low volume of demand. They build around their primary resource which is labor, they are the most flexible rescource. Unlike US never went the full extent of reducing people to cogs in a machine. They reorganized the work to the workers and let them define their responsabilities. Involve and engage the workers to improve their jobs, (also have them do low end matienence and housekeeping to avoid repition). Workers allowed to stop the line if discover problem making everyone an inspector. Productivity increased with lack of mistakes. Did away with specialists such as dye changers that allowed average workers to do in a few hours. Since they didn't know exactly what lines they might be building, workers were required to be skilled, motivated, and innovative. Workers responsible for continued improvement a process called Kaizan. Removed 10% of the workers, 10% of the time, and remove 10% of the rescources used to back up that process and forced the remaining workers to figure out, how to now get that job done with 90% of what they had before. Once balance reached, took out another 10%. In 1980 Japan surpassed American car production. In 1989 japan made cars in half the time with half as many defects. Robots are still large and akward when compared to human dexterity, people can evalutate more aspects for defects at one time.

Baton Death March[edit]

If a prisoner was run over by a tank they would be driven over by following vehicles.

POWs taken to Japan often used as slave labor, including in flooded mines.

Trucks would sometimes hit soldiers.

Cut off hand at wrist to take ring that wouldn't come off.

Spirts in colonial America[edit]

Because alcohol would kill water borne germs its mixture was common.

Pope Piux XII[edit]

The Unholy Battle for Rome Ex Prod - Lou Reda Lou Reda Productions for the History Channel 2005 Italy had been fighting since 1935 Ethiopia (Second Italo-Abyssinian War) and the Spanish Civil War, and in 1940 on the side of the Germans. By early Sept. 1943 Allies were wrapping up Sicily and were on the brink of invading Italy. Mussolini was overthrown on July 25, 1943 in a palace coup ending 20 years of Facist rule. Marshall Pietro Badogilio who had led the viscious fighting in Ethiopia in 1936 (replacing Emilio de Bono) and the disasterous invasion of Greece in 1940, was appointed to head the new government. Allies invade Salerno on Sept. 8, 1943. Germany stunned that Eisenhower stated that the Italians had signed an official armistice five days earlier. Badogilio did not call on the troops to support the allies, fleeing Rome without issuing orders for the 55 Italian battalions in Rome to turn on the Nazis as agreed in the armistice. With the chain of command broken the outnumbered Germans were able to crush, disarm, and disband the entire army. The germans use to have 1,500 troops in Rome with the threat of uprising rushed in veteran forces to shore up their holdings. 414 Italian troops, 183 civilians including 27 women die defending the city. By Allies landing at Salerno instead of North of Rome to cut off Nazi supply lines and take the city allowed Kesselring to not abandon the city and make defense lines on Italys mountainous and river strewn terrain. Allies take Naples in less than a month but that was infront of Kesselring's Winter line.

Upon taking control of Rome the Nazis move against the Jews. Himmler imported SS Major Herbert Kappler to handle the Jews with his aide Erich Priebke promoted to Captain.

Kappler demands 50 kilograms of gold from Jewish leaders to be gathered in 36 hours. Wolff had already assigned Nazi police to round-up the Jews. Kappler sent the gold to the head of the Reich security apparatus General Ernst Kaltenbrunner, he was unimpressed and order the round-up to continue. Crate was found in his office at the end of the war unopened.

By September 1943 the allies continued to bleed against the defensive lines. Allied commanding General Mark Clark did not use flanking maneuvors or make full use of his allies. Clark chaffed under British General Harold Alexander who he thought was out to take credit from the Americans.

German ambassodor to the Holy See Ernst von Weizsacker and his second in command Teddy von Kessel were the most anti-Nazi Germans in the city. Hoped to have the Pope mediate a seperate peace with Hitler to save Germany. Hearing of brutal executions of Jews in the Italian north, Weizsacker sent Kessel to alert the Jewish leaders that their people must flee or go into hiding. Most shrugged off the advice. Kessel said "If the Jews don't dissappear at once, every last one of them will be deported and their blood will be on our hands." Kessel told Eitel Friedrich Mollhausen a young consul in the German Embassy who was not a Nazi and often tried to intervene for the Jews. Mollhausen wrote a personal telegram to the foreing minister of the Third Reich, Joachim von Ribbentrop. Said that though "They are to be liquidated" it would be better to use them for work around Rome instead. Ribbentrop was angry that the word liquidated was used and ordered Mollhausen not to meddle. Eichmann sent to insure efficency, get a detachment of Einsatzgruppen into Rome under Captain Theodore Dannecker. Chief Rabbi Israel Zolli calls for the community to disperse, is ignored and goes into hiding. On Sat. Oct. 16, at 5 am the roundup begins. All Italian policemen suspected of willingness to warn the Jews were arrested by Kappler. Many Jews given sancturay in Chruch property including the Vatican. Most were less luckly Jews crammed onto trucks were passing in the feild of vision of the windows of the Vatican.

Upon seeing Jews in deportation trucks being driven past Vatican windows - Cardinal Maglione, the Vatican's secretary of state to German Ernst von Weizsaecker - the holy see was “not wanting to be faced with the need to express its disapproval”.

Maglione’s journal entry – “I was leaving it to his judgement whether or not to mention our conversation…” Weizsaecker said nothing and the round-up continued. Only 16 of the 1,023 Jews sent by boxcar to Auschzitz (one had been rescued from a pile of corpses).

By Dec. 1943 Allied push stalled at Gustav line. Rome did not have any tactical value except to have a second front to appease Stalin, only objective was to take Rome.

Landing at Anzio was seen as a way to avoid the defensive lines. Partisans had the ability to kill every German in Rome. Road to Rome was wide open but was not taken by Generl Lucus' 6th Corps take the Alban Hills with his armored division, instead they stayed and when Field Marshall Alexander came he had them dig in. Kesslering committed his reserve of 20,000 troops within weeks he had 100,000 men defending the beachhead. Partisans relayed to the allies what was coming. Anzio almost falls despite the intelligence. 3,500 US die to 5,500 Germans - intelligence was crucial for US success. Partisans thinking deliverance was near broke discipline and made open attacks, many of their cells were smashed by the SS and tortured. Pietro Koch, half German and half Italian is sent to destroy partisans and forms the Koch gang. With Kappler and Priebke captured and tortured much of the leadership. Demanded info on spy Peter Thompkins. At a parade to commerate the beginning of Italian Facism the Nazi Bozen Battalion paraded on a set schedule and was attacked with a street cleaners cart with 18lbs of TNT and mortor bombs altered into hand granades by the partisans. Many of the battalian slain by sympathetic explosian of own handgrenades on their belts going off. 33 dead and 60 wounded of 156. Hitler orders reprisal of 50 Italians for every Nazi soldier slain. Kesslering decides 10 would be sufficent. German diplomat Eugen Dollmann a colonel of the SS who thought Hitler had already lost the war. Dollmann alerts Padre Pancrazio, Pius' personal liason with the occupation. Wanted him to have Pope intervene to allow time to pass and tempers to cool. The governatorato note time-stamped by the Vatican secretary of state at 10:15 March 24, 1944 warned of the issue. The Vatican did nothing and said nothing. With the death of another soldier 10 more Italian victims were required. Italians men and boys from all fields of work including the priesthood and Roman Jews were chosen and taken by truck to the Ardeatine Caves with explosives to seal the bodies in. Many of the executioners had never fired a weapon. From 2-8pm killing continues and drunken executioners get sloppy. Make victims stand on previous victims corpse to eliminate need to clear area. When the Pope heard about it from his confessor he raised his hands and said "It can not be." Count Dolla Torre chief editor of the Vatican newspaper Osservatore Romano published a front page editorial condemning the act that was seen as written by the Pope. It protrayed the Germans as the victims, the partisans as culprits and the massacred as sacrificed.

Allies break out of Anzio and move through the defensive lines. General Clark ignores his own orders and sends men to take Rome to prevent Romans from taking it. The partisans had taken the infrastructure and monuments to prevent destruction. Kesslering's troops not faced by Clarks moved north and continue defensive lines until the end of the war. Pope has a large victory Mass were he is hailed as heroic. Koch is executed by firing squad. Dannecker hangs himself in his cell. Kesslring got a life sentence but was released in 1952. Kappler was given a life sentence but escaped in 1977 and died in Germany at the age of 77. Priebke escaped to Argentina sometimes returning to Rome for holiday captured in 1994 was given a life sentence of house arrest.

312,000 Allies had died in the battles to take Rome.

Mary Magdalene[edit]

Ancient Evidence Produced and Directed by Thecla Schreuders BBC/Discovery Co-production 2003 Magdala is a town 120 North of Jerusalem on shores of Galilee. Magdala Tarichaea (the tower of salted fish). Lamentations Rabah Magdala is judged by God and destroyed because of its fornication. New tax burden due to Romans could've caused debt to her family and she could've been sold as a debt slave. The NT does not say she is married, widowed, or has any children. Being called after her town may just mean she's single. Luke says she's demonic till Jesus. Psychologist see women in powerless situations being brutally repressed as being able to resist only by taking on a personality not associated with themselves (insanity defense, devil made me do it). Jesus does a lot of exorcism. At the time if someone was possessed its seen as proof that they did something bad and that virtuous were not possessed. Possessed could repent or give sacrifice. As a single woman and an outcast she had nothing to lose by leaving home. His message of the rejected rising to prominance would have appeal. The fact that his movement did not place emphasis on family ties would appeal to her.

She is present at the cross (either from a distance or at the foot), the offered drink may have been from the women. She kept vigil at the tomb and went to administer burial rites (customary for women to do so), was the first to see the empty tomb. Discpiles don't believe a hysterical woman with a histoy of posssession. Peter is angry and dismayed other disciple believes he's risen, they leave without saying anything to her. Voice speaks (might have thought it attendant) tells him she thinks body stolen, turns and sees Jesus. She has all the requirements to be an apostle as per the requirements of Luke was with Jesus during his life, witnessed death and resurrection, and can go out an teach.

Gnostic gospels call her a co-equal disciple, or even most superior disciple.

Gospel of Philip, with kiss on mouth may be allogory of direct transmission of knowledge.

In Gospel of Mary Magdalene she convinces the scared apostles to go out and not fear being slain themselves. Peter asks her to tell him something only she knew, Andrew doubts what she says and Peter rejects that she was superior. Matthew defends her position. This gospel might have been written by a woman in the 2nd or 3rd Century. She was probably a figure used by Christian woman to challenge being locked out of authority. Peter contests her in many Christian sources. By 4th and 5th century woman can not be ordained into the priesthood or bishoprics. Assigning her the role of prostitute may have been a conspiracy as the woman washing Jesus' feet is named Mary in Luke 7 but is likely to be associated as Mary sister of Martha in John that annoints him for his burial. Why prostitution, because this is a major sin typical of some women at the time.

By the sixth century Pope Gregory the Great, says her seven demons symbolized all the vices but upon her repentence they became virtues. She becomes the patron saint of penitaints for the Catholic church. 1969 the RC withdraws label penitant from her saints day.

Ancient Evidence - who killed Jesus[edit]

Ancient Evidence Produced and Directed by Thecla Schreuders BBC/Discovery Co-production 2003

Caiaphas was the most powerful high priest in the history of Judea was high priest for 18 years when average was just 5 years. Shrewd enough to deal with Romans. Comes from an aristocrat priestly family has enormous prestige because of his position. Had money and lucrative income, furnishings, decor, mosica floors, decorated celings, large rooms, superior workmanship, and mikvahs. Priests had ritual baths around the temple and charged heavily to use. Archaelogists have found 150 around temple mount. Jesus is said to have preached against this type of purification and without rituals. Challenge to Caiaphas' sway over worldwide Jewry. Josephus records that at one Passover 255,600 lambs killed and eaten for the festival , 1 lamb feds 10 people. Said the temple would be destroyed and all its corruption. Caiaphas did not have the power to kill according to NT and the charge that Pilate gets is not the charge Pilate looks at.

Takes place at night, on a feast day, in his home all of which is illegal by Judaism. The general role of whoever calls the court usually acts as prosecutor. Witness contradicted each other and themselves. Gospels conflict, and only Mark has him say that he is the son of YHWH.

Pilate has 6,000 troops there and at Syria has additional 30,000. Had his capital at Ceserea not Jerusalem which 60 miles away was a 2 1/2 days march - possibly to have less interaction with Jews. Nearly all of the riots in first century take place during Passover. He had an extensive network of spies and informants. Perhaps crowd calling for Jesus crucifixion were agents of High Priest (or people who had their tables overthrown most lucrative time of year, money changers might have charged exorbiantly).

Jesus with palms before him fulfilling Zechariah have to go through gates which are going to be held by Romans. Stays in Jerusalem the enire week despite knowing he'd caused trouble.

Family thought he was crazy to claim Messiahship.

Jesus had sweat glands capilaries break because of stress. Hematidrosos. Jesus took 6 hours to die. (Some say vineger mixed with Mandrake was administered (though its highly toxic), some wine and opium). (Romans unlikely to deliever such, perhaps Mary Magdelene).

Pilate is recalled for brutality but the Emperor Tiberius dies before trial so is not tried, 37CE said by some to committ suicide.

Caiaphas removed from office soon after, lived quietly on his farm near Galilee, is buired at Talpiot in Jerusalem.

Jewish laws of purity wanted bodies to not remain unburied overnight, and be buried properly (though not necessarily with honor). Gospels written to preserve for believers not to convince disbelivers.

In Mark, no one sees the tomb as empty or the graveclothes they see an angel immediately as they cross the threshold.

Ancient Miracle workers[edit]

Pythagoras was said to be able to appear in two places at one time and do some healings. Empedocles 5th century philosopher was held to be able to control the weather. Honi the circle drawer a Jewish miracle worker is said to have been able to control rain. People saw disease as an outcome of demons (who came as a result of immorality), medicine was a branch of religion, the persons ability to recover was directly related to their faith in the person administering the healing.

Hebrew Scriptures paralleled in Christian Scriptures[edit]

Nain were Jesus raises a dead son of a widow was the same place that Elijah had done the same miracle 1,000 years before. Some thought that Jesus was Elijah reincarnated.

5,000 said to have been at Jesus' loaves and fishes miracle. Remote and deserted area, like Moses crossing the red sea and mob complaining about hunger. Moses often had people sit in 50 and 100s like Moses arranged companies of troops. Moses has leftovers gathered in baskets. Mob called Jesus their liberator.

When walking on water, Jesus was passing the boat by heading to the western shores of the Jordan delta. Similar to Joshua miracolously crossing the Jordan. Joshua and Jesus started from the east, Joshua had 12 priests alongside him and Jeusus had 12 apostles. Yeshua is the same name for both.

Jesus was driven into the wildernes it may be that he did not know what type of spirit had taken him. Luke says that Satan only left him for a specific time, indicating that his contact was not over. Gergasa was a non-Jewish town devout Jews were forbidden to visit. Other exorcists used spell, Jesus according to the NT just shouts at demons (perhaps leading some to think he himself is deranged or possessed). Some say that him not praying at exorcisms, storm calming, and wine turning prove that his authority and power came from his divine self not from YHWH.


The god of the Nabateans (people of Petra) like other gods of near eastern nomads forbade their worshippers from knowing their names or behold their faces. The Nabateans' chief god was Bushara (He of the mountains of Shara - a mountain range near Petra). Nothing else is known there are god blocks and obsilisks. They are later believed to meld their gods with the greek and egyptian ones and may have took up their images for their own gods. At the top of the mountain high above Petra ther is a sacrifical altar. An inscription tells of a priest sacrificing a young man, other ancient accounts tell of boys and girls killed in offering to the Nabatean goddess Auza, one text commerates the cutting of a boys throat in a Nabatean city some 200 miles from Petra.

King David of the United Kingdom[edit]

Elhanon is mentioned twice as the slayer of Goliath.

David kills the only link to who killed Saul at Battle of Gilboa. David is crowned by the elders of Judah, Saul's son Ishbal is crowned in the northern kingdom of Israel and civil war continues for two years. Gen. Abner is slain under flag of truce, Ishbal is murdered in his sleep. 2 Samuel might have been written to defend David from charges of killing to get to the throne.

Little archaeological record for a king who ruled for 40 years. Stone terrace built into the side of a hill in Jerusalem discovered by British archaeologist Kathleen Kenyan and held by some scholars to be the Milo. The steep hillside south of the temple mount had to be terraced before they could be developed. The terraces have been dated to the era of when David is said to rule.

Bethsheba story - Why is David in Jerusalem instead of at the battlefield? How old is Bethsheba and why is she bathing in a semi-public space on the rooftop? Why wouldn't a man on leave not sleep with his young bride and claim to be unable to do that what his fellow soldiers can not do.

Orthodox scholars hold that Uriah was rightfully processed because he was a rebel for not following King David's orders to sleep with his wife. Talmud sees as lack of judgement not a sin.

It is doubtful that David ever had the full support of the Hebrews as when his son Absalon seeks to overthrow him, he seeks and receives the support of the elders of Judah. He gets enough support to force his father from the city. Only with the help of the military under General Joab does David succeed.

David has bad relationship with all his kids, Absalom revolts. Amom rapes his half sister Tamar.

In his later years David is bedridden and no matter the number of blankets is always cold.


Mongols in 1274 under Kublai Khan take hundred of warships and land at Hakata Bay on Kyushu. The Samurai were used to fighting in ritualistic mounted archery duels. The Mongols landed without horses, weilding swords and spears. They formed tight units and were not above spearing horses. Their use of gunpowder explosives also paniced the horses. The Samurai retreated to the capital of Kyushu. The Mongols, perhaps fearing reinforcements or a night attack returned to their ships and withdrew. Japan then began building sea walls where ever mass landings could take place. Seven years after the inital fight Kublai Khan sent another fleet (with even more ships and men), and finding no place to land were stuck at sea while they searched for one while draining their water and food supplies. A Typhoon sank a majority of the ships [cargo ships with unstable drafts had been coverted for the fleet].

1490 Tsukahara Bokuden one of the most renowned Samurai swordsmen, developed the idea that the ultimate goal of the martial arts was to end conflict without bloodshed or with the barest minimum possible. Fighting without fighting.

1543 Chinese junk blown off course, on board are three Portuguese travellers each with a matchlock musket. When one shot a dock, a warlord bought all three and ordered his metalworker to copy them. This soon caught on across Japan. Those who refused to incorporate them were soon wiped out.

1590 Toyotomi Hideyoshi takes control of all of Japan's Daimyo warlords. He then rounds up all the swords from the peasantry and the merchant class in a form of weapons control. The swords were melted down to form a huge statue of Buddah. He issues edicts to end social mobility, preventing commoners from becoming Samurai. Introducing four social classes. Samurai, farmer, merchant, artisan. Only Samurai could have two swords and serve a lord, but they lost all ties to land. Commoners could hold land but not weapons. Swords as a badge of rank, the long sword was hard inside and the short sword allowed them to remain armed when they removed their long sword inside a building. Samurai had the right of Kirisute-Gomen have the right to behead commoners for not respecting his rank.

In Sept. 1598 Hideyoshi dies at the age of 62 had desired his 5 year-old son become the next regent. His right hand man Tokugawa Ieyasu betrays this confidence and seeks to cease power for himself. Amasses a force of 74,000 followers and lead it against a force of 80,000 Toyotomi loyalists at the battle of Sekigahara on October 21, 1600. At first under the cover of fog Tokugawa was winning but as it cleared the battle turned against him. He was able to send agents to persuade a leader of a large faction of loyalists to have his troops switch sides. The Toyotomi forces are overwhelmed. As Tokugawa was not of Minamoto clan descent that would allow him to become Shogun, he presented a falsefied geneology to the Emperor which was accepted. In 1603 he became Shogun. He required that Daimyo keep a residence in Edo and spend every other year in a lavish non-military villa for about 10 months. His familiy members must remain in Edo. Tokugawa also monitored travel very intensely to prevent Daimyo alliances against him. To limit foreign influences Tokugawa nearly sealed Japan off, only a handful of Japanese were allowed to visit other countries and only a select few foreigners were allowed to form trading posts in Japan. Dynasty lasts over 250 years.

Without war Samurai (who always received a warriors stipend) looked for a purpose, many went into teaching martial arts (usually the sword) and classes became more ritualized and formalistic. Some became public administrators and beuracrats or monks. It was all done with great intensity as if they needed to convince others and themselves of their place at the head of society. Every thing became stylized the importance of martial arts and spirtuality grows. In 17 and 18th Centuries some samurais wrote codes which they believed all samurai should attempt to live by. Presevation of personal honor, mastering the martial arts, and setting an example for the rest of society, and most importantly duty to one's lord to the point of death. Collectively known as the warrior code. One such work "Hagakure [hidden behind leaves] - the book of the Samurai" by Yamamoto Tsunetomo contained instrustions on self-sacrifice and day to day conduct of the Samurai. Must be incredibly sanitary and clean, must prepare his nails in a certain way, must always carry rouge in his sidebag because he may die and when he dies he dosen't want to look pale or frightened. Must always be ready to present the front of someone who has clearly chosen death. When the Samurai goes out to battle he must burn incense in his helmet so when he is beheaded by his enemy and is beheaded that when the victor tears off his helmet he is given a pleasent experience. Such musings may have just been a luxury of peace for the peace that preceeded the writing of Hagakure had already lasted 80 years. Accounts of 14th century when battles where frequent speak of Samurai withdrawing after taking heavy casualties without stigma.

Meiji Imperial Government bans carrying swords, ends Samurai class with a final stand of 900 rebels. Japanese schools in the 1900s inclucated the warrior code into young students and the Imperial divinity, and racial supermacy. The Samurai code was originally used to divide the warriors from farmer and merchants but in the 1930s the Army claimed that they were Japanese virtues not limited to a warrior class. Japanese bonzai charges and kamikazi flights, and officers even some airmen carrying swords.

After the war the Samurai history was downplayed, in 1970 Nov. 25 author Mishima and his followers took over the self defense force out of dislike of the American Consitution. Mishima (booed by the soldiers) and his second commit hare kare.

Source on Iwo Jima[edit]

Iwo Jima Exetive Producer - Arthur J. NewBerger Richard C. Okie Director of Photo - Bob Hayes Produced by John B. Moranville Dark Horse Media for Military Channel MMIV Disc. Comm, Inc.

Julius Caesar[edit]

He renamed the month of July after himself. In 42 BC, Caesar was formally deified as "the Divine Julius" (Divus Iulius), and Caesar Augustus henceforth became Divi filius ("Son of a God").

Birth of Jesus[edit]

Birth of Jesus National Geographic Channel Ex. Producer - Erik Nelson, Dave Harding Creative Differences Productions, 2005

Peasant homes would've had two stories. Upper story as living quarters with plastered walls, fireplace and entrence door. Livestock kept in lower story with unplastered walls. Inn would have been top floor, manger would have been bottom floor. There are no seperate stables at this time in peasant homes in middle east. Animals out of your way, convient, secure and locked up. Everyone was born at home.

Mariam would have been 14-15 years old and worn peasant brown or beige not blue. 25% of women died in child birth (most common reason for female death in the ancient world). Most likely caused by infection. Upto 25% of babies may have died in the first 48hours.

Soranus writes of midwives around the period for rich Greco-Roman households. Female realatives, female neighbors, and a midwife with her 3 assistants would have been in attendance. Women did not lay down to birth, but were walked in circles and then either sat on a birthing chair (if wealthy) or on the lap of one of the midwives assistants. Midwives pushed on outside along with contractions. Sea sponges, water, olive oil, and ointments to soften skin around birthing area were all the medicine available. Joseph would not have been inside but perhaps near door to bring anything needed by the midwife. Talmud says real birthing takes place once the walking in circle with midwives begins. A cloth would have been placed on the floor to prevent baby Jesus from touching dirt floor contaminated with animal droppings. Midwives would have cut the imbellical cord with sharp stone, glass fragment, or hard crust of bread. If bread was used it was thrown out afterwards (inadvertantly preventing infection). Talmud has midwives cover the baby in finely granulated salt that was then wiped off. Tight swaddling was placed around baby's limbs, torso, and sometimes head under the belief that it would make their limbs grown straight and powerful.

Donkey, cave, and perhaps Bethlehem aspects of tradition unlikely.

After giving birth Mariam would have said blessing as went into mikvah bath to purify herself from the ritual uncleaniness caused by childbirth blood. Local man would have done circumstintion would have used knife or sharp stone passed through fire. Big meal afterwards for festive occassion. Followed Jesus law to purify mary and give thanks by sacrificing turtledoves.

Torah Laws[edit]

Torah Laws are part of a Covenant relationship with elements for both parties. Humans on a level that can enter agreement with YHWH. It was a "mixed multitude" that left Egypt. In Exodus they are before Mt. Sinai within months of leaving Egypt in Dueteronomy its after 40 years and right before entering the promised land.

Exodus 19:16; then after hearing the trumpet they hear the voice of YHWH speaking the ten words. He makes a loud sound understood as a condensed uttering of everything that he will say. A condensation of all the commandments comming at once in an unbearable roar. Exodus 20:19; the presence was so overwhelming that they could not handle it - so they have Moses stand between him and the fearful Israelites (as per Deut). Aaron then makes the golden calf. Exo 32:19 - Moses smashes tablets from YHWH. Exo 25:10 exacting standards of ark. How much is on the tablets. There are 613 laws in Judaism and the 10 commandments are not necessarily the most important ones. The 10 were the ones all the Jews heard before they broke.

There are those who claim that the 5th Amendment was framed after Judaism's law against self incrimination.

Pearl Harbor[edit]

HSS Repulse & Prince of Wales (P.o.W. better armed and armored, more modern than US ships) attacked by Japanese on 10 December, 1941 with 96 bomber and torpedo planes, sunk at open sea within two hours. Had US been out at open sea all ships likely totaled with no possibility of sailors swimming to safety. Owaho’s North Shore Radar PVT. Joe Lockard and Elliot reports to Kermit Tyler at Information Center said they’re Am. B-17s (because of radio station being on after midnight to guide), even if had id right there was no communication lines to airport, even if there had been only 1 hour to attack not enough time. No one trained to take out superior Zeroes (Claire Chennault of Flying Tiger warning is ignored). Japanese have 183 planes (43 zeroes) vs. 84 American [p40s](parked wingtip to wingtip with little preparedness). Phil Rasmussen in p-36 only one to down a zero, shot over 500 times and nearly crashed (gets silver star) thinks hours warning would’ve done nothing. The Ward sinks a mini-sub, order does not go up chain until air attack full on, another mini-sub in the harbor missed with its 2 attacks rammed by the Monaghan, fifth still unfound mini-sub may have gotten into the harbor and help sink the W. Virginia. Six USS Enterprise planes shot at by all guns at Ford Island, 5 shot down, 4 pilots killed – Pilot Jim Daniels and another survives. Don’t know where carriers are, so no third attack leaves fuel depots, dock yards – if destroyed would’ve had to go to San. Fran. Hawaii defenseless – US out for a year Second attack on Pearl Harbor, 3 months later March 1942 Emily Flying Boats- Heavy Cloud cover 1 bombs mountain another the sea. America determines that they had refueled at French Frigate Shoals and isolated the islands eliminating use of base. Crucial to victory at Midway. <Unsolved History - Myths of Pearl Harbor>

Notes on possible WW2 invasion of Japan[edit]

US battle fatigue and desertion up at Okinawa – raw Japanese troop pushed into the front lines George Peto – US Marines Corps, Okinawa “The morale was real bad. I would hate to have ever been involved in the landing on the mainland of Japan. I doubt if we could have pulled it off. I’m speaking from experience. We didn’t have the personnel.” Americans already killing wounded Japanese or disarmed instead of taking prisoners , macabre trophies or gold teeth <Hell in the Pacific - TLC >

If We Had No Moon[edit]

If we had no moon produced and directed by Martyn Ives, York Films England, for the Discovery Channel, 1999. Greenland - 1999 Minik Rosing Geologist finds rock from the ocean floor of 3.8 Billion years ago. Contains carbon and evidence of complex plancton.

National Academy of Science Norman Sleep. Pre-Moon impact. 3 kilometers of water covers Earth Version 1 with no breathable Oxygen. There could've been aquatic life on Earth v.1 or possibly on proto-moon impactor.

With impact large amounts of iron reacts with water makes hydrogen and reducing atmosphere with lightning.

Dr. Jacques Laskar - prescence of the moon prevents wild wobbling of the earth that would make massive random climate shifts like Mars from zero to 90 degrees.

German reasearcher Lynn Rothschild - a less than 1 degree wobble of the earth caused the lush Saharra to go dry, and is possibly one of the reasons humans developed civilization by the Nile.

There would be 20 - 50 degree tempreture changes without the moon.

Wild West's Most Wanted[edit]

“Wild West's Most Wanted” Ex. Prod. Justin Alberi, Director Kathleen Phelan, West Beach Entertainment, LLC for Discovery Channel – 10th Jesse James, Billy the Kid, Butch Cassidy, Tiburcio Vasquez, Sam Bass, Bill Doolin, Cherokee Bill, John Wesley Hardin, Rufus Buck, 1st Killin' Jim Miller


Jesus the Jew The Galilean Jewishness of Jesus Jesus and the World of Judaism The Religion of Jesus the Jew Jesus in His Jewish Context The Jewish Reclamation of Jesus A Marginal Jew Jesus the Pharisee (2003) by Hyam Maccoby Paul and the Jewish Law: Halakha in the Letters of the Apostle to the Gentiles By Peter J. Tomson



Estonia struggles with Russians in its history[edit]

See also Austrian Bishop Alois Hudal working with the Nazis


Himler and occult[edit]

German naval command thinks UK using occult to find occult, Heinrich Himmler starts institute to use pendulem dosing over maps off north atlantic to try and find allied convoys and Wilhelm Wulff in 1943 who predicted Hitler would survive a great danger fall ill and die a mysterious death before 1945. Wulff's astrology suggested Himmler might succeed in a military coup over Hitler. Himler met with world Jewish congress and agreed that extermination would not be needed anymore. Himler's fear prevented him for going ahead.

new lucus stuff[edit],23663,21821062-7485,00.html

RC in HI[edit]

1829 RC prohibited in HI 1831 RC priests ejected from HI


I appreciate your intent to be respectful to others, but I truly believe that trying to assert that there is any such thing as a Native Hawaiian religion is to misunderstand the history of the Hawaiian islands and religion in the Hawaiian islands.

There are no practitioners of the ancient Hawaiian religions - the kapu was broken by Queen Kaahumanu and King Kamehameha III in 1820. Although there are those who engage in cultural practices which honor the mythology of ancient Hawaii, none of them perform human sacrifice, or submit people to the death penalty for eating the wrong foods, or being in contact with menstruating women.

I wonder if by your estimation, any mythology could be called such. Every possible belief, from Hellenistic gods, to those who read the Iliad as gospel could be properly called a "religion" by your definition.

Suffice it to say that as of 1820 or shortly thereafter, the "native hawaiian religion" was Christianity, embraced by the ali'i of Hawaii, and practiced devoutly by the native Hawaiians to this day. Although there are those who still engage in cultural practices which honor the mythology of the past, and may have deep spiritual beliefs about those practices (including myself), there is no reason to label it as a "religion" to be politically correct.

I believe in Pele, and Lono, and Ku, and my amakua, but it does not make it a religion. It is spiritual, and strongly connected to my homeland, and being called rightfully "mythology" does not lessen it.

Mahalo for your concern though! --JereKrischel 06:09, 3 June 2007 (UTC)

Thank you for your comments on my page, I'd like to clarify some points though.
You stated, It seems like your saying something akin to “I think Bigfoot is a hoax but I worship him anyway.” This is the essential nature of belief and spirituality. We all know that people cannot walk on water, or rise from the dead, but many people still choose to believe in such things. Acknowledging that the myths and legends of ancient Hawaii are not scientifically factual does not make them any less spiritually important, regardless of what others may think.
You said, I really don’t think you are saying you get some spiritual satisfaction from something you are convinced is a lie. Actually, I believe that that is the entire point of spiritual satisfaction - it is the suspension of disbelief. For example, to assert that in order to have spiritual satisfaction in a belief in the christian god one must believe that everything science has taught us about biology, geology, astronomy and physics must be false is placing an undue and improper burden upon the soul of the believer. It is not only possible to get spiritual satisfaction out of something you rationally acknowledge as a lie, but very common. Superstition is often practiced by people who know very well that it has no basis in truth, but they garner spiritual satisfaction by knocking on wood "just in case" anyway.
As to your sources that indicate that the ancient hawaiian religion went underground, I'm afraid the continuity they claim is apocryphal - much as Constantine destroyed the pagans, the Hawaiian Monarchy (including previous kahuna), destroyed the heiaus, and killed those who would resisted the fall of the kapu. Christian missionaries who arrived in Hawaii did so after the main battles between Kaahumanu and Kamehameha and the kahuna and traditionalist ali'i, so they were not responsible for any "murder" as you so put it, but the Hawaiian Monarchy did eliminate the ancient religion both through violence, and the sponsorship of christianity after the missionaries who arrived in 1820 proved their loyalty and commitment to the monarchy. The current neo-hawaiian paganism practiced by modern "kahuna" and acknowledged by much of the hawaiian community regarldess of racial background, is as different than the ancient hawaiian religion as Hellenistic religion is from neopagans.
A more apt analogy would be the evolution of native religious practices in contact with catholicism, where previous beliefs were redirected towards saints, and christian stand-ins were made to replace ancient gods. See Inca mythology as an example.
It may be justified to have two pages, one Hawaiian mythology and the other Ancient Hawaiian religion, but there clearly is no "Native Hawaiian Religion" in the sense you speak of.
Anyway, I think at the very least, making reference to a "native Hawaiian religion" as analogous to the "Religion of Ancient Hawaii" is bordering on racism. "Native Hawaiian religion" is varied, and includes nearly every religion you can imagine (that is to say, there are native hawaiian practitioners of every major religion known to man). "Ancient hawaiian religion", attached to the practitioners of the past seems possibly appropriate for a page, and "neo-polytheistic hawaiian religion" may be appropriate to attach to practitioners of the present, but I think that "Hawaiian mythology" is still an appropriate page at this time. Perhaps an examination of Inca mythology would be helpful to guide us further.
Mahalo! --JereKrischel 21:56, 3 June 2007 (UTC)
Here's an interesting quote from a scholar of Hawaiian history and religion:

Today's Hawaiian "traditional practitioners" somehow think they can pick and choose which elements of the old religion to implement, and which to ignore. In an effort to make themselves seem more "indigenous" or different from people with no Hawaiian ancestry, they might wear special clothing, chant certain prayers, or perform certain rituals. But the old religion was pervasive throughout all aspects of life, and it was a seamless whole. Selecting certain elements of the old religion for a public ceremony or a private ritual might make someone feel closer to his cultural heritage, but is ineffective and even sacrilegious from the perspective of precontact culture. For example, a modern political activist might lead his followers in an awa ceremony that somewhat resembles the ancient ceremony but is truly bogus. Instead of having young people with strong teeth chew the awa root until it is soft and well-drenched with saliva before mixing it with water, today's "priests" use a powdered form of grated awa root, wrapped in a plastic baggie and purchased in a store. The drink might be passed first to the highest ranking guests, as in olden times; but today's guests might include both men and women. The drinking of awa might be accompanied by passing around a bowl filled with pieces of banana, sweet potato, taro, and coconut; but in the old days it was punishable by death for a woman to eat with a man, or for a woman to eat banana or coconut at all. The master of ceremonies might make a speech saying that the drinking of awa and eating of taro bind the people together with each other and with the gods (clearly influenced by the Catholic concept of Holy Communion, eating bread and drinking wine as taking in the body and blood of Christ). Hawaiian traditional practitioners who select religious observances they enjoy while neglecting others they dislike are as ineffective and sacrilegious as Jews or Christians who reduce the Ten Commandments to six or seven. [1]

I thought you might appreciate another perspective on the continuity of the ancient hawaiian religion. Any references you may have that do more than just claim continuity in general, for example a reference which clearly indicates what person passed down the religion underground to what person (names and birthdates for example, of practitioners that went underground in 1819, and those they passed down their religion to), would seem to be sufficient proof to establish the continuity, but without it we only have hearsay. --JereKrischel 22:04, 3 June 2007 (UTC)
Mahalo for your comments regarding the 613 commandments of judaism - although offtopic, they were informative.
I am concerned that you would confuse traditional hula with ancient hawaiian religion - certainly dancing around a maypole does not make one pagan, despite the ancient roots of the dance. Although there was great upheaval during the Hawaiian Kingdom period with regard to hula, and its common acceptance (Bernice Pauahi Bishop, for example, who started Kamehameha Schools was a member of the royal family very opposed to hula), this was not directly analogous to the destruction of the heiau, kapu, and the ancient hawaiian religion.
It seems like we haven't properly explained the history of religion in Hawaii, from ancient times to modern times, to give you the context you need to understand why "hawaiian mythology" is not insulting to modern practitioners and believers in some of the ancient gods and goddesses of Hawaii.
One of the things you keep asking about is what traditional practitioners call their religion. One term commonly used is "ho'omana", which loosely translates to "religion", but more specifically is used as "hawaiian traditional spirituality" [2] by at least one group founded in 1993 claiming to be traditional practitioners. Specifically, the kumu (teacher) is described as:

Kumu was asked to teach old Hawaiian Spirituality in 1972, but did not accept the kuleana until 1992. He is only the second male to teach HO'OMANA in his family's style in over 200 years. He teaches deep Hawaiian culture in a contemporary manner. His students are Hawaiians and non-Hawaiians who may have been born, lived or have an affinity with Hawai'i. They all have a sacred and spiritual relationship with the 'aina and mana of Hawai'i.[3]

This, of course, is just one man, from one family, teaching a philosophy steeped in the ancient hawaiian religion, but far removed from it as Catholicism is from Zoarasterism.
It may be more appropriate to create an article Hawaiian spirituality, but this is distinctly different than Hawaiian mythology, and does not depend on a belief in a god like Lono or a goddess like Pele. And there is certainly no authoritative source for a "ho'omana" that could be considered definitive.
I hope that even if I haven't been able to answer your questions to your satisfaction, I've been able to explain better to you why an article on "native Hawaiian religion" is inappropriate. If you have more specific questions, please feel free to ask! Mahalo! --JereKrischel 18:06, 5 June 2007 (UTC)

al Qaeda[edit]

This discussion is quite interesting, although I have only been following it loosely. JK makes some interesting points. However, I think it's spurious in the extreme for him to argue that religions are valid only to the extent they have direct continuity and conformity with how they were practiced in the past. This is the reasoning of al Qaeda -- that the only true Islam is that which was practiced in the 8th Century or whatever it was. And to use Conklin as a referenced "scholar" on Hawaiian culture or religion is umm...dubious at best. Even though I would agree with JK that native Hawaiians romanticize and cherry pick those bits of the old religion and customs they like and conveniently ignore those they don't, so what? All religions and customs are continually re-invented. I think Wowaconia is on the right track here. Arjuna 11:22, 4 June 2007 (UTC)

Please do not invoke al-Qaeda. It invites unnecessary passions. I believe that though I and User:JereKrischel have different positions that we have both acted with proper etiquette. The position of al-Qaeda is that they are practicing true Islam and death to anyone else. This is not analogous to any argument being made in this discussion.--Wowaconia 13:04, 4 June 2007 (UTC)

It's unfortunate that you feel that way, but I fully stand by my comments. Your (mis)understanding of what constitutes "true Islam" is, in my view, similarly unfortunate, but such of course is your right. Good luck with your discussion. Arjuna 18:40, 4 June 2007 (UTC)

I am not saying that al-Qaeda is "true Islam", that is a question for Muslims (and it would seem that the majority of them deny al- Qaeda is practicing "true Islam"). I am saying the members of al-Qaeda believe that they have the correct interpretation of Islam and everyone else who differs with them is worthy of death.Wowaconia 18:59, 4 June 2007 (UTC)

Hawaiian religion[edit]

Please use Hawaiian religion to expand the topic, with careful citations. —Viriditas | Talk 05:44, 4 June 2007 (UTC)

The term Hawaiian religion seems to invoke an Encylopedia article listing all the religions practiced currently in Hawaii. I think a better term should be sought, though the US Govt. refers to the faith as Native Hawaiian Religion I have concerns about that name as well, as it seems to assert that every Native Hawaiian is a practitioner which is not the case. The best term would be whatever its practioners call it, even if this word or phrase is not in English.

--Wowaconia 11:15, 4 June 2007 (UTC)
Aloha wowaconia, in reference to my other comments on this page, perhaps an article Ho'omana (religion) or Ho'omana (spirituality) (my preference) would be appropriate, although it would not necessarily contain much of the hawaiian mythology (for example, often the doctrine they preach does not insist on acknowledging specific gods and goddesses as it does in using them as hypothetical models for behavior and respect). The site is probably a good start for an article like that, and if we contacted them directly they may be willing to share more documentation they have created.
Would this be helpful in allaying your concerns about the Hawaiian mythology page? --JereKrischel 18:31, 5 June 2007 (UTC)
Here's another useful link, although fairly sparse in detail: --JereKrischel 18:37, 5 June 2007 (UTC)
One last caveat on "ho'omana" - since it is a literal term for "religion", it is also used in translation of names for christian churches, so some of the references will not be in regard to anything ancient. For example, [4], is a musical group that uses the term with a decidedly christian bent. --JereKrischel 18:44, 5 June 2007 (UTC)
Okay, really the last thing - here's an example of a group using the word "Huna" instead of "Ho'omana", [5]. They claim to have roots in the "Kupua" tradition (a Kahili family tradition according to the page). Not sure if it warrants another article, or just mention in a "Ho'omana" article. --JereKrischel 18:53, 5 June 2007 (UTC)

sergei krikalev[edit]


Lansing Bernstorf note

La Follette[edit]

Mars plane[edit]

Turkey v. Iraq[edit]



Req for new soldiers[edit]

For male recruits at the age extreme of 17 years old, the minimum physical requirements are 47 sit-ups, 35 push-ups and 16 minutes and 36 seconds for a 3.2-km run, while for male recruits at 41 years old, the requirements are 29 sit-ups, 24 push-ups, and 19 minutes and 30 seconds for a 3.2-km run.

Iraq and the DMZ[edit]

American commanders have said there will be positive results by September but that any return to normalcy requires years. President Bush has even spoken of the U.S. mission in Iraq in terms of the 50-plus-year American troop presence in South Korea.

Fred J. Damerau[edit] Fred J. Damerau has proposed a method for assuming that typing errors result from only four cases; (1) insertion of one character, (2) deletion of one character, (3) substitution of one character with a different one and (4) transposition of two adjacent characters, and measuring a similarity between two given words on the basis of the minimum number of typing errors between the two words (see: Damerau, F., "A technique for computer detection and correction of spelling errors", Communications of the ACM, 7, pp. 171-176, 1964). This metric is typically called a Damerau-Levenshtein metric or an edit distance measure. The minimum number of typing errors between two words s and t can be calculated on the basis of the following recurrent equation (see: Wagner, R. A., "Order-n correction for regular languages", Communications of the ACM, vol. 17, No. 5, pp. 265-268, 1974):

   f(0, 0) =0
   f(i, j) =min{
       f(i-1, j) + 1,                     /*Insertion*/
       f(i, j-1) + 1,                     /*Deletion*/
       f(i-1, j-1) +d(si, tj) , /*Substitution*/
       f(i-2, j-2) +d(si-1, tj) +d(Si, tj-1) +1}

Here, the function d is a distance between two characters and can simply be expressed by the following equation: ##EQU1##

It should be noted that the distance function d may be expressed by a more complex equation according to a desired purpose. As a specific illustration, we consider the enhancement of the program to include tests for two extra characters, two missing characters and two characters transposed around a third (e.g., 'narutal' for 'natural'). These have been identified by Peterson [32] as the next most common typing errors after Damerau-type errors.

Hein v. Freedom From Religion Foundation[edit]

Rocky Delgadillo[edit]

International Guerillas[edit]

Thanks for restoring the info on the above film to the Salman Rushdie page. My previous piece on the film in the article seemed to spark great outrage from another editor there, who with cries of 'non-notable' and 'nonsense' edit warred me into the dust about the inclusion of info on the film, and systematically whittled down what I wrote into a stub. I think he confused the nonsensical nature of the plot of the film (granted...) with the sense or nonsense of including information about it in the wikipedia...Colin4C 10:19, 29 June 2007 (UTC)

Iran president link[edit]

Rangila Rasul[edit]

In 1924 in Lahore, a Hindu published a book called Rangila Rasul (‘The Pleasure-Loving Prophet’), ridiculing Muhammad. Two Muslims killed the author in retaliation, and were executed by the British, but were considered martyrs by their co-religionists. Why Muslims feel angry about the Rushdie knighthood Sunday, 1st July 2007. 8:31am

By: Anthony McRoy



The Great Iron Catastrophe[edit]


Link to Bolivia Forum[edit]

From the homepage of the website: "Most of the BIF's founding members have expertise in and direct experience of Bolivia or Latin America in general. All members participate in a personal capacity.

The BIF currently produces a regular bulletin which is written by experts in Bolivia and in the UK and also includes frequent guest contributions from practitioners and reporters on development and human rights issues."

The information on this page is useful and relevant - I think it merits inclusion. Pexise 11:45, 20 July 2007 (UTC)


Mars Rover[edit]

Capital of Bolivia move[edit]

Louis C.K.[edit]

Bombing means: You lost them, they're gone, and you just roast in hell until your time is up. You want to get offstage. But you also don't want to get offstage till you can solve it. Millions of things race through your head, but it's mostly visceral. It's mostly in your gut: Your stomach gets a shi**y feeling, your throat constricts, you can't breathe in a natural rhythm, you're too aware of how you're breathing. It's like being high, but bad. You feel your pulse in your head.

If you've lost the audience, the silence becomes horrible and your instinct is to keep talking fast. If you can respond by keeping your head cool — like you've got to actually will the sweat back into your forehead; I've actually been able to do that — and talking at the same pace, and letting there be quiet, and letting them know you're okay, you can actually pull out of the nosedive.

Evolution and Male facial structure[edit]

abalone shell[edit]

neuron growth[edit]


If you are sleeping on a bed that is too firm, your body, not the bed, does the work. Your shoulders and hips are unable to sink in, instead bending toward one another, resulting in a curved, stressed spine. In a soft bed your body sinks into a hammock position, causing your shoulders and hips to pinch in and your spine to curve. Sleeping with a curved spine can not only create severe pressure on the joints but also, stress concentrated intensely in the area where the lower vertebrae of the spine connects to the pelvis. This can ultimately aggravate and even lead to lower back pain. Furthermore, your muscles will remain tight all night trying to protect your spine, never having the chance to fully relax. Sleeping in a bed that does not contour and support you evenly can create pressure points that result in poor circulation. Starving your body of the appropriate blood and oxygen flow can create numbness, tingling and can rob your muscles of the ability to battle fatigue and soreness. Your body will spend the night constantly adjusting, trying to get comfortable and never achieving full relaxation.

article link[edit]


Up from the depths, Thirty stories high, Breathing fire, his head in the sky. Godzilla! Godzilla! And Godzuki

Steroids in WWE[edit]

Congressional delegation shot at in Iraq[edit]




Benedict XVI[edit]



Argentina Dirty War[edit]

convicted of war crimes Argentine Police Chaplin RC Fr. Christian Federico Von Wernich

Armenian Chaplain at vote[edit],,-6986895,00.html

Versus Farm Subsides[edit]


mpr 10-10-07 —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 22:06, 10 October 2007 (UTC)

Expulsion of Mexican Americans from California[edit]

Mexican Repatriation


Blackwater vs US Army[edit]

Peta vs Spears[edit],2933,299656,00.html

Google doodle criticized[edit]

Myspace suicide[edit]

Craigslist horror stories[edit],2933,305758,00.html

Salman Rushdie[edit]

I have restored the section you wrote on 'International Guerillas' at Salman Rushdie after another editor deleted it. Colin4C (talk) 20:39, 29 December 2007 (UTC)



Michele Bachmann[edit]

Oops. I should have discussed with you, rather than reverting your revert on Michele Bachmann. Apologies for that.

My concerns were spelled out in more detail in the three original edits, and while they're not all equally NPOV-related, NPOV is the main thread that ties them together. In reading through that article, there are some problems that I think warrant addressing:

  • the article is awfully long (granted, you're a strong inclusionist, wiki isn't paper, etc.). I'm normally arguing on the inclusionist side myself, so I sympathize with that attitude. I don't see the length as a big problem in this case, but when combined with some flirtation with pro-Bachmann POV, I think it gets problematic.
  • there are parts of the article (like the discussion of the history of Oral Roberts University's Coburn School of Law) that seem to be straining to excuse or explain aspects of Bachmann's background that a critic might find fault with. Is it normal that in a biographical article about a politician who graduated from law school that we should be treated to an extended quotation from the law school's founder in which its Biblical inspiration is described in fairly flowery religious-tinged prose? If anything, I'd say that material belongs in the article on the school itself, with the Bachmann article contenting itself with linking to that other page.
  • The sentence about her failure to campaign aggressively for the school board position, and (especially) the description of that failure as "uncharacteristic", seems to stray into pro-Bachmann POV. It sounds like the article is making excuses on her behalf. It also sounds like original research. I suppose inclusion of that information could be justified, but I think I'd prefer that it be presented more neutrally, and sourced.
  • I believe the statement by Pat Buchanan taking Obama to task for "opening his campaign for the Illinois State Legislature in Ayers home" is factually false. Ayers hosted a coffee in his home during Obama's campaign. That coffee did not represent the "opening of his campaign." Although it has frequently been portrayed that way in anti-Obama advertising, that characterization has been disputed by major media outlets and independent analysts. While it could be argued that the sentence attributes the statement to Buchanan, rather than presenting it as objective fact, I think the current wording is problematic in that regard. That is, I think it at least implies that the assertion is true, which seems problematic to me in light of WP:BIO. In addition to the apparent POV, it also seems tangential, at best, to Bachmann's biography. In fact, that whole paragraph with the back and forth reactions by Vanden Heuvel and Buchanan seems questionable. Again, I'm not saying it couldn't be included. But it's kind of a POV minefield, and the way it's currently presented strays pretty far from what I'd consider appropriate for a good, neutral biographical article.

I'm interested in what you think about all this. If you still want the information to be restored, would you be willing to consider some changes to address the issues I raise above?

Again, my apologies for the re-reversion. If you want to revert back to your version while we discuss things, that's fine with me.


-- John Callender (talk) 07:28, 29 October 2008 (UTC)

File:O'Grimacey Cup.JPG missing description details[edit]

Dear uploader: The media file you uploaded as File:O'Grimacey Cup.JPG is missing a description and/or other details on its image description page. If possible, please add this information. This will help other editors to make better use of the image, and it will be more informative for readers. If you have any questions please see Help:Image page. Thank you. Sfan00 IMG (talk) 21:40, 2 June 2009 (UTC)

Shadow Wolves/ICE[edit]

On the Shadow Wolves page, Julie Myers is still listed as the Assistant Secretary. The current Assistant Secretary is John T. Morton, as per the ICE entry. If you could make this correction, it would be greatly appreciated.

Also, if this is an appropriate way to request a fix, I apologize; I am new to this. I know its inappropriate to make a change to a page in which I have a COI.

--geddy76 19:48, 27 July 2009 (UTC)

Disclaimer: My name is Michael Johnson and I work for U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), Office of Public Affairs. I'm here to contribute information that will improve the quality of pages related to ICE.

I am aware of Wikipedia's policies and guidelines and I will abide by them.

My edits will be restricted to talk pages, and I will not engage in editing directly any page related to ICE. Instead, I would volunteer information on the talk pages, and ask for Wikipedians' help.

If you want to contact me, please leave a message on my talk page. —Preceding unsigned comment added by Geddy76 (talkcontribs) 19:47, 27 July 2009 (UTC)

GA Reassessment of Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia[edit]

I have conducted a reassessment of the above article as part of the GA Sweeps process. I have found some concerns with the referencing which you can see at Talk:Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia/GA1. I have placed the article on hold whilst these are fixed. Thanks. Jezhotwells (talk) 15:17, 6 August 2009 (UTC)

You are now a Reviewer[edit]

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Hello. Your account has been granted the "reviewer" userright, allowing you to review other users' edits on certain flagged pages. Pending changes, also known as flagged protection, is currently undergoing a two-month trial scheduled to end 15 August 2010.

Reviewers can review edits made by users who are not autoconfirmed to articles placed under pending changes. Pending changes is applied to only a small number of articles, similarly to how semi-protection is applied but in a more controlled way for the trial. The list of articles with pending changes awaiting review is located at Special:OldReviewedPages.

When reviewing, edits should be accepted if they are not obvious vandalism or BLP violations, and not clearly problematic in light of the reason given for protection (see Wikipedia:Reviewing process). More detailed documentation and guidelines can be found here.

If you do not want this userright, you may ask any administrator to remove it for you at any time. Courcelles (talk) 18:57, 17 June 2010 (UTC)

Thank You![edit]

Thank you for expanding the "Blurred Vision" section of the article for "Another Brick in the Wall." Considering the fact that I only first heard about the song while watching a short segment on Fox News and because I am not a big fan of Pink Floyd or Blurred Vision, I greatly appreciate the additional information & research that you put into the article about the song. —Preceding unsigned comment added by Kaiser Taylor (talkcontribs) 05:27, 20 September 2010 (UTC)

Re: POV in Criticism of How should we then live[edit]

Hi, I am sorry to have had to stick a neutrality notice on the Criticism section. I appreciate that you have worked to improve it. It is not an easy subject to write on, and I think it could probably still be improved. I think it would really be better to work on a Critical Reception Section, with positive, negative and mixed responses. That seems to be more in keeping with how other articles are structured. If you have refs to any specific reviews or articles from catholic scholars those would be useful. The reception the series received from within protestant and evangelical circles appears to have been mainly positive. I think probably one mixed and one negative response in addition might balance it. (talk) 22:57, 4 February 2011 (UTC)

Richard Mocket[edit]

Disciplina et Politia Ecclesia Anglicanae

Indonesia gaga controversy[edit] — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 04:51, 30 May 2012 (UTC)

see also section - — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 04:49, 30 May 2012 (UTC)

Phil[edit] — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 19:49, 4 June 2012 (UTC)

Secession crisis of 1850–1851[edit]

US Speaker election links[edit]

Nomination of Controversy of the Born This Way Ball for deletion[edit]

A discussion is taking place as to whether the article Controversy of the Born This Way Ball is suitable for inclusion in Wikipedia according to Wikipedia's policies and guidelines or whether it should be deleted.

The article will be discussed at Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Controversy of the Born This Way Ball until a consensus is reached, and anyone is welcome to contribute to the discussion. The nomination will explain the policies and guidelines which are of concern. The discussion focuses on high-quality evidence and our policies and guidelines.

Users may edit the article during the discussion, including to improve the article to address concerns raised in the discussion. However, do not remove the article-for-deletion template from the top of the article.--Aspects (talk) 03:48, 2 July 2012 (UTC)

Rajan Zed prayer protest[edit]

I've started a discussion at Talk:Rajan Zed prayer protest#Notability, considering that article in relation to WP:EFFECT and WP:PERSISTENCE. Your input is very welcome. – Arms & Hearts (talk) 19:34, 8 July 2012 (UTC)

The article Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah[edit]

Which "Western literature" are you talking about? Even if he is referred as being mad in western books, don't they mention his name alongside? Besides, he's not known as "the mad caliph", he might be said to have been mad by his dissident rivals and subsiquent patron historians. Our aim is to be accurate while being neutral.

Encyclopedia Britannica's page concerning "Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah" is not accurate and is highly misleading. Please don't use that as a source.

How do you know of al_hakim being "extremely well known by this name"? Britanica? That book about crusades? Both are thoroughly unreliable.

My edit is not vandalism, it is a correction. — Preceding unsigned comment added by DistributorScientiae (talkcontribs) 03:00, 27 August 2012 (UTC)


Uffizi Florence Wrestlers 1.png Thanks for helping to make MMA articles on wikipedia better! In September 168 people made a total of 956 edits to MMA articles. I noticed you haven't listed yourself on the WikiProject Mixed martial arts Participants page. Take a look, sign up, and don't forget to say hi on the talk page.

Kevlar (talk) 05:29, 1 October 2012 (UTC)

Formatting question[edit]

I noticed that you seem to have a lot of edits on the Keith Ellison article. As such, I'm directing this question to you, “out of the blue” so-to-speak. If you look at this section: Keith_Ellison#Committee_assignments, you will notice that some of the “Thomas” links appear as “H.Res. 7” (H.Res. 7), where as those I've entered are just a generic “LINK”.

Can you provide me with a link to a page that explains how the template-shortcut-robot-or-form works that is behind the “H.Res. 7” formatting?
Thanks, LP-mn (talk) 15:30, 9 January 2013 (UTC)

Never mind, I found it at: (or Template:USBill).
LP-mn (talk) 16:01, 9 January 2013 (UTC)

GA Thanks[edit]

Symbol support vote.svg This user helped promote the article Rahm Emanuel to good article status.

On behalf of WP:CHICAGO, I would like to thank you for your editorial contributions to Rahm Emanuel, which has recently become a GA. --TonyTheTiger (T/C/BIO/WP:CHICAGO/WP:FOUR) 01:18, 22 January 2013 (UTC)

Evo Morales edits[edit]

Hey there; sorry if I gave you the wrong impression with my recent edits; I was actually the one responsible for including all that information to start with, several years back. Since then I've left the page alone for a while, but recently popped back, realising that if this page is to ever reach FA status, there has to be some editing down. Generally, I've kept the original sources, just cut down the length of text Midnightblueowl (talk) 23:06, 24 January 2013 (UTC)

alfrink info[edit]

"Cardinal Alfrink is one of the most outspoken members of the dynamic traditionalists, those prelates who want to see far-reaching changes inside the church. He and other Dutch prelates suffered a setback in Rome when an open letter to their congregations on the council, which was translated and distributed all over the world, was banned here."

title=Cardinal Ottaviani Boycotting Council|author=Herald Tribune News Service|publisher=St Petersburg Times|date=November 12, 1962|url=,1214486&dq=ottaviani&hl=en

sandbox development….[edit]

I wondered if you'd scan User:Smkolins/Sandbox to see if there are any glaring issues. I happened on the topic and was surprised there wasn't an article already. As it is likely to be touchy I wanted to get some wider views on it at an early stage. I got your name from seeing your work on ACLU of N.C. & Syidah Matteen v. State of North Carolina. --Smkolins (talk) 00:13, 3 July 2013 (UTC)

-) --Smkolins (talk) 01:46, 4 July 2013 (UTC)

Derivation of name "Guadalupe"[edit]

Hi. I just reverted your edit to the "Historicity" section of Juan Diego. Your edit has no relevance to the historicity debate and no connection to any part of the article, so far as I can see. There is some kind of a discussion of the origin of the name under Our Lady of Guadalupe at the first section and you might like to see if your point is adequately addressed there. Thanks. Ridiculus mus (talk) 21:17, 3 January 2014 (UTC)

Hello again. Perhaps you did not read my comment here before reverting my edit. If you did read it, it would have been a courtesy for you to have discussed this issue with me before simply reintroducing material which, despite your modifications, still has nothing to do with the historicity debate, being mere philological speculation.
Although it is true that various commentators have, from time to time, attempted to reconstruct a Nahuatl name that might conceivably have been transposed by Spanish speakers into "Guadalupe", these are all beside the point for, according to the Nican mopohua (a section of the Nahuatl text Huei tlamahuiçoltica, as you surely know), the Virgin told Juan Bernardino (not, I might emphasise, Juan Diego) that she was specifically to be venerated under the Spanish - repeat Spanish - title "Santa María de Guadalupe". So the lack of "g" and "d" in Nahuatl is neither here nor there. By the same token, the Huei tlamahuiçoltica invariably refers to the seer as "Juan Diego", and no mention is made of his Nahuatl name in that work. Do you conceive that this, too, has some bearing on historicity? If so, what?
These speculations no doubt have some interest for those inquiring about Our Lady of Guadalupe (where, indeed the topic is ventilated, as I mentioned above), but they have no relevance to the Juan Diego historicity debate as I hope I have now demonstrated. I shall await your further comments before reverting your new revised edit.
Your edit is, in any event, vulnerable to summary deletion on the ground of lack of source references, which I have now flagged. I observe that the article to which you link gives no hint that the philological issue has any relevance to the historicity debate. Thanks, Ridiculus mus (talk) 10:23, 4 January 2014 (UTC)
It's not useful to split a discussion between three places. Since I began it here, I return here only to note that Elizium23 has made the very objections I would have raised, and I await still further refinement by you. I repeat my invitation that you look at the more measured treatment of the topic under Our Lady of Guadalupe. Thanks Ridiculus mus (talk) 00:20, 5 January 2014 (UTC)
Hello. The entire section is premissed on Juan Diego's use of the name Guadalupe. Although I have entered a citation request, I am satisfied one cannot be given, since (as I have explained at Talk:Juan Diego) the entire theory is bogus - nowhere in the standard apparitions account is Juan Diego said to have used the name Guadalupe. After this has sunk in (and allowing you time to try to provide the needed citation), I shall take steps to delete the section. Thanks. Ridiculus mus (talk) 15:55, 9 January 2014 (UTC)
Thanks for taking the step yourself. I regret that it took me a week to focus on the root problem! Ridiculus mus (talk) 12:08, 12 January 2014 (UTC)

Global account[edit]

Hi Wowaconia! As a Steward I'm involved in the upcoming unification of all accounts organized by the Wikimedia Foundation (see m:Single User Login finalisation announcement). By looking at your account, I realized that you don't have a global account yet. In order to secure your name, I recommend you to create such account on your own by submitting your password on Special:MergeAccount and unifying your local accounts. If you have any problems with doing that or further questions, please don't hesitate to contact me on my talk page. Cheers, —DerHexer (Talk) 23:56, 18 January 2015 (UTC)

Gog and Magog[edit]

I've left a comment for you on the article Talk page.PiCo (talk) 07:35, 29 April 2015 (UTC)


Is not a formal "pronouncement" by any established church - Twain and his biographers all use the term. [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], or just simply read The Mysterious Stranger. Collect (talk) 20:54, 10 November 2015 (UTC)

ArbCom elections are now open![edit]

You appear to be eligible to vote in the current Arbitration Committee election. The Arbitration Committee is the panel of editors responsible for conducting the Wikipedia arbitration process. It has the authority to enact binding solutions for disputes between editors, primarily related to serious behavioural issues that the community has been unable to resolve. This includes the ability to impose site bans, topic bans, editing restrictions, and other measures needed to maintain our editing environment. The arbitration policy describes the Committee's roles and responsibilities in greater detail. If you wish to participate, you are welcome to review the candidates' statements and submit your choices on the voting page. For the Election committee, MediaWiki message delivery (talk) 16:20, 23 November 2015 (UTC)