Vision disorder

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Vision disorder
Vision disorders (age-related) world map - DALY - WHO2002.svg
Disability-adjusted life year for vision disorders (age-related) per 100,000 inhabitants in 2002.[1]
  no data
  less than 100
  100–200
  200–300
  300–400
  400–450
  450–500
  500–600
  600–700
  700–750
  750–800
  800–850
  more than 850
SpecialtyOphthalmology

A vision disorder is an impairment of the sense of vision.

Vision disorder is not the same as an eye disease. Although many vision disorders do have their immediate cause in the eye, there are many other causes that may occur at other locations in the optic pathway.

Causes[edit]

There are many eye conditions that can lead to vision disorder. Some of which are as follows:

  • Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD): ARMD is a retinal degeneration disease specifically associated with macula blood vessels, which can result in central vision impairment. It is strongly linked to advancing age, as well as European ancestry.[2]
  • Bulging eyes: where the eye (one or both) protrudes or distends out of its orbit. Left untreated, bulging eyes may lead to eye dryness, pain and vision loss [3]
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Retinitis: This is an inflammation of the retina caused by infection, which can result in blindness. It occurs in people experiencing suppressed immune systems, most commonly by Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).[4]
  • Diabetic Macular Edema (DME): is an eye disease specifically related to diabetes, occurring due to fluid build-up in the retina as a result of sustained high blood glucose levels. It can result in blurred vision and vision loss.[5]
  • Eye floaters and spots: where visible cloud-like images appear to "float" in an individual's field of vision [6]. Floaters and spots are most commonly related to ageing. They are generally harmless and do not cause blindness [7]
  • Eye flashing: characterised by bursts or streaks of light that appear in an individual's field of vision. As eye flashing may indicate impending retinal detachment, medical attention is required [8].
  • Eyelid twitching: where the eye lid muscles contract in an irregular or abnormal pattern. Such movements can cause irritation and fatigue to the eyes [9].
  • Glaucoma: occurs when the optic nerve is damaged and can result in irreversible vision loss, with the potential to pass undetected until this damage occurs. It is caused when aqueous humour fails to adequately drain from the eye, resulting in pressure build-up.[10]
  • Keratoconus: vision problems can be caused when the cornea thins and distorts into a conical shape. While the cause is unknown, Keratoconus is believed to be congenital, and can be exacerbated by allergies and eye rubbing.[11]
  • Uveitis: where the uveal (middle) layer of the eye is inflamed. Uveitis requires medical intervention as it can lead to blurry vision, eye pain, eye floaters, eye redness and vision loss [12][13]

Epidemiology[edit]

It was estimated by the WHO in 2004 that 314 million people worldwide are vision impaired (from all causes), of whom 45 million are blind.[14] Vision disorders are not often targeted by public health initiatives, as mortality causes take priority.[15] However, they can have significant impact on a person's quality of life, affecting performance at school and the workplace if not corrected.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mortality and Burden of Disease Estimates for WHO Member States in 2002" (xls). World Health Organization. 2002.
  2. ^ "Age-related macular degeneration - EyeWiki". eyewiki.org. Retrieved 2020-01-23.
  3. ^ "Bulging Eyes – Symptoms and treatments for Bulging Eyes : Bausch + Lomb". www.bausch.com. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  4. ^ "CMV Retinitis - EyeWiki". eyewiki.org. Retrieved 2020-01-23.
  5. ^ "Diabetic Macular Edema - EyeWiki". eyewiki.org. Retrieved 2020-01-23.
  6. ^ "Glossary of Common Eye & Vision Conditions". www.aoa.org. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  7. ^ "Common Eye Problems and Infections". OnHealth. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  8. ^ "Glossary of Common Eye & Vision Conditions". www.aoa.org. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  9. ^ "Eyelid Twitching – Causes and Symptoms of Eyelid Twitches : Bausch + Lomb". www.bausch.com. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  10. ^ "Glaucoma Treatment, Symptoms & Diagnosis". Lions Eye Institute. Retrieved 2020-01-23.
  11. ^ "Keratoconus: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2020-01-23.
  12. ^ "Uveitis – Symptoms and Treatments for Uveitis : Bausch + Lomb". www.bausch.com. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  13. ^ "Glossary of Common Eye & Vision Conditions". www.aoa.org. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  14. ^ Resnikoff S, Pascolini D, Mariotti SP, Pokharel GP (January 2008). "Global magnitude of visual impairment caused by uncorrected refractive errors in 2004". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 86 (1): 63–70. doi:10.2471/BLT.07.041210. PMC 2647357. PMID 18235892.
  15. ^ Ono K, Hiratsuka Y, Murakami A (September 2010). "Global Inequality in Eye Health: Country-Level Analysis From the Global Burden of Disease Study". American Journal of Public Health. 100 (9): 1784–8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.187930. PMC 2920965. PMID 20634443.


External links[edit]

Classification