Cytomegalovirus retinitis

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Cytomegalovirus retinitis
Fundus photograph-CMV retinitis EDA07.JPG
Fundus photograph of CMV retinitis
Classification and external resources
Specialty ophthalmology
ICD-10 B25.8, H30.9
ICD-9-CM 078.5
MedlinePlus 000665
eMedicine oph/701
MeSH D017726

Cytomegalovirus retinitis, also known as CMV retinitis, is an inflammation of the retina of the eye that can lead to blindness.[1] Caused by human cytomegalovirus, it occurs predominantly in people whose immune system has been compromised, 15-40% of those infected with AIDS.[2] There are different types of retinitis, such as retinitis pigmentosa (causes tunnel vision).[medical citation needed]

Signs/symptoms[edit]

The symptoms of cytomegalovirus retinitis have it usually starting in one eye (and also have the possibility of retinal detachment), presenting as:[1]

Cause[edit]

Leukemia

Cytomegalovirus (herpes viruses) is what causes cytomegalovirus retinitis. These viruses include herpes simplex viruses and Epstein-Barr virus. Once an individual is infected it stays in the body for life.[3] What triggers the virus to reactivate are the following (though CMV can also be congenital).[4]

Mechanism[edit]

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV or CMV) is a DNA virus in the family Herpesviridae known for producing large cells with nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions,[5] CMV infects around 40% of the population worldwide.[6]

Those areas infected by cytomegalovirus have cells evolve to necrosis,though inflammation within the retina is not great. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachments can occur following the development of holes in areas of healed retinitis (retina may be atrophic).[7][8] Proliferative vitreoretinopathy has been observed in cases of retinal detachment.[9]

Diagnosis[edit]

PCR result, Gel electrophoresis

The diagnosis of CMV retinitis can be done via the following:[4][10]

  • Ophthalmic screening frequency is based on CD4 count,(CD4 < 50 cells/mL, 0- 35% possibility of CMV retinitis)
  • BUN
  • CD8+ T-lymphocyte count
  • CMV DNA capture ( polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test)
  • DNA PCR ( ocular fluids)
  • Viral load
  • Complete blood count

Treatment[edit]

Ganciclovir

In terms of the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis, oral valganciclovir, intravenous ganciclovir, IV foscarnet, and IV cidofovir are all efficient in the treatment of this condition. Also intravitreal injections,an injection of medicine into the vitreous near the retina,[11] of foscarnet in concomitance with oral valganciclovir can be used for treatment as well.[12][13]

Often individuals with CMV retinitis will need surgery for either retinal detachment or intravitreal instillation of ganciclovir. Retinal detachment occurs in up to 29% of affected eyes, repair being most effective with endolaser and silicone oil endotamponade.Intravitreal ganciclovir implant has the benefit of less systemic toxicity. An adverse effect of this is retinal detachment (and vitreous hemorrhage), also there is no systemic beneficial effect for cytomegalovirus organ disease.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Cytomegalovirus retinitis : MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-03-14. 
  2. ^ V, Narendran; Kothari, Abhishek (2014-05-30). Principles and Practice of Vitreoretinal Surgery. JP Medical Ltd. p. 571. ISBN 9789351520979. 
  3. ^ "CMV | Overview | Cytomegalovirus and Congenital CMV Infection | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-03-16. 
  4. ^ a b c "CMV Retinitis Clinical Presentation: History, Physical, Causes". emedicine.medscape.com. Retrieved 2016-03-16. 
  5. ^ Kumar, Bhushan; Gupta, Somesh (2014-02-10). Sexually Transmitted Infections. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 399. ISBN 9788131229781. 
  6. ^ Offermanns S, Rosenthal W (2008). Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology (2nd ed.). Springer. pp. 437–438. ISBN 978-3-540-38916-3. 
  7. ^ "Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Clinical Presentation: History, Physical, Causes". emedicine.medscape.com. Retrieved 2016-03-16. 
  8. ^ Cheeran, Maxim C.-J.; Lokensgard, James R.; Schleiss, Mark R. (2009-01-01). "Neuropathogenesis of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: Disease Mechanisms and Prospects for Intervention". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 22 (1): 99–126. doi:10.1128/CMR.00023-08. ISSN 0893-8512. PMC 2620634free to read. PMID 19136436. 
  9. ^ Sadaka, Ama; Giuliari, Gian Paolo (2012-01-01). "Proliferative vitreoretinopathy: current and emerging treatments". Clinical Ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.). 6: 1325–1333. doi:10.2147/OPTH.S27896. ISSN 1177-5467. PMC 3429288free to read. PMID 22942638. 
  10. ^ Foster, C. Stephen; Vitale, Albert T. (2013-03-30). Diagnosis & Treatment of Uveitis. JP Medical Ltd. p. 449. ISBN 9789350255728. 
  11. ^ "Intravitreal injection: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-03-16. 
  12. ^ "Cytomegalovirus Disease | Adult and Adolescent OI Prevention and Treatment Guidelines | AIDSinfo". AIDSinfo. Retrieved 2016-03-16. 
  13. ^ "Inflammatory Retinal Diseases. Medical information | Patient". Patient. Retrieved 2016-03-16. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]