|Birth name||Włodzimierz Bonawentura Krzyżanowski|
July 8, 1824|
Rożnowo, Grand Duchy of Poznań
|Died||January 31, 1887
New York City, New York
|Place of burial||Arlington National Cemetery|
|Allegiance||United States of America
|Years of service||1861–65|
Brevet Brigadier General
Brigadier General (temporary)
|Unit||Army of the Potomac
Army of the Cumberland
|Commands held||Krzyżanowski's Brigade, XI Corps|
|Relations||cousin of Frédéric Chopin|
|Other work||civil engineer, military territorial administrator, Treasury Department clerk, customs agent|
Włodzimierz Bonawentura Krzyżanowski ([vwɔˈd͡ʑimjɛʂ kʂɨʐaˈnɔfski]; 8 July 1824 – 31 January 1887) was a Polish American engineer, politician, and military leader — during the American Civil War, a brigadier general in the Union Army.
In early 1861 he enlisted in the United States' Union Army, recruited a company of Polish immigrants, and became colonel of the 58th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment, listed in the official Army Register as the "Polish Legion". In 1862 he was promoted to brigadier general.
In the July 1863 Battle of Gettysburg, Krzyżanowski helped repel an evening assault by the famed Louisiana Tigers on the Union defenses atop East Cemetery Hill. After the Civil War, he held several government posts, though not as the first American administrator of Alaska Territory, as is often thought.
Krzyżanowski was born in Rożnowo, Grand Duchy of Poznań, into an old Polish noble family that bore the Świnka coat of arms, and whose roots reached back to the 14th century and ownership of the village of Krzyżanowo near Kościan. Krzyżanowski's father and both uncles had fought for Polish independence under Napoleon's banners, and his brother fought in the November 1830 Uprising.
After the death of Krzyżanowski's father, the family fell into debt and had to leave their estate. The mother sent Włodzimierz to relatives in Poznań, while the rest of the family moved to Warsaw. Young Krzyżanowski attended St. Mary Magdalen Gymnasium in Poznań, a principal center of the Polish nationalist underground in Prussian Poland.
Krzyżanowski took part in the 1848 uprising against Prussia and, after its suppression, fled Poland to avoid arrest. He went to Hamburg, Germany, and from there sailed to New York. In the United States he learned the English language and continued his education.
After completing his education, Krzyżanowski worked as a civil engineer and surveyor in Virginia and was instrumental in pushing America's railroads west. There he made the acquaintance of General Burnett and married his daughter Caroline, with whom he moved to Washington, D.C., to set up his own company, which brought him substantial wealth. He also became active in Republican Party politics. In 1860 he supported Abraham Lincoln's candidacy for president of the United States.
In Washington, D.C., in early 1861, Krzyżanowski enlisted as a private two days after President Abraham Lincoln called for volunteers. Krzyżanowski recruited a company of Polish immigrants, one of the first companies of Union soldiers. He moved the company to New York City, enlisted more immigrants, and soon became colonel of the 58th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment, listed in the official Army Register as the "Polish Legion".
Krzyżanowski participated in the battles of Cross Keys in the Shenandoah Valley, and Second Bull Run (Second Manassas), where he was injured when his horse fell, Chancellorsville, where his brigade and the corps they were part of were routed by a Confederate flank attack, and Gettysburg in the Eastern Theater.
President Lincoln appointed Krzyżanowski brigadier general on November 26, 1862. The appointment expired by law on March 4, 1863 because the U.S. Senate failed to confirm the promotion. The Senate belatedly approved the appointment on March 9, 1863 but recalled and tabled it on March 11, 1863.
At Gettysburg on 1 July 1863 his men were pushed back through the town as the Union XI Corps retreated. During this action, Krzyżanowski was injured when his horse stumbled. However, next day he led a counterattack on Cemetery Hill that helped stabilize the faltering Union line.
Later in the year, the XI Corps was sent to the Western Theater to help raise the Confederate siege of Chattanooga. Krzyżanowski played a role in the Battle of Wauhatchie, where he followed Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker's orders very literally, and was present at the Battle of Missionary Ridge.
When the XI Corps was dissolved, much of it being added to XX Corps, Krzyżanowski was assigned to command at Bridgeport, Alabama, to guard the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad, and later to Stevenson, Alabama, both commands within the Department of the Cumberland. He also commanded the 3rd Brigade of the Defenses of the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad, reporting to Maj. Gen. Robert H. Milroy.
On 2 March 1865 President Lincoln nominated Krzyżanowski for brevet brigadier general of volunteers, to rank from 2 March 1865. The U.S. Senate confirmed the award on 9 March 1865. Krzyżanowski was mustered out of the volunteers on 1 October 1865.
After the war, Krzyżanowski was given governing duties in Alabama. He later served as the appointed governor of several Southern states (Florida, Georgia, and Virginia.) Supposedly he also served as the first American administrator of Alaska Territory. However, the Anchorage Daily News was unable to find conclusive information to support or disprove this claim. It is said that the supposed posting was a reward for his services as personal representative of Secretary William H. Seward during the negotiations for the purchase of Alaska.
Krzyżanowski died in New York City. On 13 October 1937, the 50th anniversary of his death, his remains were transferred with military honors from Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York, to Arlington National Cemetery. President Franklin D. Roosevelt broadcast a nationwide tribute via radio, and Poland's President, Ignacy Mościcki, transmitted his from Warsaw.
Krzyzanowski's legacy was honored by the American Polish Civil War Centennial Committee during the 1960s, which lobbied politicians for a greater appreciation of his remembrance. Thomas J. Lane pushed for House Joint Resolution 707, which would have made 9 July 1962 "Gen. Kryzanowski Memorial Day". The resolution did not, however, receive sufficient support from Congress.
- Mirosława Kruszewska, "Pierwsi Polacy w Ameryce,  Zapomniany bohater" ("The First Poles in America,  A Forgotten Hero"), Gwiazda Polarna (Pole Star), vol. 102, no. 23 (5 November 2011), p. 10.
- Warner, p. 274.
- Eicher, p. 337.
- Terry L. Jones (2002). Historical Dictionary of the Civil War: A-L. Scarecrow Press. p. 792. ISBN 978-0-8108-4112-3. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
- Eicher, p. 750
- Gen Włodzimierz Krzyżanowski: Memoirs from the stay in America of Gen Włodzimierz Krzyżanowski during the War 1861-1864, page 43, Polish Museum of America, Chicago, 1963 (Polish).
- Ruskin, Liz (December 17, 2002). "Poland honors second 'ski' to lead Alaska". Anchorage Daily News.
- Web page of Świat Polonii (World of Poles living outside of Poland).
- Jack D. Welsh (16 August 2005). Medical Histories of Union Generals. Kent State University Press. pp. 197–198. ISBN 978-0-87338-853-5. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
- Stanley S. Sokol; Sharon F. Mrotek Kissane; Alfred L. Abramowicz (1 January 1992). The Polish Biographical Dictionary: Profiles of Nearly 900 Poles Who Have Made Lasting Contributions to World Civilization. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-86516-245-7. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
- Henry Archacki, "The American Polish Civil War Centennial Committee", Polish American Studies (published by University of Illinois Press), vol. 23, no. 2 (July - December 1966), pp. 114-22, 128.
- Eicher, John H., and David J. Eicher. Civil War High Commands. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
- Krzyżanowski, Wladimir. The Memoirs of Wladimir Krzyżanowski, translated by James S. Pula. San Francisco: R&E Research Associates, 1978. ISBN 978-0-88247-492-2.
- Tagg, Larry. The Generals of Gettysburg. Campbell, CA: Savas Publishing, 1998. ISBN 1-882810-30-9.
- Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1964. ISBN 0-8071-0822-7.
- Kruszewska, Mirosława, "Pierwsi Polacy w Ameryce,  Zapomniany bohater" ("The First Poles in America,  A Forgotten Hero"), Gwiazda Polarna (Pole Star), vol. 102, no. 23 (5 November 2011), pp. 10–11.