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Wasta or wasata (Arabic: واسِطة wāsiṭah) is an Arabic word that loosely translates into nepotism, 'clout' or 'who you know'. It refers to using one’s connections and/or influence to get things done, including government transactions such as the quick renewal of a passport, waiving of traffic fines, and getting hired for or promoted in a job.
In other words, it amounts to getting something through favoritism rather than merit, or what is informally spoken of in English as "pull" from connections (the opposite of "push"). The English word cronyism overlaps in meaning but is not precisely the same. Roughly equivalent words in other languages include sociolismo in Cuba; blat in Russia; guanxi in Chinese and Vetternwirtschaft in German, protektzia in Israeli slang, un pituto in Chilean Spanish, In Brazilian-Portuguese it is referred to as "pistolão", "QI" (Quem Indica, or Who Indicates), or in the slang "peixada", "Pidi Padu" in Malayalam, "arka" or "destek" in Turkish, "plecy" in Polish, "štela" in Bosnian.
Furthermore, companies in the Arab world rarely have a 'no-nepotism' policy in place, so one can often find a workforce with friends and friends relatives who may or may not be qualified. This takes place in both the public and private sectors.
In many Arab countries, such as Oman, Iraq, Lebanon, Kuwait, UAE, Saudi Arabia and especially Jordan, wasta affects hiring and promotion decisions. This is not restricted to Arab nationals but is also practised by expatriates who use their connections as wastas.
With respect to recruitment, there seems to be a movement away from this wasta, especially in the case of multinationals and professional firms. However, Wasta is still widely used in the region.
- Regulation, Trust, and Cronyism in Middle Eastern Societies: The Simple Economics of 'Wasta'. (2011) Andy H. Barnett, Bruce Yandle, George Naufal, School of Business and Management-American University of Sharjah, Department of Economics- Clemson University, School of Business and Management- American University of Sharjah.
- Hutchings, K. & Weir, D. (2006). "Guanxi and Wasta: A comparison". Thunderbird International Business Review, 48(1), 141-156
- Izraeli, D. (1997). "Business Ethics in the Middle East". Journal of Business Ethics, 16(14), 1555-1560, doi:10.1023/A:1005863031132
- Kocherlakota, N. R. (1996). Money is Memory. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, Research Department Staff Report 218, 1-37