Wey (state)

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For one of the seven major states of the Warring States period, see Wei (state).
Chinese plain 5c. BC-en.svg
Wey
Wey (Chinese characters).svg
"Wey" in seal script (top), Traditional (middle), and Simplified (bottom) Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese

Wey (Chinese: ; pinyin: Wèi; Old Chinese: *ɢʷat-s, commonly spelled "Wey" to distinguish from the later Wei 魏 state) was an ancient Chinese state that was founded in the early Western Zhou dynasty and rose to prominence during the Spring and Autumn period. Its rulers were of the surname Ji (姬), the same as that of the rulers of Zhou. Its original location was on the North China Plain just east of the Shanxi plateau and north and west of the Yellow River. Jin was to the west and Cao to the east.

Early history[edit]

The history of Wey dates back to the beginning of the Zhou Dynasty, when the younger brother of King Wu of Zhou was given a fief centred on Zhaoge, the capital of the Shang Dynasty; in later years the fief was further expanded.

Spring and Autumn Period[edit]

The State of Wey was at its peak during the early Spring and Autumn Period, under Duke Wu of Wey, who reigned for 55 years. In the reign of subsequent rulers, however, the state was plagued by succession troubles, until Duke Yi of Wey took the throne; his dissolute rule and obsession with cranes weakened the state, and in the eighth year of his reign the Rong peoples successfully attacked the capital at Zhaoge, killing the Duke and nearly destroying the state as well (660BC).

It was only with the aid of Duke Huan of Qi that the state was eventually restored, with its capital moved to Chuqiu.

In 632 BC Wey was once conquered by Duke Wen of Jin, because when Duke Wen (called Chong'er then) exiled to Wey, Duke Wen of Wey hadn't treated him well, and Duke Cheng of Wey (son of Duke Wen of Wey) was nearly poisoned by Duke Wen of Jin, but eventually the state was restored. (Before the Battle of Chengpu, when Chu was attacking Song, Jin attacked Wey and Cao as a diversion.)

In 492 BC, Duke Chu of Wey (出公) succeeded the throne from his grandfather Duke Ling (灵公), while his father Kuaikui (蒯聩), who was the heir of Duke Ling, had been deposed and exiled. To get the throne, Kuaikui fought against his own son and managed to exile Duke Chu in 481 BC, and was titled as Duke Zhuang (latter) (后庄公), but was killed three years later. Duke Chu was restored in 475 BC. The conflict between father and son weakened Wey, and Wey soon became attached to House of Zhao of Jin.

Downfall and end[edit]

In 346 BC, the duke of Wey degraded himself to a marquis. In 320 BC, the marquis of Wey again degraded himself to only a jun (lord). And by then Wey only possessed a county called Puyang (濮阳). In 254 BC, King Anxi of Wei (魏) killed Lord Huai of Wey (卫怀君), but two years later he declared his son-in-law, who was from the house of Wey, to be lord of Wey, so Wey became a dependency of the Wei Kingdom. In 239 BC, Qin occupied Puyang, and Wey migrated to Yewang (野王) in order to preserve its existence.

The state was so weak that it was presumably ignored by Qin Shihuang and was only abolished in 209 BC when Qin Er Shi deposed Jiao, Lord of Wey (卫君角), 2 years before the collapse of the Qin Dynasty.

List of rulers[edit]

adoption
unknown descent
(1) Kang Shu
卫康叔
(2) Count Kang
卫康伯
(3) Count Kao
卫考伯
(4) Count Si
卫嗣伯
(5) Count Zhi
衞摯伯
(6) Count Jing
卫靖伯
(7) Count Zhen
卫贞伯
(8) Marquis Qing
卫顷侯
?- 867- 855 BC
Shi Que
石碏
Shi clan
石氏
(9) Marquis Xi
卫僖侯
?- 855- 813 BC
(10) Count Gong
卫共伯
?- 813 BC BC
(11) Duke Wu
卫武公
852- 813- 758 BC
(12) Duke Zhuang I
卫庄公
?- 758- 735 BC
Huisun
惠孙
Sun clan
孙氏
Jiwei
季亹
Ning clan
甯氏
Count Xiao
孝伯
(13) Duke Huan
卫桓公
?- 735- 719 BC
(14) Zhou Yu
州吁
?- 719 BC
(15) Duke Xuan
卫宣公
?- 719- 700 BC
Yougongzi Zhi[i][ii]
右公子职
?- 688 BC
Zuogongzi Xie[i][iii]
左公子泄
?- 688 BC
Viscount Ji
急子
?- 701 BC
(17) Gongzi Qianmou[i]
公子黔牟
?- 696- 688 BC
Count Zhao
昭伯
Viscount Shou
寿子
?- 701 BC
(16) Duke Hui
卫惠公
714- 700- 696- 688- 669 BC
Viscount Qi
齐子
(19) Duke Dai
卫戴公
?- 660 BC
(20) Duke Wen
卫文公
?- 660- 635 BC
(18) Duke Yi
卫懿公
?- 669- 660 BC

Qi clan
齐氏
(21) Duke Cheng
卫成公
?- 635- 632- 630- 600 BC
Shu Wu
叔武
?- 632 BC
(22) Gongzi He[i]
公子瑕
?- 632- 630 BC
Ziyi
子仪
?- 630 BC
(23) Duke Mu
卫穆公
?- 600- 589 BC
Viscount Qing
顷子
Beigong clan
北宫氏
(24) Duke Ding
卫定公
?- 589- 577 BC
Heibei, Viscount Uncle
子叔黑背
(25) Duke Xian
卫献公
?- 577- 559- 547- 544 BC
Gongzi Zhuan[i]
公子鱄
Viscount Zhan
子展
(26) Duke Shang
卫殇公
?- 559- 547 BC
(27) Duke Xiang
卫襄公
?- 544- 535 BC
Dang, Viscount of Cheng
成子当
Gongshu clan
公叔氏
Gongzi Jing[i]
公子荆
Taizi Jiao[iv]
太子角
?- 547 BC
Xi Zhuchu
析朱鉏
Xi clan
析氏
Gongmeng Zhi
公孟絷
?- 522 BC
Gongmeng clan
公孟氏
(28) Duke Ling
卫灵公
540- 535- 493 BC
Gongmeng Kou
公孟彄
(30) Duke Zhuang II
卫庄公
?- 479- 478 BC
(32) Gongzi Qi[i]
公子起
?- 478- 477 BC-?
(33) Duke Dao
卫悼公
?- 456- 451 BC
Gongzi Ying[i]
公子郢
Nan clan
南氏
(31) Gongsun Banshi[v]
公孙斑师
?- 478 BC-?
(29) Duke Chu
卫出公
?- 493- 480- 477- 456 BC
Taizi Ji[iv]
太子疾
?- 478 BC
Gongzi Qing[i]
公子青
?- 478 BC
(34) Duke Jing
卫敬公
?- 451- 432 BC
Gongsun Mimou[v]
公孙弥牟
Sikou Huizi
司寇惠子
Sikou clan
司寇氏
(35) Duke Zhao
卫昭公
?- 432- 426 BC
Gongzi Shi[i]
公子适
Jianzi He
简子瑕
Hu
(36) Duke Huai
卫怀公
?- 426- 415 BC
(37) Duke Shen
卫慎公
?- 415- 383 BC
(38) Duke Sheng
卫声公
?- 383- 372 BC
(39) Marquis Cheng
卫成侯
?- 372- 343 BC
(40) Marquis Ping
卫平侯
?- 343- 335 BC
(41) Lord Xi
卫嗣君
?- 335- 293 BC
(42) Lord Huai
卫怀君
?- 293- 252 BC
(43) Lord Yuan
卫元君
?- 252- 242 BC
(44) Jiao
卫君角
?- 242- 209 BC


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Gōngzǐ (Chinese: 公子; literally: "The Lord's Son") is a title attached to the sons of a ruler.
  2. ^ Yòugōngzǐ (Chinese: 右公子; literally: "The Lord's Son of the Right") indicates the title holder being a son of a ruler.
  3. ^ Zuǒgōngzǐ (Chinese: 左公子; literally: "The Lord's Son of the Left") indicates the title holder being a son of a ruler.
  4. ^ a b Tàizǐ (Chinese: 太子; literally: "The (Lord's) Heir Apparent") indicates the title holder being the eldest son of a ruler.
  5. ^ a b Gōngsūn (Chinese: 公孙; literally: "The Lord's Grandson") is a title attached to the paternal grandsons of a ruler. In two instances above, Gongsun Banshi was a grandson of Duke Xiang, while Gongsun Mimou was a grandson of Duke Ling. If a person was also a son of a ruler, the title Gōngzǐ (公子) was used instead.

References[edit]