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The Western Zhou (Chinese: 西周; pinyin: Xīzhōu; c. 1045 BC – 771 BC) was a period of Chinese history, approximately first half of the Zhou dynasty, before the period of the Eastern Zhou. It began when King Wu of Zhou overthrew the Shang dynasty at the Battle of Muye and ended when Quanrong pastoralists sacked its capital Haojing and killed King You of Zhou in 771 BC.
The Western Zhou early state[a] was ascendant for about seventy-five years and then slowly lost power. The former Shang lands were divided into hereditary fiefs which became increasingly independent of the king. In 771 BC, the Zhou court was driven out of the Wei River valley; afterwards real power was in the hands of the king's nominal vassals. "Western" describes the geographical situation of the Zhou royal capitals, clustered near present-day Xi'an.
Few records survive from this early period and accounts from the Western Zhou period cover little beyond a list of kings with uncertain dates. King Wu died two or three years after the conquest. Because his son, King Cheng of Zhou was young, his brother, the Duke of Zhou Ji Dan assisted the young and inexperienced king as regent. Wu's other brothers (Shu Du of Cai, Guan Shu, and Huo Shu), concerned about the Duke of Zhou's growing power, formed an alliance with Wu Geng and other regional rulers and Shang remnants in the rebellion of the Three Guards. The Duke of Zhou stamped out this rebellion and conquered more territory to bring other people under Zhou rule.
The Duke formulated the Mandate of Heaven doctrine to counter Shang claims to a divine right of rule and founded Luoyang as an eastern capital. With a feudal fengjian system, royal relatives and generals were given fiefs in the east, including Luoyang, Jin, Ying, Lu, Qi and Yan. While this was designed to maintain Zhou authority as it expanded its rule over a larger amount of territory, many of these became major states when the dynasty weakened. When the Duke of Zhou stepped down as regent, the remainder of Cheng's reign and that of his son King Kang of Zhou seem to have been peaceful and prosperous.
The fourth king, King Zhao of Zhou led an army south against Chu and was killed along with a large part of the Zhou army. The fifth king, King Mu of Zhou is remembered for his legendary visit to the Queen Mother of the West. Territory was lost to the Xu Rong in the southeast. The kingdom seems to have weakened during Mu's long reign, possibly because the familial relationship between Zhou Kings and regional rulers thinned over generations so that fiefs that were originally held by royal brothers were now held by third and fourth cousins; peripheral territories also developed local power and prestige on par with that of the Zhou royal family.
The reigns of the next four kings (King Gong of Zhou, King Yi of Zhou (Ji Jian), King Xiao of Zhou, and King Yi of Zhou (Ji Xie)) are poorly documented. The ninth king is said to have boiled the Duke of Qi in a cauldron, implying that the vassals were no longer obedient. The tenth king, King Li of Zhou (877–841 BC) was forced into exile and power was held for fourteen years by the Gonghe Regency. Li's overthrow may have been accompanied by China's first recorded peasant rebellion. When Li died in exile, Gonghe retired and power passed to Li's son King Xuan of Zhou (827–782 BC). King Xuan worked to restore royal authority, though regional lords became less obedient later in his reign.
Western Zhou jade figure
Bronze helmet, Zhou dynasty
An ancient sword dating back to the Western Zhou
Western Zhou daggers
Fall of the Western Zhou
The conflicts with nomadic tribes from the north and the northwest, variously known as the Xianyun, Guifang, or various "Rong" tribes, such as the Xirong, Shanrong or Quanrong, intensified towards the end of the Western Zhou period. These tribes are recorded as harassing Zhou territory, but at the time the Zhou were expanding northwards, encroaching on the their traditional lands, especially into the Wei River valley. Archaeologically, the Zhou expanded to the north and the northwest at the expense of the Siwa culture.
The twelfth and last king of the Western Zhou period was King You of Zhou (781–771 BC). When You replaced his wife with a concubine, the former queen's powerful father, the Marquess of Shen, joined forces with Quanrong barbarians. The Quanrong put an end to the Western Zhou in 771 BC, sacking the Zhou capital of Haojing and killing the last Western Zhou king You. Thereafter the task of dealing with the northern tribes was left to their vassal, the Qin state.
His killing resulted to beginning wars between local states which continued until Qin unification of China 500 years later.[b] Some scholars have surmised that the sack of Haojing might have been connected to a Scythian raid from the Altai before their westward expansion. Most of the Zhou nobles withdrew from the Wei River valley and the capital was reestablished downriver at the old eastern capital of Chengzhou near modern-day Luoyang. This was the start of the Eastern Zhou period, which is customarily divided into the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period.
|Posthumous name||Personal name||Reign (all dates BC)[c]|
|King Wen of Zhou||Chang (昌)||1099–1050[d]|
|King Wu of Zhou||Fa (發)||1049–1043[d]||1046–1043|
|King Cheng of Zhou||Song (誦)||1042–1006||1042–1021|
|King Kang of Zhou||Zhao (釗)||1005–978||1020–996|
|King Zhao of Zhou||Xia (瑕)||977–957||995–977|
|King Mu of Zhou||Man (滿)||956–918||976–922|
|King Gong of Zhou||Yihu (繄扈)||917–900||922–900|
|King Yih of Zhou||Jian (囏)||899–873||899–892|
|King Xiao of Zhou||Pifang (辟方)||872–866||891–886|
|King Yi of Zhou||Xie (燮)||865–858||885–878|
|King Li of Zhou||Hu (胡)||857–842||877–841|
|Gonghe Regency||He (和)||841–828||841–828|
|King Xuan of Zhou||Jing (靜)||827–782||827–782|
|King You of Zhou||Gongnie (宮涅)||782–771||781–771|
- "...these early states are best known from archaeology and history to have been ruled by the dynastic houses such as that of Shang (1554–1046 BC) and of Western Zhou (1045–771 BC). Therefore, they can be called the early 'royal states'."
- "...The collapse of the Western Zhou state in 771 BC and the lack of a true central authority thereafter opened ways to fierce inter-state warfare that continued over the next five hundred years until the Qin unification of China in 221 BC"
- The Han historian Sima Qian felt unable to extend his chronological table beyond 841 BC, the first year of the Gonghe Regency, and there is still no accepted chronology in Chinese history before that point.
- Shaughnessy dates the Zhou conquest of the Shang to 1045 BC. Earlier dates represent the pre-dynastic Zhou.
- Li (2013), p. 6.
- Chinn (2007), p. 43.
- Hucker (1978), p. 32.
- Hucker (1978), p. 33.
- Hucker (1978), p. 37.
- "灵台白草坡 西周墓葬里的青铜王国". www.kaogu.net.cn. The Institute of Archaeology (CASS Chinese Academy of Social Sciences).
There is research on the ethnic image of the northern nomadic people of the Altaic language family. It may be that this is the image of the Xianyun tribe that once posed a serious military threat to the northern border of the Zhou Dynasty. They were called "Ghost people" (Guifang) because they looked different from the Chinese. 有考证系阿尔泰语系的北方游牧民族人种形象。可能是曾经对周朝北方边境构成严重军事威胁的猃狁部族，因相貌异于华夏，被称作"鬼方"。
- "Standing deer China Western Zhou dynasty (1046–771 BCE)". The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
- Loehr, Max (1955). "The Stag Image in Scythia and the Far East". Archives of the Chinese Art Society of America. 9: 63–76. ISSN 1945-2926.
- Tse, Wicky W. K. (27 June 2018). The Collapse of China's Later Han Dynasty, 25-220 CE: The Northwest Borderlands and the Edge of Empire. Routledge. p. 45-46, 63 note 40. ISBN 978-1-315-53231-8.
- "The Steppe: Scythian successes". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- Shaughnessy (1999), p. 21.
- Lee (2002), pp. 16–17.
- Shaughnessy (1999), p. 25.
- Lee (2002), p. 18.
- Shaughnessy (1999), p. 23.
- Chinn, Ann-ping (2007), The Authentic Confucius, Scribner, ISBN 978-0-7432-4618-7.
- Hucker, Charles O. (1978), China to 1850: A short history, Stanford University Press, ISBN 0-8047-0958-0.
- Lee, Yun Kuen (2002), "Building the chronology of early Chinese history", Asian Perspectives, 41 (1): 15–42, doi:10.1353/asi.2002.0006, hdl:10125/17161, S2CID 67818363.
- Li, Feng (2013), Early China: A Social and Cultural History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-89552-1.
- Shaughnessy, Edward L. (1999), "Calendar and Chronology", in Loewe, Michael; Shaughnessy, Edward L. (eds.), The Cambridge History of Ancient China, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 19–29, ISBN 978-0-521-47030-8.
- Shaughnessy, Edward L. (1999), "Western Zhou history", in Loewe, Michael; Shaughnessy, Edward L. (eds.), The Cambridge History of Ancient China, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 292–351, ISBN 978-0-521-47030-8.
- Li Feng (2003), "'Feudalism' and Western Zhou China: a criticism", Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 63 (1): 115–144, doi:10.2307/25066693, JSTOR 25066693.
- —— (2006), Landscape and Power in Early China: The Crisis and Fall of the Western Zhou 1045–771 BC, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-85272-2.