Wind generation potential in the United States

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United States Wind Resources

The wind generation potential in the United States far exceeds demand. There are only two states with no commercially significant wind power potential, Mississippi and Florida. Florida has the potential to install 900 MW at 25% capacity factor 100 m (330 ft)-high turbines,[1] and Mississippi the potential to install 30,000 MW at 25% capacity factor 100 m (330 ft)-high turbines.[2] For commercial operation, a capacity factor of at least 35% is preferred. There are no locations in either state that would achieve 30% capacity factor. In contrast, North Dakota, the windiest state, has the capacity to install 200,000 MW at 50% capacity factor 100 m (330 ft)-high turbines.[3] Texas, although not as windy, is larger, and has the capacity to install 250,000 MW at 50% capacity factor,[4] and 1,757,355.6 MW of at least 35% capacity factor, capable of generating 6,696,500 GWh/year, more than all of the electricity generated in the United States in 2010.

By the end of 2011, the United States had installed 46,919 MW of wind power,[5] and generated 94,652 GWh of electricity from wind power in 2010.[6]

The annual production of a wind turbine is a product of the capacity rating, the capacity factor, and the number of hours in a year. A 200 MW wind farm at 35% capacity factor will generate approximately 613.2 GWh/year.

In addition to the megawatt wind farms, community scale single wind turbines of from 250 kW to 750 kW are typically 50 meters high, and residential or farm wind turbines are typically 15–40 m (49–131 ft) high. To address these markets, maps are available showing wind potential at 30 m (98 ft)[7] and 50 m (160 ft).[8]

Wind Capacity Potential and Annual Generation
50 Meter[9] 80 Meter 30% 80 Meter 35% 80 Meter 40% 100 Meter 30% 100 Meter 35% 100 Meter 40%[10] Offshore potential[11]
State Capacity
(MW)
Generation
(GWh)
Capacity
(MW)
Generation
(GWh)
Capacity
(MW)
Generation
(GWh)
Capacity
(MW)
Generation
(GWh)
Capacity
(MW)
Generation
(GWh)
Capacity
(MW)
Generation
(GWh)
Capacity
(MW)
Generation
(GWh)
Capacity
(MW)
Generation
(GWh)
Alabama 0 0 118.2 333 13.2 42 0.0 0 567.8 1,588 47.6 154 1.4 5 0 0
Alaska 494,702.9 1,620,792 291,121.3 1,051,210 144,960.9 580,479 641,898.0 2,135,249 410,922.8 1,489,752 216,576.4 861,262 N/A N/A
Arizona 3,800 10,000 10,904.1 30,616 972.1 3,100 37.2 135 25,791.4 72,732 2,527.8 8,075 75.1 272 NA NA
Arkansas 8,500 22,000 9,200.3 26,906 2,212.5 7,215 244.4 901 49,961.7 141,856 8,187.9 27,217 1,473.8 5,430 NA NA
California 23,000 59,000 34,110.2 105,646 14,031.7 49,073 5,243.5 20,543 44,348.2 137,340 18,451.8 64,398 6,623.3 25,977 654,833 2,662,580
Colorado 190,000 481,000 387,219.5 1,288,490 266,910.6 945,484 134,078.1 507,885 429,455.6 1,489,820 327,461.1 1,198,210 208,807.2 810,145 NA NA
Connecticut 2,000 5,000 26.5 73 1.0 3 0.2 1 186.2 519 9.1 29 0.6 2 7,171 26,545
Delaware 680 1,700 9.5 26 0.0 0 0.0 0 100.6 274 1.0 3 0.0 0 15,038 60,654
Florida 0 0 0.4 1 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.4 1 0.0 0 0.0 0 9,649 34,684
Georgia 590 1,500 130.1 380 30.6 101 6.0 22 293.6 863 77.7 259 16.1 59 58,629 220,807
Hawaii 3,264.9 12,363 2,483.3 10,179 1,956.4 8,474 3,564.1 13,694 2,761.7 11,434 2,105.9 9,320 736,945 2,836,735
Idaho 29,000 73,000 18,075.6 52,118 3,226.3 10,938 861.0 3,294 44,769.5 128,647 6,882.2 23,041 1,482.6 5,653 NA NA
Illinois 24,000 61,000 249,882.1 763,529 120,620.7 391,737 4,501.2 15,942 329,617.6 1,072,740 233,463.3 799,298 78,691.0 286,858 15,872 66,070
Indiana 100 260 148,227.5 443,912 49,005.4 160,827 5,931.4 21,387 183,832.4 590,581 130,218.0 437,101 29,753.9 109,526 45 166
Iowa 220,000 551,000 570,714.2 2,026,340 482,414.9 1,772,460 318,595.1 1,232,860 601,956.7 2,325,420 566,965.2 2,224,020 466,297.4 1,890,360 NA NA
Kansas 420,000 1,070,000 952,370.9 3,646,590 914,202.3 3,535,480 760,323.9 3,024,280 955,238.7 3,944,270 951,474.6 3,933,090 900,594.3 3,762,740 NA NA
Kentucky 120 300 60.6 173 7.6 24 0.0 0 698.7 1,899 25.5 82 1.6 6 NA NA
Louisiana 0 0 409.8 1,100 0.0 0 0.0 0 2,840.0 7,719 0.0 0 0.0 0 340,615 1,200,699
Maine 22,000 56,000 11,251.2 33,779 3,450.0 11,961 1,117.2 4,411 30,847.3 91,894 8,777.4 30,106 2,614.4 10,158 147,418 631,960
Maryland 1,200 3,000 1,482.9 4,269 188.6 607 12.0 43 2,713.0 7,975 855.3 2,753 46.1 167 51,909 200,852
Massachusetts 9,900 25,000 1,028.0 3,323 536.0 1,945 320.7 1,237 1,913.2 6,082 841.0 3,074 474.0 1,887 184,076 799,344
Michigan 26,000 65,000 59,042.3 169,221 11,661.6 37,619 394.0 1,420 179,056.0 523,374 39,311.6 129,467 6,571.3 23,774 422,577 1,739,801
Minnesota 260,000 657,000 489,270.6 1,679,480 388,907.2 1,392,590 175,181.0 681,616 603,426.7 2,170,610 483,459.1 1,832,230 369,908.6 1,457,950 29,215 100,455
Mississippi 0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 3,213 10,172
Missouri 21,000 52,000 274,355.1 810,619 78,917.2 256,650 6,815.9 24,672 399,635.0 1,267,920 247,469.6 831,473 58,815.3 215,946 NA NA
Montana 410,000 1,020,000 944,004.4 3,228,620 718,503.2 2,581,510 397,856.8 1,529,560 1,012,355.4 3,661,840 868,012.1 3,247,260 586,758.3 2,318,760 NA NA
Nebraska 340,000 868,000 917,998.7 3,540,370 888,695.6 3,455,480 777,165.0 3,084,090 921,075.4 3,847,090 916,159.2 3,832,600 879,965.6 3,712,120 NA NA
Nevada 20,000 50,000 7,247.1 20,823 1,290.4 4,263 219.6 810 12,033.9 34,478 1,916.9 6,328 319.1 1,179 NA NA
New Hampshire 1,700 4,000 2,135.4 6,706 962.3 3,405 404.8 1,593 3,918.9 12,263 1,706.9 6,046 714.2 2,815 3,456 14,478
New Jersey 4,100 10,000 131.8 373 15.0 47 0.0 0 348.7 997 53.0 171 0.0 0 101,935 429,808
New Mexico 170,000 435,000 492,083.3 1,644,970 325,001.5 1,170,490 185,745.3 712,877 568,112.4 1,966,290 407,760.1 1,509,690 259,707.2 1,025,110 NA NA
New York 24,000 62,000 25,781.3 74,695 4,805.3 15,826 667.1 2,560 57,638.6 172,787 20,418.0 67,619 3,205.3 11,982 146,077 614,280
North Carolina 2,900 7,000 807.7 2,395 196.3 695 86.0 337 1,500.1 4,461 347.6 1,220 131.0 518 306,020 1,269,627
North Dakota 480,000 1,210,000 770,195.8 2,983,750 760,034.4 2,954,260 692,821.1 2,728,620 771,791.2 3,230,900 769,479.2 3,224,180 756,497.2 3,180,710 NA NA
Ohio 1,400 4,000 54,919.7 151,881 1,163.0 3,662 0.8 3 123,327.8 359,816 24,823.2 78,712 353.5 1,258 41,804 170,561
Oklahoma 290,000 725,000 516,822.1 1,788,910 400,674.3 1,457,740 247,773.2 952,678 614,804.3 2,236,000 505,258.6 1,923,820 379,335.0 1,509,670 NA NA
Oregon 17,000 43,000 27,100.3 80,855 8,094.3 27,517 2,206.6 8,439 50,566.4 151,033 15,588.2 53,040 4,392.7 16,760 225,008 962,723
Pennsylvania 18,000 45,000 3,307.2 9,673 810.9 2,685 148.2 546 7,222.2 21,214 1,862.9 6,195 346.5 1,290 5,674 23,571
Rhode Island 380 1,000 46.6 153 27.6 99 14.2 55 83.8 267 40.8 148 22.0 87 20,965 89,115
South Carolina 200 500 185.0 504 3.2 11 0.8 3 1,215.3 3,362 18.8 60 2.0 7 133,217 542,218
South Dakota 400,000 1,030,000 882,412.4 3,411,690 852,371.8 3,325,230 766,382.5 3,039,460 890,626.1 3,690,490 875,058.5 3,645,620 833,893.1 3,508,870 NA NA
Tennessee 640 2,000 309.3 900 64.5 220 16.8 66 816.5 2,355 142.8 479 28.9 113 NA NA
Texas 470,000 1,190,000 1,901,529.7 6,527,850 1,360,185.5 4,989,570 826,982.8 3,240,930 2,320,792.9 8,299,400 1,757,355.6 6,696,500 1,226,632.6 4,953,700 271,443 1,101,063
Utah 9,600 24,000 13,103.7 37,104 1,517.1 4,939 138.8 511 26,237.3 74,704 3,389.9 10,988 274.8 1,007 NA NA
Vermont 1,800 5,000 2,948.7 9,163 1,195.2 4,243 510.1 2,013 5,637.2 17,394 2,185.8 7,710 887.6 3,495 NA NA
Virginia 4,800 12,000 1,793.3 5,395 614.5 2,070 156.1 592 3,465.7 10,336 1,110.8 3,747 245.4 931 89,073 361,054
Washington 13,000 33,000 18,478.5 55,550 6,298.1 21,289 1,588.2 6,052 32,606.1 98,132 11,282.7 38,403 3,149.4 11,969 120,964 488,025
West Virginia 2,000 5,000 1,883.2 5,820 820.2 2,822 280.3 1,066 2,772.0 8,627 1,270.0 4,394 465.2 1,771 NA NA
Wisconsin 22,000 56,000 103,757.1 300,136 20,740.5 66,171 243.8 872 215,447.4 650,776 86,368.2 284,709 11,551.2 41,634 80,672 317,755
Wyoming 290,000 747,000 552,072.6 1,944,340 432,083.1 1,601,240 262,409.5 1,043,890 593,768.8 2,176,620 497,132.2 1,900,530 351,866.9 1,421,170 NA NA
U.S. Total 4,200,000 10,777,000 10,956,912 38,552,706 8,417,082 31,334,728 5,724,399 22,487,228 12,770,877 46,864,699 10,208,933 39,595,435 7,651,675 31,204,421 4,223,514 16,975,802

The United States generated 4,125,060 GWh of electricity in 2010.[6]

N/A = Not Available

NA = Not Applicable (no shoreline)

The United States has trailed other countries in the development of off-shore wind farms, and it is possible that the first off-shore wind farm in the United States will be installed in either New England or New Jersey in 2013.[12][13] Other locations that could be the first are Virginia, Maryland, and Texas.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Florida 80-Meter Wind Map and Wind Resource Potential
  2. ^ Mississippi 80-Meter Wind Map and Wind Resource Potential
  3. ^ North Dakota 80-Meter Wind Map and Wind Resource Potential
  4. ^ Texas 80-Meter Wind Map and Wind Resource Potential
  5. ^ "AWEA 4th quarter 2011 Public Market Report" (PDF). American Wind Energy Association (AWEA). January 2012. Retrieved January 28, 2012.
  6. ^ a b US Energy Information Administration. "Electric Power Annual 2011" Released: January 2012, Revised March 2012
  7. ^ Residential-Scale 30-Meter Wind Maps
  8. ^ Community-Scale 50-Meter Wind Maps
  9. ^ An Assessment of the Available Windy Land Area and Wind Energy Potential in the Contiguous United States Table B.1 pp. 78, 79
  10. ^ Estimates of Windy Land Area and Wind Energy Potential, by State
  11. ^ Renewable Energy Technical Potential
  12. ^ The War to Build America’s First Offshore Wind Farm
  13. ^ Firm set to move forward on offshore wind farm near Atlantic City
  14. ^ U.S. Offshore Wind Farms: The Race is On?

External links[edit]