Wind power in Indiana

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Wind power in Indiana is located in Indiana
Union City
Union City
Headwaters
Headwaters
Carthage
Carthage
Kokomo
Kokomo
LaGrange
LaGrange
Wildcat I
Wildcat I
Wind power projects in Indiana
  Green pog.svg Operating
  Orange pog.svg Under construction
  Blue pog.svg Stand Alone Facilities

Wind power in Indiana was limited to a few small water-pumping windmills on farms until 2008 with construction of Indiana's first utility-scale wind power facility, Goodland (phase I) with a nameplate capacity of 130 MW. As of January 2016, Indiana had a total of 1895 MW of wind power capacity installed, ranking it 12th among U.S. states.[1]

The main utility-scale development up to 2016 has been in the northwest part of the state in Benton, White, and Jasper Counties. Fowler Ridge phase III should be completed later in 2010, to give a final nameplate capacity of 750 MW, making Fowler Ridge the Midwest's largest wind farm, and one of the largest in the world. Phases II-VI at Meadow Lake, when complete, will make Meadow Lake even larger at 1000 MW.[2]

Installed capacity and wind resources[edit]

The following table compares the growth in wind power installed nameplate capacity in MW for Indiana and the entire United States since 2003.[3]

Year Indiana US
2003 0 6,370
2004 0 6,725
2005 0 9,149
2006 0 11,603
2007 0 16,819
2008 130 25,170
2009 1036 35,159
2010 1238 40,180
2011 1340 46,919
2012 1543 60,007
2013 1544 61,110
Installed capacity by state as of 2013 (animated map of installed capacity growth)
Average annual wind power density map for Indiana at 50m above ground

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory estimates that Indiana has the potential to install up to 148 GW of onshore wind power nameplate capacity, generating 443 TWh annually.[4][5] For comparison, Indiana consumed 106.549 TWh of electricity in 2005;[6] while the entire U.S. wind power industry generated approximately 50 TWh in 2008; and Three Gorges Dam (the world's largest electricity-generating station) produced an average of 80 TWh/yr in 2008 and 2009.

Indiana also has some offshore wind resources in the shallows of Lake Michigan along its shoreline.[7][8][9] However, offshore wind power development is far behind onshore development in the United States generally, because onshore development is cheaper and the United States has an abundance of suitable onshore sites to develop. Indiana has no offshore wind farms as of 2016.

Wind generation[edit]

Indiana wind generation by month.

Indiana Wind Generation in 2015
Indiana Wind Generation (GWh, Million kWh)
Year Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
2012 3,163 416 307 374 386 212 185 113 94 162 324 234 357
2013 3,481 450 276 334 396 303 184 138 92 155 297 449 405
2014 3,495 415 252 323 388 304 190 167 101 158 325 507 366
2015 4,516 411 413 424 425 365 272 176 165 214 517 554 580

Source:[10][11][12][13]

Wind farms[edit]

The following table of wind farms and utility-scale wind power developments uses data from the AWEA,[3] the State of Indiana,[14] and other sources. For the larger projects constructed in phases, the table lists separate information for each phase. The name of each wind farm is the name used by the energy company when referring to the farm. The Wind Farm suffix is implied and hence removed for brevity. For more details and references for each wind farm, see its article.

Wind farm County(s) Turbine model Power per turbine (MW) No. of Turbines Total Nameplate Capacity (MW) Online Developer Operator Power purchaser Coordinates
Benton County phase I Benton GE sl/sle Gen4 1.5 87 130.5 2008-04 Orion Energy Orion Energy Duke, Vectren 40°41′10″N 87°24′29″W / 40.686°N 87.408°W / 40.686; -87.408 ("Benton County Wind Farm phase I")
Fowler Ridge phase I Vestas Benton Vestas V82 1.65 182 300.3 2009-04 BP, Dominion BP, Dominion AEP, Dominion 40°36′29″N 87°19′12″W / 40.608°N 87.320°W / 40.608; -87.320 ("Fowler Ridge Wind Farm phase I Vestas")
Fowler Ridge phase I Clipper Benton Clipper 2.5 2.5 40 100 2009-04 BP, Dominion BP, Dominion AEP, Dominion 40°36′29″N 87°19′12″W / 40.608°N 87.320°W / 40.608; -87.320 ("Fowler Ridge Wind Farm phase I Clipper")
Fowler Ridge phase II Benton GE sl/sle Gen4 1.5 133 199.5 2009-12 BP, Dominion BP, Dominion AEP, Vectren 40°36′29″N 87°19′12″W / 40.608°N 87.320°W / 40.608; -87.320 ("Fowler Ridge Wind Farm phase II")
Headwaters Randolph Vestas V110 2 100 200 December 2014 EDP Renewables North America Indiana Michigan Power
Hoosier Benton REpower 2 53 106 2009-08 IPL, enXco IPL, enXco IPL 40°36′N 87°19′W / 40.6°N 87.32°W / 40.6; -87.32 ("Hoosier Wind Farm")
Meadow Lake phase I White Vestas V82 1.65 121 199.65 October 2009 Horizon Wind Energy EDP Renewables North America AEP, wholesale market 40°36′04″N 86°51′54″W / 40.601°N 86.865°W / 40.601; -86.865 ("Meadow Lake Wind Farm phase I")
Meadow Lake phase II White Acciona 1.5 66 99 June 2010 Horizon Wind Energy EDP Renewables North America 40°36′04″N 86°51′54″W / 40.601°N 86.865°W / 40.601; -86.865 ("Meadow Lake Wind Farm phase II")
Meadow Lake phase III White GE 1.5 69 103.5 October 2010 Horizon Wind Energy EDP Renewables North America 40°36′04″N 86°51′54″W / 40.601°N 86.865°W / 40.601; -86.865 ("Meadow Lake Wind Farm phase III")
Meadow Lake phase IV White Suzlon 2.1 47 98.7 October 2010 Horizon Wind Energy EDP Renewables North America 40°36′04″N 86°51′54″W / 40.601°N 86.865°W / 40.601; -86.865 ("Meadow Lake Wind Farm phase IV")
Prairie Breeze Tipton 1.6 94 150 Juwi 40°21′40″N 86°09′07″W / 40.361°N 86.152°W / 40.361; -86.152 ("Prairie Breeze Wind Farm")
Union City/Randolph Eastern School Corporation Randolph Nordic Windpower 1 2 2 2010-02 Performance Services Union City, Randolph Eastern School Corporation AEP 40°12′04″N 84°48′54″W / 40.201°N 84.815°W / 40.201; -84.815 ("Union City/Randolph Eastern School Corporation")
Wildcat phase I Madison, Tipton GE 1.6 125 200 2012-10 E.ON E.ON AEP 40°21′07″N 85°52′55″W / 40.352°N 85.882°W / 40.352; -85.882 ("Wildcat Wind Farm phase I")
Wildcat phase II Grant, Howard 40-60 (proposed) E.ON 40°28′48″N 85°51′36″W / 40.480°N 85.860°W / 40.480; -85.860 ("Wildcat Wind Farm phase II")
Wildcat phase III Tipton 40-75 (proposed) E.ON
Wildcat phase IV Tipton (proposed) E.ON

Single-unit turbines[edit]

In addition to the above wind farms, single stand-alone units have also been built in five other locations, mostly at schools. Some of these units were placed to test the environment for future wind energy development.[15][16][17]

Location County Owner Wind speed
(m/s)
Power
(Kw)
Middletown Henry Shenandoah School Corporation 900
Carthage Shelby 7.7 / 99m
Haubstadt Gibson South Gibson School Corporation 6.1 / 99m
Kokomo Howard Northwestern School Corporation 7.0 / 99m
LaGrange LaGrange 7.0 / 99m
Upland Grant Taylor University

Environmental impact[edit]

According to the USDOE, each 1000 MW of wind power capacity installed in Indiana will annually save 1,684 million gallons of water and eliminate 3.1 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions.[18]

For comparison, Indiana emitted a total of 230,830,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide in 2007.[19][20]

As of March 2010 Indiana lacked a renewable energy standard, unlike several other midwestern states: Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri and Iowa.[21] Nevertheless, Indiana's wind power development had outpaced that of Ohio and Michigan.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Installed Wind Capacity, U.S. Department of Energy, 3 April 2016
  2. ^ "Meadow Lake Update" (PDF). Horizon Wind Energy. 2009-07-15. Retrieved 2010-03-16. [dead link]
  3. ^ a b "U.S. Wind Energy Projects - Indiana". American Wind Energy Association. 2010-09-30. Retrieved 2011-03-07. 
  4. ^ "Estimates of Windy Land Area and Wind Energy Potential by State for Areas >= 30% Capacity Factor at 80m" (XLS). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. 2010-02-04. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  5. ^ "Indiana Wind Activities". National Renewable Energy Laboratory. 2010-02-19. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  6. ^ "Electric Power and Renewable Energy in Indiana". USDOE, EERE. 2008-06-25. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  7. ^ Bradley, David (2004-02-06). "A Great Potential: The Great Lakes as a Regional Renewable Energy Source" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-25. Retrieved 2008-10-04. [dead link]
  8. ^ "Great Lakes eyed for offshore wind farms". MSNBC, Associated Press. 2008-10-31. Retrieved 2008-11-14. 
  9. ^ "Momentum Grows for Great Lakes Offshore Wind". NewEnergyNews. 2008-10-31. Retrieved 2008-11-15. 
  10. ^ EIA (July 27, 2012). "Electric Power Monthly Table 1.17.A.". United States Department of Energy. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  11. ^ EIA (July 27, 2012). "Electric Power Monthly Table 1.17.B.". United States Department of Energy. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  12. ^ EIA (February 2013). "Electric Power Monthly Table 1.17.A." (PDF). United States Department of Energy. Retrieved 2013-05-24. 
  13. ^ EIA (February 2016). "Electric Power Monthly Table 1.17.A." (PDF). United States Department of Energy. Retrieved 2016-04-03. 
  14. ^ "Indiana Office of Energy Development - Wind Power". IN.gov - Official Website of the State of Indiana. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  15. ^ ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/91911.pdf
  16. ^ http://www.insideindianabusiness.com/newsitem.asp?ID=39751
  17. ^ http://www.taylor.edu/sciencecomplex/about/wind-turbines.shtml
  18. ^ Lantz, Eric; Tegen, Suzanne (May 2008). "Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Indiana" (PDF, 503kB). EERE, NREL. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  19. ^ http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/downloads/CO2FFC_2007.pdf
  20. ^ http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/downloads/CO2FFC_2007.xls
  21. ^ Slabaugh, Seth (2010-01-11). "Indiana not promoting wind energy like its neighbors". Retrieved 2010-03-23.