Worker director

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A worker director or employee-elected director is a member of a company's board of directors that is elected by the workforce of an organisation. Employees have a right by law to appoint directors to companies in most European Union member states. In the United States, trade unions have negotiated collective agreements, typically linked to employee stock ownership plans, to appoint board members.



  • Arbeitsverordnung 1890, the first law enabling worker councils, but only on a voluntary basis, in Germany
  • Hilfsdienstgesetz 1916, war time requirement for worker councils in some industries
  • Montan-mitbestimmungsgesetz 1951
  • Mitbestimmungsergänzungsgesetz 1956
  • Betriebsverfassungsgesetz 1972, standardised law for one third employees on company boards with over 500 staff
  • Codetermination Act 1976 in Germany
  • Drittelbeteiligungsgesetz 2004, codified again, one third worker directors in companies with over 500 staff.

United Kingdom[edit]

United States[edit]

See also[edit]



United States
  • TH Hammer, SC Currall and RN Stern, ‘Worker Representation on Boards of Directors: A Study of Competing Roles’ (1991) 44(4) Industrial and Labor Relations Review 661-680
  • LW Hunter, ‘Can Strategic Participation be Institutionalized? Union Representation on American Corporate Boards’ (1998) 51(4) Industrial and Labor Relations Review 557-578
  • RB McKersie, ‘Union-Nominated Directors: A New Voice in Corporate Governance’ (1 April 1999) MIT Working Paper
  • RB McKersie, ‘Labor's voice at the strategic level of the firm’ (2001) 7 Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research 480

External links[edit]