Xiaohe Tomb complex
Map of the Lop Nur region, Xinjiang, China by Folke Bergman 1935. The Xiaohe Tomb complex is marked as Ördek’s Necropolis near the center of the map.
The Xiaohe 'Little River' Tomb complex (Chinese: 小河墓地; pinyin: Xiǎohé mùdì), also known as Ördek’s Necropolis, refers to a bronze-age burial site located near Lop Nur, in Xinjiang, Western China. It is an oblong sand dune, from which more than 30 well-preserved mummies, buried in air-tight ox-hide bags, have been excavated. The mummies, the earliest of which date from around 4000 years ago, appear Caucasoid. Genetic analysis, however, revealed an admixture of population from both the West and East, with paternal lineages being exclusively west Eurasian, and maternal lineages - a mixture of east and west Eurasian. The entire Xiaohe Tomb complex contains about 330 tombs, about 160 of which have been looted by grave robbers. The Xiaohe remains contains the largest number of mummies found at any single site in the world to date. No human settlement has been found near the tomb complex; the bodies were therefore likely to have been transported from elsewhere for burial at this site.
Discovery and early excavations
A local hunter named Ördek found the site around 1910. Later, in 1934, partly with Ördek's help, Swedish explorer and archeologist Folke Bergman located the site which he named Ördek’s Necropolis. The tomb complex appeared as a small oval mound, and the top of the burial mound was covered with a forest of erect wooden posts whose tops had been splintered by strong winds. Oar-shaped wooden monuments and wooden human figures were found at the site. The coffins were assembled over the bodies which had become mummified. Bergman excavated 12 burials and recovered approximately 200 artifacts that were transported back to Stockholm. Bergman noted the surprising resemblance in the clothing, especially the fringed loin-cloths, to Bronze Age grave finds in Denmark, but dismissed any direct connection.
Later rediscovery and excavations
In October 2003, an excavation project, organized by the Xinjiang Cultural Relics and Archaeology Institute, began at the site. A total of 167 tombs have been uncovered since the end of 2002, and excavations have revealed hundreds of smaller tombs built in layers. In 2006, a coffin wrapped with ox hide in the shape of a boat was found. It contained a remarkably intact mummy of a young woman, which came to be called the Beauty of Xiaohe, or "Lolan Güzeli".
Description of the tombs
Each tomb is marked by a vertical poplar post near the upper end of the coffin. A skull or horn of an ox may be suspended from the post. The ends of the posts can be either torpedo-shaped or oar-shaped, representing the phallus and vulva respectively. The male burials were marked with the oar-shaped posts, while the female burials were marked with the phallic posts. Bows and arrows were found with the male burials. The posts and coffins may be painted red. Each coffin is made of two massive pieces of plank assembled over the body, resembling an overturned boat, and then covered with cowhides. A few special tombs containing females have an extra rectangular coffin on top covered with layers of mud. Small masks of human faces and wooden human figures may accompany the burials. Twigs and branches of ephedra were placed beside the body.
Genetic analyses of the mummies showed that the Xiaohe people were an admixture from populations originating from both the West and the East. The maternal lineages of the Xiaohe people originated from both East Asia and West Eurasia, whereas the paternal lineages all originated from West Eurasia.
Mitochondrial DNA analysis, which reveals the maternal ancestry, showed that maternal lineages carried by the Xiaohe people included West Eurasian haplogroups H, K, U5, U7, U2e, T and R*; East Asian haplogroups B5, D and G2a; haplogroups of most likely Central Asian or Siberian origin C4 and C5; as well as typically South Asian haplogroups M5 and M*. On the other hand, nearly all (11 out of 12 - or around 92%) of surveyed paternal lines were of West Eurasian haplogroup R1a1, and one was of exceptionally rare basal paragroup K*. The geographic location of this admixing is unknown, although south Siberia is likely.
- List of Bronze Age sites in China
- Loulan Kingdom (Kroraina)
- Tarim mummies
- Miran (China)
- Chunxiang Li, Hongjie Li, Yinqiu Cui, Chengzhi Xie, Dawei Cai, Wenying Li, Victor H Mair, Zhi Xu, Quanchao Zhang, Idelis Abuduresule, Li Jin, Hong Zhu and Hui Zhou (2010). "Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age". BMC Biology. 8 (15). doi:10.1186/1741-7007-8-15. PMC . PMID 20163704.
- "Burial Site from the Bronze Age, Lop Nur, Xinjiang.". www.china.org.cn. Retrieved 2009-07-28.
- Jan Romgard (2008). "Questions of Ancient Human Settlements in Xinjiang and the Early Silk Road Trade, with an Overview of the Silk Road Research Institutions and Scholars in Beijing, Gansu, and Xinjiang" (PDF). Sino-Platonic Papers (185).
- Folke Bergman: Archaeological Researches in Sinkiang.
- "Silk Road Documentary Unearths Latest Findings". china.org.cn. Retrieved 2009-07-28.
- Samuel Hughes (Jan–Feb 2011). "When West" (PDF). The Pennsylvania Gazette.
- V. H. Mair (2006). "The rediscovery and complete excavation of Ördek's Necropolis" (PDF). Journal of Indo-European Studies. 34 (3/4): 273–318.
- Nicholas Wade (March 15, 2010). "A Host of Mummies, a Forest of Secrets". New York Times.
- Chunxiang Li, Chao Ning, Erika Hagelberg, Hongjie Li, Yongbin Zhao, Wenying Li, Idelisi Abuduresule, Hong Zhu and Hui Zhou (2015). "Analysis of ancient human mitochondrial DNA from the Xiaohe cemetery: insights into prehistoric population movements in the Tarim Basin, China". BMC Genet. 16 (78). doi:10.1186/s12863-015-0237-5. PMC . PMID 26153446.
- Zhōngguó běifāng gǔdài rénqún Y rǎnsètǐ yíchuán duōyàng xìng yánjiū--“jílín dàxué”2012 nián bóshì lùnwén.
- "The origin of Xiaohe Bronze Age mummies, 18 July 2014, posted by Hui Zhou, Jilin University". Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- Folke Bergman: Archaeological Researches in Sinkiang. Especially in the Lop-Nor Region.[permanent dead link] (Reports from the Scientific Expedition to the Northwestern Provinces of China under the Leadership of Dr. Sven Hedin / Scientific Expedition to the North-Western Provinces of China: Publication 7). Thule, Stockholm 1939.
- Sven Hedin und Folke Bergman: History of an Expedition in Asia 1927–1935. Reports: Publication 25: Part III 1933-1935, Statens Etnografiska Museum, Stockholm 1944.
- Folke Bergman: Travels and Archaeological Field-work in Mongolia and Sinkiang: a Diary of the Years 1927-1934. In: Sven Hedin und Folke Bergman: History of an Expedition in Asia 1927–1935. Part IV: 1933–1935. General reports, travels and field-work. (Reports: Publication 26.), Statens Etnografiska Museum, Stockholm 1945.
- V. H. Mair: The rediscovery and complete excavation of Ördek's Necropolis. In: Journal of Indo-European Studies 34, 2006, No. 3/4, p. 273–318.
- Alfried Wieczorek und Christoph Lind: Ursprünge der Seidenstraße. Sensationelle Neufunde aus Xinjiang, China. Reiss-Engelhorn-Museen, Mannheim. Theiss, Stuttgart 2007. ISBN 3-8062-2160-X
- Further reading
- Downloadable article: "Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age" Li et al. BMC Biology 2010, 8:15.