Haplogroup D (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup D
Peopling of eurasia.jpg
Possible time of originca. 60,000 – 40,000 YBP
Possible place of originEast Asia
AncestorM
DescendantsD4, 16189
Defining mutations4883 5178A 16362[1]

In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup D is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. It is a descendant haplogroup of haplogroup M, thought to have arisen somewhere in Asia, between roughly 60,000 and 35,000 years ago (in the Late Pleistocene, before the Last Glacial Maximum and the settlement of the Americas).[2]

In contemporary populations, it is found especially in Central[3] and Northeast Asia.[4] Haplogroup D (more specifically, subclade D4) is one of five main haplogroups found in the indigenous peoples of the Americas, the others being A, B, C, and X.

Subclades[edit]

There are two principal branches, D4 and D5'6. D1, D2 and D3 are subclades of D4.

D4[edit]

D1 is a basal branch of D4 that is widespread and diverse in the Americas. Subclades D4b1, D4e1, and D4h are found both in Asia and in the Americas and are thus of special interest for the settlement of the Americas. D2, which occurs with high frequency in some arctic and subarctic populations (especially Aleuts), is a subclade of D4e1 parallel to D4e1a and D4e1c, so it properly should be termed D4e1b. D3, which has been found mainly in some Siberian populations and in Inuit of Canada and Greenland,[5] is a branch of D4b1c.

D4 (3010, 8414, 14668): The subclade D4 is the most frequently occurring mtDNA haplogroup among modern populations of northern East Asia, such as Japanese,[6][7][8][9] Okinawans,[7] Koreans,[7][10] northern Han Chinese (e.g. from Lanzhou[11]), and some Mongolic- or Tungusic-speaking populations of the Hulunbuir region, such as Barghuts in Hulun Buir Aimak,[12] Mongols and Evenks in New Barag Left Banner,[13] and Oroqens in Oroqen Autonomous Banner.[13] D4 is also the most common haplogroup among the Oroks of Sakhalin, the Buryats and Khamnigans of the Buryat Republic, the Kalmyks of the Kalmyk Republic, the Telenghits and Kazakhs of the Altai Republic,[12][14] and the Kyrgyz of Kyzylsu Kyrgyz Autonomous Prefecture.[15] It also predominates among published samples of Paleo-Indians and individuals whose remains have been recovered from Chertovy Vorota Cave. Spread also all over China, the Himalayas, Central Asia, Siberia, and indigenous peoples of the Americas, with some cases observed in Southeast Asia, Southwest Asia, and Europe.[16][17][18][19][20][21][22] Khattak and Kheshgi in Peshawar Valley, Pakistan [23]

  • D1 – America
    • D1a – Colombia
      • D1a1 – Brazil (Surui, Gavião)
      • D1a2 – Guaraní
    • D1b – United States (Hispanic), Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico
    • D1c – United States (Hispanic), Mexican
    • D1d
      • D1d1 – United States (Hispanic), Mexican
      • D1d2 – Mexican
    • D1e – Brazil (Karitiana, Zoró)
    • D1f – Colombia (incl. Coreguaje), Ecuador (Amerindian Kichwas from the Amazonian provinces of Pastaza, Orellana, and Napo), Peru, Mexican, USA
      • D1f1 – Venezuela, Brazil (Karitiana), Tiriyó, Waiwai, Katuena
      • D1f2 – Colombia
      • D1f3 – Mexico, USA (Native American)
    • D1g – Southern Cone of South America
      • D1g1
        • D1g1a
        • D1g1b
      • D1g2
        • D1g2a
      • D1g3
      • D1g4
      • D1g5
      • D1g6
    • D1h
      • D1h1 – Mexican
      • D1h2 – Mexican
    • D1i – Peru, Mexican, United States (Hispanic)
      • D1i1 – Mexican
      • D1i2 – Mexican
    • D1j – Southern Cone of South America (incl. the Gran Chaco in Argentina)
      • D1j1
        • D1j1a
          • D1j1a1 – Argentina
          • D1j1a2
    • D1k – Peru, Mexican, United States (Hispanic)
    • D1m – Mexican
    • D1n – United States (Hispanic), Mexico
    • D1r – Peru
    • D1u
      • D1u1 – Peru

  • D4a – China,[24] Northern Thailand (Khon Mueang from Chiang Mai Province and Lamphun Province, Phuan from Phrae Province),[25] Laos (Lao from Luang Prabang),[25] Japan, Korea, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan (Tajik from Ferghana),[26] Pakistan (Saraiki),[27] Mongolia [28]
    • D4a1 – Japan, Korea, Negidal, Ulchi[29]
      • D4a1a – Japan
        • D4a1a1 – Japan, Korea
          • D4a1a1a – Japan
      • D4a1b – Japan, Korea
        • D4a1b1 – Japan
      • D4a1c – Japan, Korea
      • D4a1d – Japan
      • D4a1e – China, Taiwan, Dirang Monpa, Yakut
        • D4a1e1 – Japan, Uyghurs
      • D4a1f – Japan
        • D4a1f1 – Japan
      • D4a1g – China, Bargut
      • D4a1h – Japan
    • D4a2 – Japan, Korea
      • D4a2a – Japan, Korea
      • D4a2b – Japan
    • D4a3
      • D4a3a
        • D4a3a* – China[30] (Henan[31]), Korea[30]
        • D4a3a1 – China (Taihang area in Henan province,[32] Hunan Han,[31] Korean from Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture[33])
        • D4a3a2 – Japan
      • D4a3b
        • D4a3b* – China
        • D4a3b1 – Japan, Korea, China(Korean from Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, China),[34] Pakistan (Kalash) [35]
        • D4a3b2 – China, Taiwan
    • D4a4 – Japan
    • D4a5
    • D4a6 - China[36] (Eastern China,[37] Korean from Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture[33]), Mauritius[38]
  • D4a-b
    • D4a-b* – China (Han Chinese from Taizhou, Zhejiang) [39]
      • D4a7
        • D4a7* – China [40]
          • D4a7a
            • D4a7a* – Taiwan [41]
              • D4a7a1 – Taiwan (Hakka Han from Neipu, Pingtung) [42]
          • D4a7b
            • D4a7b* – Vietnam (Kinh from Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam) [43]
              • D4a7b1 – China (Souther Han Chinese from Hunan),[9] Taiwan (Minnan Han from Kaohsiung and Tsou from Alishan, Chiayi),[44] Vietnam (Kinh from Gia Lâm District, Hanoi) [45] Singapore (Malaysian) [46]
    • D4a8 – China
  • D4b – Thailand (Thai from Central Thailand[47])
    • D4b1
      • D4b1* – Russia (Tuvan from Tuva Republic, Tatarstan), Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz), China (Uyghur), Mongols
      • D4b1a
        • D4b1a* – China (Bargut from Inner Mongolia), South Korea, Thailand (Iu Mien from Nan Province)
        • D4b1a1 – South Korea, Japan
          • D4b1a1a – South Korea, Japan, Kyrgyzstan
        • D4b1a2 – Yukaghir, Neolithic Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug
          • D4b1a2a
            • D4b1a2a* – Hungary, Khamnigan, Han (Beijing)
            • D4b1a2a1 – China (Bargut, Uyghur), Mongol, Kazakhstan, Karakalpak, Azeri, Turkey, Poland, Russia (Buryats in Buryat Republic and Irkutsk Oblast, Tubalars, Ayon, Yanranay, Karaginsky District), Inuit (Canada, Greenland[48]), Canada, Native American (USA)
            • D4b1a2a2 – Buryat, Todzhins, Tuvan
      • D4b1b'd
        • D4b1b - China, Taiwan
          • D4b1b1 – Japan
            • D4b1b1a – Japan
              • D4b1b1a1 – Japan
          • D4b1b2 – Japan, China (Han from Zhanjiang)
        • D4b1d – China (Gelao from Daozhen)
      • D4b1c
        • D3 – Oroqen, Buryat, Barghut, Yukaghir, Even, Evenk, Yakut, Dolgan, Nganasan, Inuit
          • D3* – Buryat, Yakut, Yukaghir (Lower Indigirka River, Chukotka, etc.), Nganasan (Vadei from the Taimyr Peninsula), Even (Severo-Evensk district, Sebjan, Sakkyryyr, Berezovka), Evenk (Taimyr Peninsula), Oroqen, Mansi
          • D3a – Bargut, Buryat, Evenk (Stony Tunguska)
          • D3b – Oroqen
          • D3c
            • D3c* – Buryat
            • D3c1
              • D3c1* – Nganasan (Avam from the Taimyr Peninsula)
              • D3c1a
                • D3c1a1
                  • D3c1a1a – Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug (Neolithic Transbaikal), Bargut (modern Inner Mongolia)
                  • D3c1a1b – Italy (Roman Empire)
                • D3c1a2 – Ust'-Dolgoe site of Glazkovo culture (Bronze Age Cis-Baikal), Onnyos burial near Amga River (Middle Neolithic central Yakutia)
          • D3d – Even (Tompo District of Yakutia, Lower Indigirka River)
          • D3e – Even (Tompo District of Yakutia)
    • D4b2 – Japan, specimen from 4256–4071 cal YBP (Middle Jōmon period) Yokohama,[49] China, Thailand (Hmong from Chiang Rai Province), India (Gallong)
      • D4b2a – Japan
        • D4b2a1 – Japan
        • D4b2a2 – Japan, Korea
          • D4b2a2a – Japan, Kyrgyzstan
            • D4b2a2a1 – Japan
            • D4b2a2a2 – Japan
          • D4b2a2b – Japan
      • D4b2b – China (Uyghurs, Tu, Tibet, etc.), South Korea, Japan, Thailand (Khmu from Nan Province[25]), Saudi Arabia
        • D4b2b1 – Japan, Korea, Buryat, Uyghur, Persian
          • D4b2b1a – Japan
          • D4b2b1b – Japan
          • D4b2b1c – Japan
          • D4b2b1d – Japan
        • D4b2b2 – China (Tujia, Han from Lanzhou,[11] etc.), Taiwan (Hakka)
          • D4b2b2a – China, Taiwan, Vietnam (Lachi)
            • D4b2b2a1 – Japan, Russia
          • D4b2b2b – Russia, China, South Korea
          • D4b2b2c – China, Buryat
        • D4b2b3 – Japan
        • D4b2b4 – Northeast India (Sherdukpen), China, Russia (Tuvan)
        • D4b2b5 – Barguts, Buryat, Tibet, Taiwan
        • D4b2b6 – Chinese (Beijing, Lanzhou,[11] Denver), Korea, Armenian
        • D4b2b7 – China, Taiwan (Hakka)
        • D4b2b8 – Uyghur
        • D4b2b9
          • D4b2b9* – China, Xibo
          • D4b2b9a
            • D4b2b9a* – Buryat
            • D4b2b9a1 – China
      • D4b2c
      • D4b2d – Inner Mongolia (Bargut, Buryat)
  • D4c
    • D4c1 – Uyghur
      • D4c1a – Japan, Korea
        • D4c1a1 – Japan, Tashkurgan (Kyrgyz)
      • D4c1b – Japan, Inner Mongolia
        • D4c1b1 – Japan, Tibet
        • D4c1b2 – Japan
    • D4c2 – Turkmenistan
      • D4c2a – Uyghur (Artux), Russian Federation
        • D4c2a1 – Uyghur, Buryat, Bargut, Khamnigan, Ulchi
      • D4c2b – Yakut, Buryat, Bargut, Daur, Even, Uyghur, Kyrgyz, Kazakhstan, Turk, Russian, Ukraine
      • D4c2c – Japan
  • D4d – Japan, Korea

  • D4e
    • D4e1 – Taiwan, Czech Republic (West Bohemia), Austrian, Finland, USA
      • D4e1a – Thailand (Mon from Nakhon Ratchasima Province[25]), Moken, Urak Lawoi, China (Han from Lanzhou,[11] etc.), Tibet, Uyghur, Korea, Japan
        • D4e1a1 – Japan, Chinese
        • D4e1a2 – Thailand, Sonowal Kachari
          • D4e1a2a – Japan, Korea
        • D4e1a3 – China (Yao from Bama, etc.), Thailand (Hmong, Iu Mien), Vietnam (Cờ Lao, Phù Lá)
      • D2 – Uyghur
        • D2a'b
          • D2a – Aleut, Tlingit
            • D2a1 – Saqqaq, ancient Canada
              • D2a1a – Aleut
              • D2a1b – Siberian Eskimo
            • D2a2 – Chukchi, Eskimo
          • D2b – Yukaghir, Even (Maya River, Okhotsk Region)
            • D2b1 – China, Tibet, Kazakhstan, Kalmyk, Belarus (Tatar)
              • D2b1a – Buryat, Yakut, Khamnigan, Evenk
            • D2b2 – Evenk, Bargut
        • D2c – Buryat
      • D4e1c – Mexican
    • D4e2 – Japan, Korea, USA (African American)
      • D4e2a – Japan, Korea
      • D4e2b – Japan
      • D4e2c – Japan
      • D4e2d – Japan
    • D4e3 – Northeast Thailand (Black Tai, Saek),[25] China, Lachungpa
    • D4e4 – Yakut, Ulchi,[29] Bulgaria, Poland, Russian Federation
      • D4e4a – Evenk, Even, Uyghur
        • D4e4a1 – Yukaghir, Evenk, Even
      • D4e4b – Russian, Volga Tatar
    • D4e5
      • D4e5a - Xinjiang (Uyghur, Kyrgyz), Russia (Altai Kizhi, Buryat), Inner Mongolia (Bargut), Iran (Qashqai), Japan (Aichi)
      • D4e5b - Orok (Sakhalin), Even (Nelkan on the Maya River in the Okhotsk Region), Kyrgyz (Artux), Bashkortostan, Han Chinese (Lanzhou,[11] Denver)
  • D4f – Shor
    • D4f1 – Japan, Korea, Bargut

  • D4g
    • D4g* – Japan, Korea
    • D4g1 – Japan, Korea, Uyghur, Uzbekistan
      • D4g1a – Japan
      • D4g1b – Japan, Taiwan, Belarus
      • D4g1c – Japan
    • D4g2 – China
      • D4g2a – Japan
        • D4g2a1 – China, Thailand (Mon from Lopburi Province[25]), Bargut, Buryat, Khamnigan
      • D4g2b – China, Buryat
        • D4g2b1 – Han Chinese, Ulchi
          • D4g2b1a – Japan

  • D4h
    • D4h* – Thailand (Khmu from Nan Province, Htin from Phayao Province, Khon Mueang from Lampang Province[25]), Philippines
    • D4h1
      • D4h1* – China
      • D4h1a - Korea
        • D4h1a1 – Korea, Japan
        • D4h1a2 – Japan
      • D4h1b – Hunan (Han), Japan
      • D4h1c – China (incl. Tu), Tibet
        • D4h1c1 – Japan, Korea
      • D4h1d – Bargut
    • D4h2 – Ulchi
    • D4h3 – Thailand (Tai Yuan from Ratchaburi Province[25])[50]
      • D4h3a – South America (Peru, Ecuador, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil), Mexico, USA,[51] and Colombia.[52]
        • D4h3a1 – Chile
          • D4h3a1a – Chile
            • D4h3a1a1 – Chile
            • D4h3a1a2 – Chile
        • D4h3a2 – Chile, Argentina
        • D4h3a3 – Chile
          • D4h3a3a – Mexico, USA
        • D4h3a4 – Peru
        • D4h3a5 – Chile, Peru, Argentina
        • D4h3a6 – Peru, Ecuador
        • D4h3a7 – ancient Canada
        • D4h3a8 – Mexico
        • D4h3a9 – Peru
      • D4h3b – China
    • D4h4 – Uyghur, Tibet, Japan
      • D4h4a – Kyrgyz (Tashkurgan), Buryat, Bargut
  • D4i
    • D4i* – Japan, Uyghur, Israel (Palestinian)
    • D4i1 – Japan
    • D4i2 – Uyghur, Yakut, Dolgan, Kazakh, Volga Tatar, Buryat, Bargut, Evenk (Iengra), Even, Nanai, Yukaghir, Russia, Germany, England
    • D4i3
      • D4i3* – Nepal (Kathmandu)
      • D4i3a – China, Taiwan (Atayal)
    • D4i4 – Uyghur, Tibet (Sherpa), China (Miao), Vietnam (H'Mông)
    • D4i5 – Japan

  • D4j – Tibet, Uyghur, Kyrgyz (Kyrgyzstan, Tashkurgan, Artux), Altai, Teleut, Tuvan, Buryat, Bargut, China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, Turkey, Italy, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Belarus
    • D4j1 – Thailand (Palaung from Chiang Mai Province[25]), Uyghur
      • D4j1a – Bargut, Buryat, Khamnigan
        • D4j1a1 – Lepcha, Gallong, Lachungpa, Sherpa, Tibet, Lahu, Thailand (Lahu from Mae Hong Son Province, Mon from Ratchaburi Province, Lawa from Mae Hong Son Province, Tai Yuan from Uttaradit Province[25]), Kyrgyz, Uyghur, Buryat, Bargut, Khamnigan
          • D4j1a1a – Gallong, Tibet
          • D4j1a1b – Toto
        • D4j1a2 – Tibet, Ladakh
      • D4j1b – Tibet, Wancho, Nepal, Thailand (Mon from Ratchaburi Province, Palaung and Khon Mueang from Chiang Mai Province[25]), Kyrgyz (Tashkurgan)
        • D4j1b2 – Gallong
    • D4j2 – Lithuania, ancient Scythian (Chylenski), Yakut,[53] Dolgan[53]
      • D4j2a – Mansi, Ket, Yakut (Vilyuy River basin)[54]
    • D4j-T16311C! – Italy, Ukraine, Lithuania
      • D4j3 – Russian Federation, Uyghur, Tibet, Japan, Thailand (Mon from Ratchaburi Province[25])
      • D4j11 – Japan, Inner Mongolia, Buryat, Hungary, Italy
    • D4j4 – Nganasan, Even (Maya River basin, NE Sakha Republic[53]), Evenk (Nyukzha River basin,[54] Iengra River basin[54])
      • D4j4a – Evenk (Okhotsk region, Sakha Republic,[53] Iengra River basin[54]), Even (Okhotsk region), Ulchi, Buryat, Yakut (Vilyuy River basin[53])
    • D4j5 – Italy, Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Iran (Khorasan),[55] Uyghur, Kyrgyz,[56] Inner Mongolia, Buryat, Yakut,[54][53] Yukaghir,[53] Even (Sakha Republic),[54][53] Evenk (Sakha Republic)[53]
    • D4j-T146C!
      • D4j6 – China, Buryat, Dirang Monpa
      • D4j13 – Volga Tatar, Kyrgyz (Artux), Uyghur, Sherpa (Shigatse)
    • D4j7 – Tubalar
      • D4j7a – Buryat, Bargut
    • D4j8 – China, Bargut, Buryat, Evenk (Sakha Republic),[53] Yakut,[53] Kazakh, Kyrgyz (Artux), Uyghur, Poland, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Croatia, Austria, Scotland, Argentina
    • D4j9 – Bargut, Buryat, Khamnigan, Tuvan
    • D4j10 – Tubalar, Buryat, Bargut, Khamnigan, Kazakhstan, Turk
    • D4j12 – Bargut, Buryat, Uyghur, Tatarstan, Belarus, Poland, Italy
    • D4j14 – Japan
    • D4j15 – China, Tibet, Kazakhstan
    • D4j16 – China
  • D4k'o'p
    • D4k – Japan, Korea, China (Qinghai, Kinh, etc.), Uyghur, Kyrgyzstan
    • D4o – Teleut, Uyghur, Buryat[57]
      • D4o1
      • D4o2 – Bargut, Yakut, Evenk (Sakha Republic), Even (Kamchatka, Sakha Republic), Koryak, Ulchi,[29] China (Han from Lanzhou[11])
        • D4o2* – Bargut (Inner Mongolia)[57]
        • D4o2a – Manchu
          • D4o2a* – Uyghur, Yakut, Nganasan, Evenk (New Barag Left Banner), Even (Kamchatka),[54] Koryak[54]
          • D4o2a1 – Negidal, Hezhen, Uyghur, China
          • D4o2a2 – Yakut,[54] Uyghur, ancient Yana River basin
          • D4o2a3 – Bargut (Inner Mongolia),[57] Buryat (Zabaykalsky Krai)[58]
    • D4p
      • D4p* – Altaian, Buryat
      • D4p1 – Japan
      • D4p2 – Buryat
  • D4l
    • D4l1
      • D4l1a – Japan
        • D4l1a1 – Japan
      • D4l1b – Bargut (Inner Mongolia), Uyghur
    • D4l2 – Evenk (Nyukzha, Iengra, Taimyr), Yakut (Central, Vilyuy), Uyghur,[31] Kazakh[31]
      • D4l2a – Even (Tompo, Sebjan), Yukaghir
        • D4l2a1 – Even (Sebjan, Sakkyryyr), Evenk (Taimyr), Yakut, Yukaghir
        • D4l2a2 – Evenk, Negidal, Yukaghir
      • D4l2b – China, Tibet (Lhasa)
  • D4m
    • D4m* – Tubalar (Northeast Altai)[22]
    • D4m1 – Japan
    • D4m2 – Mongolia
      • D4m2a – Nivkh, Ulchi, Yakut, Buryat, Evenk, Even, Yukaghir
      • D4m2b – Tuvinian,[60] Daur[59] Bargut (Inner Mongolia),[57] Mongolia, Uyghur
    • D4m3 – Kyrgyz (Kyrgyzstan,[61] Artux[56]), Uyghur
  • D4n
    • D4n* – Japan, Korea
    • D4n1
      • D4n1* – Japan
      • D4n1a – Japan
    • D4n2
      • D4n2a – China
      • D4n2b – Kyrgyz (Tashkurgan),[56] Tibet,[62] Bargut (Inner Mongolia),[57] Buryat (Irkutsk Oblast)[58]
  • D4q – Taiwan,[30] China,[31] Kyrgyz,[61] Tajiks,[61] India (Jammu and Kashmir),[31] Germany,[30] Poland,[30] Netherlands,[30] United States[30]
  • D4r – Thailand, Myanmar
  • D4s
  • D4t – China, Korea, Japan
  • D4u
    • D4u*
    • D4u1
      • D4u1* – Iran (Qashqai)[55]
      • D4u1a – Tashkurgan (Sarikoli)[56]
  • D4v – Thailand[25]
  • D4w – Japan (Tokyo), Tu
  • D4x – Peru (pre-Columbian Lima)
  • D4y – Vietnam (La Chí)
  • D4z – China

D5'6[edit]

D5'6 (16189) is mainly found in East Asia and Southeast Asia, especially in China, Korea, and Japan.[66][67][68] It does not appear to have participated in the migration to the Americas, and frequencies in Central, North, and South Asia are generally lower, although the D5a2a2 subclade is prevalent (57/423 = 13.48%[53]) among the Yakuts, a Turkic-speaking group that migrated to Siberia in historical times under the pressure of the Mongol expansion.[53]

  • D5 - Taiwan (Paiwan)[69]
    • D5a'b (D5-A9180G) - Korean,[70] Tai Yuan in Northern Thailand[47]
      • D5a - China, Korea, Japan, Buryat, Poland
        • D5a1 - Japan (TMRCA 7,300 [95% CI 3,300 <-> 14,200] ybp[31])
          • D5a1a - Japan
            • D5a1a1 - Japan
            • D5a1a2 - Japan
        • D5a2 - Gallong, Korea (TMRCA 12,500 [95% CI 8,900 <-> 17,100] ybp[31])
          • D5a2a - Russia (Tula Oblast,[31] Buryat), China, Japan (TMRCA 10,400 [95% CI 7,400 <-> 14,200] ybp[31])
            • D5a2a-T16092C - China, Korea
              • D5a2a1 - China (Han from Lanzhou,[11] etc.), Tibet (Monpa, Deng), Vietnam (Hà Nhì), Korea, Japan (Gifu), Buryat, Tuvan, Kazakh
                • D5-C16172T! - Burusho,[59] Tubalar,[22] Kumandin (Turochak), Todzhi (Adir-Kezhig[71]), Buryat (South Siberia,[57] Inner Mongolia[58]), Wancho, Gallong, Monpa,[62] Myanmar (Burmese from Pakokku[69]), Thailand (Lawa from Mae Hong Son Province[25]), China (Han from Fujian, Miao, etc.), Taiwan
                  • D5a2a1a - Japan (Aichi, Chiba, etc.), China
                    • D5a2a1a1 - Japan (Aichi, etc.)
                      • D5a2a1a1a - Japan (Chiba, etc.)
                      • D5a2a1a1b - China (Uyghurs), Poland[57][72]
                    • D5a2a1a2 - Japan (Gifu, Tokyo, etc.)
                • D5a2a1b - Sonowal Kachari,[63] Gallong,[63] China (Han from Zhanjiang, etc.), Tibet (Lhoba, Tingri, Deng), Kyrgyz (Artux)[56]
                  • D5a2a1b1 - China, Taiwan (Minnan)
              • D5a2a2 - Japan (Aichi), Bargut, Buryat, Kyrgyz (Artux), Tibet (Shannan), Yakut, Dolgan, Yukaghir, Evenk (Iengra, Nyukzha, Taimyr, Sakha Republic), Even (Sakha Republic) (TMRCA 3,500 [95% CI 2,300 <-> 5,000] ybp[31])
          • D5a2b - Thailand (Iu Mien from Nan Province), Vietnam (Si La, Hà Nhì), Tibet (Deng, Sherpa), China (TMRCA 10,400 [95% CI 7,200 <-> 14,500] ybp[31])
        • D5a3 - Tibet, Korea, Japan (TMRCA 11,100 [95% CI 6,300 <-> 18,100] ybp[31])
          • D5a3a - China, Tibet, Finland
            • D5a3a1 - China, Uyghur, Ukraine
              • D5a3a1a - Finland, Norway (Saami), Russia (Veliky Novgorod, etc.), Mansi
          • D5a3b - China,[31] Korea (Seoul[57][31])
      • D5b - Uyghur, China
        • D5b1
          • D5b1* - China, Uyghur
          • D5b1a
            • D5b1a1 - Japan, Korea, China (Hubei, etc.)
            • D5b1a2 - Japan
          • D5b1b
            • D5b1b* - Japan, Korea
            • D5b1b1 - Japan, Korea, Uzbekistan
            • D5b1b2
              • D5b1b2* - Japan, Korea, Taiwan (Minnan), Uyghur
              • D5b1b2a - Uyghur
              • D5b1b2b - Uyghur
              • D5b1b2c - Kyrgyz (Kyrgyzstan)[61][31]
            • D5b1b3 - Japan
            • D5b1b4 - China
          • D5b1c
            • D5b1c* - China (Han from Kunming)
            • D5b1c1 - China, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Vietnam (Kinh)
              • D5b1c1* - Taiwan (Minnan, etc.)
              • D5b1c1a
                • D5b1c1a* - Taiwan (Amis, Puyuma, etc.), Indonesia (Manado), Chinese (Singapore)
                • D5b1c1a1 - Philippines (Kankanaey, Ifugao, etc.)
                • D5b1c1a2 - Philippines (Ibaloi)
              • D5b1c1b - China
            • D5b1c2 - Uyghur
          • D5b1d - Han Chinese (Beijing), Yakut[53][59]
          • D5b1e - China
          • D5b1f - China
        • D5b2 - Japan
        • D5b3
        • D5b4 - Thailand (Siamese, Hmong from Chiang Rai Province), Vietnam (Tay Nung, Cờ Lao, Tay, Kinh), Taiwan (Minnan, Makatao, etc.), China (Han)
        • D5b5 - Uyghur
    • D5c
      • D5c1 - Japan, Han Chinese (Beijing)
        • D5c1a - Japan, Taiwan (Minnan, etc.), China, Uyghur, Tubalar, Kumandin (Turochak, Soltonsky District), Shor (Biyka, etc.), Kyrgyzstan (TMRCA 4,500 [95% CI 3,300 <-> 6,100] ybp[31])
      • D5c-T16311C! - Vietnam (Kinh),[69] Mongolian,[60] China[73]
        • D5c2 - China, Japan
  • D6
    • D6a - Philippines, East Timor
      • D6a1
        • D6a1* - Tibet, China, Korea, Japan
        • D6a1a - China, Japan
      • D6a2 - Taiwan (Atayal), Philippines
    • D6c - China (She people, Han from Zhanjiang), Taiwan (Minnan), Thailand (Phutai from Kalasin Province)
      • D6c1 - Philippines


Table of frequencies by ethnic group[edit]

Population Frequency Count Source Subtypes
Ban Ravat (Uttarakhand) 1.000 38 [citation needed] D4=38
Aleut (Commander Islands) 1.000 36 [22] D2a1a=36
Orok (Sakhalin) 0.689 61 [citation needed] D(xD5)=41, D5=1
Aleut (Aleutian Islands) 0.656 163 [22] D2a1a=107
Tibetan (Deqin, Yunnan) 0.550 40 [citation needed] D(xD5)=20, D5(xD5a)=2
Northern Paiute/Shoshoni 0.479 94 [17] D=45
Uyghur (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.438 16 [3] D(xD4c)=5, D4c=2
Oroqen (Oroqen Autonomous Banner) 0.432 44 [13] D(xD5)=14, D5(xD5a)=3, D5a=2
Subba (Limbu) 0.432 44 [citation needed] D4=19
Japanese (Hokkaidō) 0.415 217 Asari 2007 D4a=24, D4b=21, D4(xD4a, D4b, D4e, D4g, D4j)=21, D4e=11, D5=10, D4g=2, D4j=1
Japanese (northern Kyūshū) 0.414 256 [7] D4b=26, D4(xD4a, D4b, D4e, D4g, D4j)=24, D4a=19, D4e=16, D5=10, D4g(xD4g1)=8, D4j=3
Japanese 0.412 211 [6] D4(xD4b)=75, D5(xD5a)=10, D5a=1, D4b=1
Japanese (Tōkai) 0.411 282 [7] D4b=34, D4a=26, D4(xD4a, D4b, D4e, D4g, D4j)=24, D5=14, D4e=13, D4j=3, D4g(xD4g1)=2
Northern Paiute 0.408 98 [16] D=40
Japanese (Tōhoku) 0.399 336 [7] D4a=31, D4b=30, D4(xD4a, D4b, D4e, D4g, D4j)=29, D4e=17, D4g(xD4g1)=11, D5=10, D4j=4, D4g1=2
Korean (South Korea) 0.398 103 [14] D4(xD2, D3)=33, D5=8
Mongol (New Barag Left Banner) 0.396 48 [13] D(xD5)=16, D5(xD5a)=2, D5a=1
Dolgan (Anabarsky, Volochanka, Ust-Avam, and Dudinka) 0.390 154 [53] D4l2=35, D3=8, D4e4a1=5, D4b1(xD3)=4, D4i2=2, D4j2=2, D4a=1, D2b1=1, D4m2=1, D5a2a2=1
Okinawa 0.383 326 [7] D4a=28, D4b=23, D4e=21, D4(xD4a, D4b, D4e, D4g, D4j)=18, D4j=12, D4g(xD4g1)=12, D5=7, D4g1=4
Tibetan (Nyingchi, Tibet) 0.375 24 [65] D=9
Korean (South Korea) 0.364 261 [citation needed] D4(xD4a, D4b)=36, D4b=20, D4a=18, D5=14, D(xD4, D5)=7
Japanese (Tokyo) 0.356 118 [9] D4=39, D5=3
Barghut (Hulunbuir) 0.356 149 [12] D4(xD2, D3)=47, D2=3, D3=2, D5=1
Buryat (Buryatia) 0.349 295 [14] D4(xD2, D3)=86?, D5=8, D3=7, D2=2
Buryat 0.348 419 [57] D4(xD2)=134, D5=9, D2=3
Korean (South Korea) 0.340 203 [7] D5=15, D4b=14, D4a=10, D4j=9, D4(xD4a, D4b, D4e, D4g, D4j)=8, D4e=7, D4g(xD4g1)=6
Khamnigan (Buryatia) 0.333 99 [14] D4(xD2, D3)=25, D3=5, D5=2, D2=1
Korean (northern China) 0.333 51 [citation needed] D4(xD4a, D4b)=11, D4a=3, D5(xD5a)=2, D(xD4, D5)=1
Korean (Arun Banner) 0.333 48 [13] D(xD5)=11, D5(xD5a)=5
Yakut (vicinity of Yakutsk) 0.329 164 [53] D5a2a2=28, D4i2=9, D4c2=5, D4o2=4, D4j5=3, D4b1(xD3)=2, D4a=1, D4j8=1, D4l2=1
Korean (South Korea) 0.324 185 [citation needed] D4(xD4a, D4b)=44, D5(xD5a)=6, D5a=3, D4a=3, D4b=3, D(xD4, D5)=1
Yi (Luxi, Yunnan) 0.323 31 [citation needed] D(xD5)=8, D5(xD5a)=2
Evenk (New Barag Left Banner) 0.319 47 [13] D(xD5)=12, D5(xD5a)=2, D5a=1
Evenk (Krasnoyarsk) 0.301 73 [14] D4(xD2, D3)=13, D5=5, D3=4
Han (Beijing) 0.300 40 [citation needed] D4(xD4a, D4b)=5, D5(xD5a)=3, D5a=2, D4a=2
Japanese (Miyazaki) 0.300 100 [citation needed] D4(xD4a,D4b1,D4b2b)=16, D4a=5, D4b2b=3, D5a(xD5a2)=3, D4b1=1, D5(xD5a)=1, D5a2=1
Turkmen (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.300 20 [3] D4c=5, D(xD4c)=1
Yakut 0.299 117 [13] D(xD5)=17, D5a=17, D5(xD5a)=1
Yakut (Vilyuy River basin) 0.297 111 [53] D5a2a2=20, D4i2=4, D4c2=2, D2b1=2, D4b1(xD3)=1, D4e4a(xD4e4a1)=1, D4j2=1, D4j4a=1, D4o2=1
Iu Mien (Mengla, Yunnan) 0.296 27 [18] D(xD5)=7, D5(xD5a)=1
Han (Southwest China; pool of 44 Sichuan, 34 Chongqing, 33 Yunnan, and 26 Guizhou) 0.292 137 [65] D4(xD4a)=29, D5a=6, D4a=5
Nganasan 0.292 24 [citation needed] D3=4, D(xD1a, D2, D3, D5)=3
Kalmyk (Kalmykia) 0.291 110 [14] D4(xD2, D3)=24, D5=6, D2=2
Nivkh (northern Sakhalin) 0.286 56 [citation needed] D(xD1a, D2, D3, D5)=16
Tibetan (Nagchu, Tibet) 0.286 35 [65] D=10
Evenk (Ust-Maysky, Oleneksky, and Zhigansky) 0.280 125 [53] D5a2a2=10, D4l2=8, D2b1=3, D4b1(xD3)=2, D3=2, D4c2=2, D4e4a1=2, D4j4a=2, D4j5=2, D4j8=1, D4o2=1
Chinese (Shenyang, Liaoning) 0.275 160 [7] D5=16, D4(xD4a, D4b, D4e, D4g, D4j)=6, D4b=5, D4e=5, D4g(xD4g1)=5, D4j=4, D6=2, D4a=1
Hani (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.273 33 [citation needed] D(xD5)=6, D5(xD5a)=2, D5a=1
Lahu (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.267 15 [citation needed] D(xD5)=4
Kazakh (Kosh-Agach, Altai Republic) 0.265 98 [12] D4(xD2, D3)=22, D5=4
Yakut (northern Yakutia) 0.257 148 [53] D5a2a2=9, D4e4a(xD4e4a1)=6, D4j2=5, D4l2=4, D4i2=3, D5b1d=3, D4c2=2, D4j5=2, D3=1, D2b1=1, D4m2=1, D4o2=1
Nganasan (Ust-Avam, Volochanka, and Novaya) 0.256 39 [22] D3a1=7, D6=2, D4a=1
Han (Xinjiang) 0.255 47 [citation needed] D(xD5)=9, D5a=2, D5(xD5a)=1
Kyrgyz (Sary-Tash) 0.255 47 [citation needed] D(xD5)=12
Nuu-Chah-Nulth 0.255 102 [16] D=26
Han (southern California) 0.254 390 [65] D(xD4a, D5)=53, D5=28, D4a=18
Manchurian 0.250 40 [citation needed] D4(xD4a, D4b)=8, D5(xD5a)=1, D5a=1
Even (Eveno-Bytantaysky & Momsky) 0.248 105 [53] D4c2=5, D4l2=5, D4i2=3, D4j5=3, D5a2a2=3, D4m2=2, D4a=1, D3=1, D2b1=1, D4j4(xD4j4a)=1, D4o2=1
Teleut (Kemerovo) 0.245 53 [14] D4(xD2, D3)=12, D5=1
Daur (Evenk Autonomous Banner) 0.244 45 [13] D(xD5)=7, D5(xD5a)=2, D5a=2
Evenk (Buryatia) 0.244 45 [14] D3=6, D4(xD2, D3)=4, D2=1
Han (Taiwan) 0.243 1117 [65] D=271
Negidal 0.242 33 [citation needed] D(xD1a, D2, D3, D5)=8
Aini (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.240 50 [citation needed] D(xD5)=7, D5(xD5a)=3, D5a=2
Ainu 0.235 51 [citation needed] D(xD5,D6)=8, D5=4
Taiwanese (Taipei, Taiwan) 0.231 91 [7] D5=11, D4a=5, D4b=2, D4(xD4a, D4b, D4e, D4g, D4j)=2, D4g(xD4g1)=1
Darjeeling (general population) 0.227 66 [citation needed] D4=13
D5=2
Gelao (Daozhen County, Guizhou) 0.226 31 [citation needed] D(xD4b, D5)=6, D4b=1
Uzbek (Xinjiang) 0.224 58 [citation needed] D(xD5)=11, D5(xD5a)=2
Yakut (Yakutia) 0.222 36 [14] D4(xD2, D3)=5, D2=1, D3=1, D5=1
Yukaghir (Upper Kolyma) 0.222 18 [22] D5a1=3, D6=1
Tujia (western Hunan) 0.219 64 [citation needed] D(xD5)=9, D5a=4, D5(xD5a)=1
Ulchi 0.218 87 [citation needed] D(xD1a, D2, D3, D5)=13, D1a=4, D3=2
Han (Beijing Normal University) 0.215 121 [9] D4=15, D5=11
Vietnamese 0.214 42 [citation needed] D4(xD4a, D4b)=7, D5(xD5a)=1, D5a=1
Evenk (53 Stony Tunguska basin & 18 Tugur-Chumikan) 0.211 71 [citation needed] D(xD1a, D2, D3, D5)=13, D3=1, D5=1
Telengit (Altai Republic) 0.211 71 [14] D4(xD2, D3)=15
Guoshan Yao (Jianghua, Hunan) 0.208 24 [18] D(xD5)=4, D5(xD5a)=1
Tibetan (Chamdo, Tibet) 0.207 29 [65] D4(xD4a)=3, D5a=2, D4a=1
Tibetan (Shigatse, Tibet) 0.207 29 [65] D4(xD4a)=4, D5a=2
Oirat Mongol (Xinjiang) 0.204 49 [citation needed] D(xD5)=9, D5(xD5a)=1
Kyrgyz (Xinjiang) 0.203 138 [15] D4(xD4b,D4e)=20
D5=4
D4b=2
D4e=2
Siberian Eskimos 0.203 79 [citation needed] D2=12, D3=4 (4/8 Naukan, 7/25 Sireniki, 5/46 Chaplin)
Karakalpak (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.200 20 [3] D(xD4c)=4
Kyrgyz (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.200 20 [3] D(xD4c)=4
Nu (Gongshan, Yunnan) 0.200 30 [citation needed] D(xD5)=6
Buryat 0.198 126 [13] D(xD5)=20, D5a=3, D5(xD5a)=2
Gelao (Daozhen County, Guizhou) 0.196 102 [citation needed] D(xD5)=15, D5(xD5a)=3, D5a=2
Tubalar 0.194 72 [citation needed] D(xD1a, D2, D3, D5)=10, D5=3, D3=1
Hmong (Jishou, Hunan) 0.194 103 [18] D(xD5)=15, D5(xD5a)=3, D5a=2
Bai (Dali, Yunnan) 0.191 68 [citation needed] D(xD5)=9, D5(xD5a)=4
Mansi 0.190 63 [4] D=12
Lowland Yao (Fuchuan, Guangxi) 0.190 42 [18] D(xD5)=7, D5a=1
Khasi 0.190 368 [citation needed] D4=48
D(xD4, D5a)=22
Mizo 0.188 48 [citation needed] D4=9
Nyishi 0.188 48 [citation needed] D4=7
D5=2
Yi (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.188 16 [citation needed] D(xD5)=3
Tibetan (Nyingchi, Tibet) 0.185 54 [65] D4(xD4a)=9, D5a=1
Poumai Naga 0.184 49 [citation needed] D4=9
Kazakh (Kazakhstan) 0.182 55 [citation needed] D(xD5)=9, D5(xD5a)=1
Hmong (Wenshan, Yunnan) 0.179 39 [18] D(xD5)=6, D5(xD5a)=1
Han (Denver) 0.178 73 [9] D4=10, D5=3
Yukaghir (Lower Kolyma-Indigirka) 0.171 82 [22] D9=4, D8=2, D7=2, D5a1=2, D3a1=2, D3a2=1, D2(xD2a1a)=1
Sherpa (India) 0.167 54 [citation needed] D4=9
Pumi (Ninglang, Yunnan) 0.167 36 [citation needed] D(xD5)=6
Tujia (Yongshun, Hunan) 0.167 30 [citation needed] D(xD5)=3, D5(xD5a)=2
Yakama 0.167 42 [16] D=7
Bhotia (Uttarakhand) 0.164 55 [citation needed] D4=9
Han (Hunan & Fujian) 0.164 55 [9] D4=6, D5=2, D6=1
Uyghur (Kazakhstan) 0.164 55 [citation needed] D(xD5)=9
Khanty 0.160 106 [4] D=17
Buryat (Kushun, Nizhneudinsk, Irkutsk) 0.160 25 [citation needed] D(xD1a, D2, D3, D5)=4
Bai (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.158 19 [citation needed] D(xD5)=3
Khakassians (Khakassia) 0.158 57 [14] D4(xD2, D3)=9
Mien (Shangsi, Guangxi) 0.156 32 [18] D(xD5)=5
Hui (Xinjiang) 0.156 45 [citation needed] D(xD5)=6, D5a=1
Tuvinian (Tuva) 0.152 105 [14] D4(xD2, D3)=9, D2=3, D5=3, D3=1
Nogai (Daghestan) 0.152 33 [citation needed] D=5
Kim Mun (Malipo, Yunnan) 0.150 40 [18] D(xD5)=6
Tajik (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.150 20 [3] D4c=2, D(xD4c)=1
Yi (Shuangbai, Yunnan) 0.150 40 [citation needed] D(xD5)=4, D5(xD5a)=1, D5a=1
Yi (Hezhang County, Guizhou) 0.150 20 [citation needed] D(xD4b, D5)=3
Zhuang (Napo County, Guangxi) 0.146 130 [citation needed] D4=13, D5=3, D(xD4,D5)=3
Kyrgyz (Talas) 0.146 48 [citation needed] D(xD5)=7
Bella Coola 0.143 84 [16] D=12
Lahu (Lancang, Yunnan) 0.143 35 [citation needed] D(xD5)=5
Tuvan 0.137 95 [citation needed] D(xD1a, D2, D3, D5)=9, D3=3, D5=1
Tibetan (Lhasa, Tibet) 0.136 44 [65] D4(xD4a)=5, D5a=1
Yukaghir (Verkhnekolymsky & Nizhnekolymsky) 0.136 22 [53] D4j5=1, D4l2=1, D5a2a2=1
Chukchi (Anadyr) 0.133 15 [14] D2=2
Kazakh (Xinjiang) 0.132 53 [citation needed] D(xD5)=7
Sema Naga 0.130 54 [citation needed] D4=7
Mongolian (Ulan Bator) 0.128 47 [citation needed] D4(xD4a, D4b)=5, D4b=1
Tibetan (Shannan, Tibet) 0.127 55 [65] D4(xD4a)=5, D4a=1, D5a=1
Chakhesang Naga 0.127 55 [citation needed] D4=7
Shor (Kemerovo) 0.122 82 [14] D4(xD2, D3)=9, D5=1
Chukchi 0.121 66 [citation needed] D2=7, D3=1
Bunu (19 Bu Nu from Dahua & 6 Mu Bin from Tianlin) 0.120 25 [18] D(xD5)=2, D5a=1
Kurd (northwestern Iran) 0.120 25 [14] D4(xD2, D3)=3
Udmurt (Malo-Purginsky & Tatyshlinsky) 0.119 101 [citation needed] D=12
Karelian (Viena) 0.115 87 [citation needed] D5=10
Tibetan refugees in India 0.112 107 [citation needed] D4=9
D5=3
Sulawesi (89 Manado, 64 Toraja, 46 Ujung Padang, & 38 Palu) 0.110 237 [20] D5=20, D(xD5)=6
Han (Taiwanese) 0.108 111 [citation needed] D4a=2, D5b1=2, D4b1b=1, D4b2b5=1, D4g2=1, D4j1a(xD4j1a1)=1, D4j6=1, D5(xD5a2a1, D5b)=1, D5a2a1=1, D5b(xD5b1)=1
Mongolian (Ulan Bator) 0.106 47 [14] D4(xD2, D3)=5
Uyghur (Xinjiang) 0.106 47 [citation needed] D(xD5)=3, D5(xD5a)=1, D5a=1
Ao Naga 0.106 66 [citation needed] D4=5
D5=1
D(xD4,D5)=1
Kazakh (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.100 20 [3] D4c=1, D(xD4c)=1
Khasi 0.100 40 [citation needed] D4=4
Tharu (Morang, Nepal) 0.100 40 [citation needed] D4e1a=2, D4(xD4e1a, D4j)=2
Tatar (Aznakayevo) 0.099 71 [citation needed] D=7
Chuvantsi (Markovo, Chukotka) 0.094 32 [22] D3a2a=2, D2a1a=1
Lahu (Simao, Yunnan) 0.094 32 [citation needed] D(xD5)=2, D5(xD5a)=1
Bashkir (Beloretsky, Sterlibashevsky, Ilishevsky, & Perm) 0.090 221 [citation needed] D=20
Tharu (Chitwan, Nepal) 0.090 133 [citation needed] D4(xD4e1a, D4j)=7, D4j=5
Altay Kizhi 0.089 90 [14] D4(xD2, D3)=6, D3=2
Tibetan (Zhongdian, Yunnan) 0.086 35 [citation needed] D(xD5)=3
Mansi 0.082 98 [citation needed] D(xD1a, D2, D3, D5)=6, D3=1, D5=1
Lisu (Gongshan, Yunnan) 0.081 37 [citation needed] D(xD5)=3
Lanten Yao (Tianlin, Guangxi) 0.077 26 [18] D(xD5)=1, D5(xD5a)=1
Hmong (Northern Thailand) 0.076 158 [citation needed] D4e1a3=9
D4e1a=1
D4b=1
D5b4=1
Thai 0.075 40 [citation needed] D(xD4, D5)=2, D4(xD4a, D4b)=1
Uzbek (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.075 40 [3] D(xD4c)=3
Tu Yao (Hezhou, Guangxi) 0.073 41 [18] D(xD5)=3
Dong (Tianzhu County, Guizhou) 0.071 28 [citation needed] D(xD4b, D5)=2
Tibetan (Qinghai) 0.071 56 [citation needed] D(xD5)=4
Ambon 0.070 43 [20] D(xD5)=2, D5=1
Tujia (Yanhe County, Guizhou) 0.069 29 [citation needed] D5=1, D(xD4b, D5)=1
Tajik (Tajikistan) 0.068 44 [14] D4(xD2, D3)=2, D5=1
Turkmen (Afghanistan) 0.067 75 [citation needed] D4(xD4j)=4
D4j=1
Dungan (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.063 16 [3] D(xD4c)=1
Bapai Yao (Liannan, Guangdong) 0.057 35 [18] D(xD5)=2
Jino (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.056 18 [citation needed] D5(xD5a)=1
Komi-Permyak (Komi-Permyak Autonomous District) 0.054 74 [citation needed] D=4
Taono O'odham 0.054 37 [17] D=2
Taiwan aborigines 0.053 640 [67] D5'6=26, D4=8
Apache 0.053 38 [17] D=2
Tibetan (Shannan, Tibet) 0.053 19 [65] D=1
Huatou Yao (Fangcheng, Guangxi) 0.053 19 [18] D(xD5)=1
Li (Hainan) 0.052 346 [67] D5'6=13, D4=5
Hazara (Afghanistan) 0.051 78 [citation needed] D4j=2
D4(xD4j)=2
Borneo (89 Banjarmasin & 68 Kota Kinabalu) 0.051 157 [20] D5=7, D(xD5)=1
Iranian (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.050 20 [3] D(xD4c)=1
Karelian (Tver) 0.049 61 [citation needed] D5=2, D(xD5)=1
Tatar (Buinsk) 0.048 126 [citation needed] D=6
Thailand 0.048 105 [21] D=5
Uzbek (Afghanistan) 0.047 127 [citation needed] D4j=2
D4(xD4j)=2
D5'6=2
Naxi (Lijiang, Yunnan) 0.044 45 [citation needed] D(xD5)=2
Hindu (Chitwan, Nepal) 0.042 24 [citation needed] D4(xD4e1a, D4j)=1
Tajik (Afghanistan) 0.041 146 [citation needed] D4(xD4j)=4
D4j=1
D5'6=1
Changpa 0.040 50 [citation needed] D4=1
D5=1
Chuvash (Morgaushsky) 0.036 55 [citation needed] D=2
Cun (Hainan) 0.033 30 [67] D4=1
Wuzhou Yao (Fuchuan, Guangxi) 0.032 31 [18] D(xD5)=1
Filipino 0.031 64 [68] D5b=1, D6=1
Pan Yao (Tianlin, Guangxi) 0.031 32 [18] D(xD5)=1
Filipino (Mindanao) 0.029 70 [68] D6=2
Karelian (Aunus) 0.028 218 [citation needed] D5=6
Ket 0.026 38 [citation needed] D(xD1a, D2, D3, D5)=1
Tatar (Almetyevsky & Yelabuzhsky) 0.026 228 [citation needed] D=6
Persian (eastern Iran) 0.024 82 [14] D4(xD2, D3)=1, D5=1
Lombok (Mataram) 0.023 44 [20] D5=1
Filipino (Luzon) 0.023 177 [68] D6=2, D5b=1, D(xD5b, D6)=1
Alor 0.022 45 [20] D(xD5)=1
Cham (Bình Thuận, Vietnam) 0.018 168 [citation needed] D4=3
Mari (Zvenigovsky) 0.015 136 [citation needed] D=2
Koryak 0.013 155 [citation needed] D3=2
Bali 0.012 82 [20] D5=1
Pashtun (Afghanistan) 0.011 90 [citation needed] D4j=1
Mordvinian (Staroshaygovsky) 0.010 102 [citation needed] D=1
Filipino (Visayas) 0.009 112 [68] D6=1
Kiliwa 0.000 7 [17] -
Seri 0.000 8 [17] -
Dingban Yao (Mengla, Yunnan) 0.000 10 [18] -
Xiban Yao (Fangcheng, Guangxi) 0.000 11 [18] -
Cochimí 0.000 13 [17] -
Filipino (Palawan) 0.000 20 [citation needed] -
River Yuman 0.000 22 [17] -
Delta Yuman 0.000 23 [17] -
Tibetan (Diqing, Yunnan) 0.000 24 [citation needed] -
Zuni 0.000 26 [17] -
Pai Yuman 0.000 27 [17] -
Batek (Malaysia) 0.000 29 [19] -
Batak (Palawan) 0.000 31 [citation needed] -
Lingao (Hainan) 0.000 31 [67] -
Nahua 0.000 31 [17] -
Mendriq (Malaysia) 0.000 32 [19] -
Temuan (Malaysia) 0.000 33 [19] -
Jemez 0.000 36 [17] -
Akimal O’odham 0.000 43 [17] -
Java (incl. 36 from Tengger) 0.000 46 [20] -
Tofalar 0.000 46 [citation needed] -
Udegey 0.000 46 [citation needed] -
Itelmen 0.000 47 [citation needed] -
Sumba (Waingapu) 0.000 50 [20] -
Jahai (Malaysia) 0.000 51 [19] -
Senoi (51 Temiar & 1 Semai, Malaysia) 0.000 52 [19] -
Filipino 0.000 61 [20] -
Semelai (Malaysia) 0.000 61 [19] -
Komi-Zyryan (Sysolsky) 0.000 62 [citation needed] -
Navajo 0.000 64 [17] -
Sumatra 0.000 180 [20] -

See also[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6  
L1 L2   L3     L4 L5 L6
M N  
CZ D E G Q   O A S R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT   P   U
HV JT K
H V J T

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