|• Also spelled||Anata (official)|
'Anata, around 1859
|• Type||Village Council|
|• Head of Municipality||Mohammad Mahmoud al-Rifai|
|• Jurisdiction||30,603 dunams (30.6 km2 or 11.8 sq mi)|
|Name meaning||Anata, personal name|
'Anata (Arabic: عناتا; Hebrew: ענאתא) is a Palestinian town in the Jerusalem Governorate in the central West Bank, located four kilometers northeast of Jerusalem. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, 'Anata had a population of 9,600 in 2006. Its total land area is 30,603 dunams, of which over half now lies within Jerusalem and 1,654 is Palestinian built-up area.
'Anata is a village on an ancient site, old stones have been reused in village homes, and cisterns dug into rock have been found, together with caves and ancient agricultural terraces. Edward Robinson identified 'Anata with Biblical Anathoth, birthplace of Jeremiah, in his Biblical researches in Palestine.
There are ruins of a Byzantine-era church in the town leading to the belief that it was inhabited prior to the Muslim conquest of Palestine by the Rashidun Caliphate. During the Muslim siege of Jerusalem against the Crusaders, the Ayyubid general and sultan, Saladin situated his administration in 'Anata before he proceeded towards Jerusalem.
The village was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517 with all of Palestine, and in 1596 'Anata appeared in Ottoman tax registers as being in the Nahiya of Quds of the Liwa of Quds. It had a population of 10 Muslim households, and paid taxes on wheat, barley, summer crops, olive trees, fruit trees, goats and/or bee hives.
The village was destroyed by Ibrahim Pasha in 1832 following a pro-Ottoman Arab revolt against Egyptian rule. When W. M. Thomson visited it in the 1850s, he described it as a "small, half-ruined hamlet, but it was once much larger, and appears to have had a wall around it, a few fragments of which are still to be seen." According to information received by Clermont-Ganneau in 1874, the village was settled by Arab families from Khirbet 'Almit, a mile to the northeast.
The French explorer Victor Guérin visited the village in 1863, and described it as being a small, situated on a hill, and with 200 inhabitants. An official Ottoman village list of about 1870 showed that 'Anata had 25 houses and a population of 70, though the population count included only men.
In 1883, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described it as a "village of moderate size, the houses of stone; it stands on a ridge commanding a fine view to the north and east. ...There are a few olives round the village, and a well on the west and another on the south-east."
In 1945 'Anata had a population of 540, all Arabs, with 18,496 dunams of land, according to an official land and population survey. Of this, 353 dunams were plantations and irrigable land, 2,645 used for cereals, while 35 dunams were built-up land.
'Anata contains two sanctuaries, dedicated to Saleh and possibly Jeremiah. The former is a mosque dedicated to the prophet Saleh (Biblical Shelah), but Saleh's tomb is believed to be in the village of Nabi Salih to the northwest. The latter sanctuary is a cave dedicated to a "Rumia" which according to Charles Simon Clermont-Ganneau, "looks as if it had been connected by the folklore with the name Jeremiah, the initial 'je' being removed by aphaeresis as so frequently happens in Arabic." This signifies that it is very possible that "Rumia" is an Arabicized form of "Jeremiah".
Before 1996, 'Anata was governed by a mukhtar. Since then a village council was established to govern the town. According to the village council of 'Anata, about 97% of its land outside of Jerusalem is under complete Israeli control. The boundaries of the village span about 30,603 dunams, although only 1,654 dunams are designated as a built-up area, most of which is under the civil administration of the Palestinian National Authority and the security of Israel. The village boundaries are far-reaching and stretch from 'Anata itself to just east of the Israeli settlement Alon. Most of the land is undeveloped open space with little or no vegetation.
- Thomson, 1859, p. 549
- Palmer, 1881, p. 283
- Projected Mid -Year Population for Jerusalem Governorate by Locality 2004- 2006 Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics.
- 'Anata Village Profile Applied Research Institute - Jerusalem. 21 July 2004.
- Dauphin, 1998, p. 899
- Edward Robinson (1856): Biblical researches in Palestine, 1838-52. A journal of travels in the year 1838. By E. Robinson and E. Smith. Drawn up from the original diaries, with historical illustrations
- Sharon, 1999, p. 87
- Conder and Kitchener, 1883, p. 82
- Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 117
- Thomson, 1859, p. 548
- Clermont-Ganneau, 1896, vol 2, p. 276-7
- Guérin, 1869, p. 76 ff
- Socin, 1879, p. 143
- Conder and Kitchener, 1883, p. 7-8
- Mills,1932, p. 37
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in S. Hadawi, Village Statistics, 1945. PLO Research Center, 1970, p. 56
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in S. Hadawi, Village Statistics, 1945. PLO Research Center, 1970, p. 101
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in S. Hadawi, Village Statistics, 1945. PLO Research Center, 1970, p. 151
- Applied Research Institute of Jerusalem. Land Use/Land Cover Map of 'Anata Village Boundary (Map). http://www.poica.org/editor/case_studies/landuse-landcover%20anata-final.jpg.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 'Anata.|
- Clermont-Ganneau, Charles Simon (1896): Archaeological Researches in Palestine 1873-1874, Volume 2.
- Conder, Claude Reignier; Kitchener, H. H. (1883). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology 3. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Dauphin, Claudine (1998). La Palestine byzantine, Peuplement et Populations, Vol. III : Catalogue. BAR International Series 726. Oxford: Archeopress.
- Guérin, Victor (1869). Description Géographique Historique et Archéologique de la Palestine. Vol 1, Judee, pt. 3.
- Hadawi, Sami (1970), Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine, Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center
- Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft.
- Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas. Jerusalem: Government of Palestine.
- Palmer, E. H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Sharon, Moshe (1997), Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae, Vol. I, A, BRILL, ISBN 9004108335
- Socin, A. (1879). "Alphabetisches Verzeichniss von Ortschaften des Paschalik Jerusalem". Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 2: 135–163.
- Thomson, William McClure, (1859), vol 2: The land and the Book; or, Biblical illustrations drawn from the manners and customs, the scenes and scenery of the Holy Land