1932 Cuba hurricane

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1932 Cuba hurricane
Category 5 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Hurricane Fourteen Analysis 8 Nov 1932.png
Surface weather analysis of the hurricane at its peak intensity on November 8, southwest of Cuba
Formed October 30, 1932 (October 30, 1932)
Dissipated November 14, 1932 (November 14, 1932)
(Extratropical after November 13, 1932)
Highest winds 1-minute sustained: 175 mph (280 km/h)
Lowest pressure ≤ 915 mbar (hPa); 27.02 inHg
Fatalities ≥3,103 direct
(Deadliest in Cuban history)
Damage $40 million (1932 USD)
Areas affected
Part of the 1932 Atlantic hurricane season

The 1932 Cuba hurricane, also known as the Santa Cruz del Sur Hurricane[1] or the 1932 Camagüey hurricane,[2] was the deadliest and one of the most intense tropical cyclones in Cuban history. The strongest November Atlantic hurricane on record and a Category 5 hurricane-equivalent at its peak, the cyclone took a path through the Caribbean Sea atypical to most hurricanes developing late in the Atlantic hurricane season. The storm's strong winds, storm surge, and rain devastated an extensive portion of central and eastern Cuba, where the storm was considered the worst natural disaster in the 20th century. Though the impacts from the hurricane were concentrated primarily on Cuba, significant impacts were also felt in the Cayman Islands and the Bahamas, with lesser effects felt elsewhere.

The tropical depression that would later develop into the destructive hurricane was first located east of the Lesser Antilles on October 30, and tracked westward into the Caribbean Sea, reaching tropical storm strength the next day. Moving southwestward towards the southern portion of the Caribbean, the storm reached hurricane strength on November 2 before a period of rapid intensification ensued. On November 6, the tropical cyclone reached its peak as a Category 5 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 175 mph (280 km/h). Minimal weakening occurred afterwards as the storm recurved northeast, moving ashore Cuba's Camagüey Province on November 9 with winds of 150 mph (240 km/h). After traversing the island, the storm gradually weakened as it crossed the central Bahamas and near Bermuda. On November 13, the system transitioned into an extratropical cyclone and dissipated the following day.

As an intensifying hurricane in the southern Caribbean Sea, the storm moved near the Netherlands Antilles and Colombia, causing widespread impacts. A prolonged passage of Curacao resulted in the damaging of harbor fortification. The storm lashed the coast of Colombia with strong winds and torrential rainfall, severely hampering the banana crop in the region and cutting out telecommunications. Several towns, particularly those near the coast, sustained significant infrastructural damage. Marked, albeit localized, damage to banana crops was also reported in Jamaica, where strong winds toppled numerous trees. In open waters, the storm's track brought it across numerous shipping lanes, largely disrupting shipping primarily in the central Caribbean and damaging several ships.


Meteorological history[edit]

The track of the 1932 Cuba hurricane, with the track beginning at bottom-center, tracing towards the left and then curving to the upper-right corner of the image.
Map plotting the track and intensity of the storm according to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale

The 1932 Cuba hurricane can be traced back to a tropical depression, first identified at 06:00 UTC on October 30 by ship observations roughly 200 mi (320 km) east of Guadeloupe.[3][4] Tracking generally westward, the depression crossed the Lesser Antilles the following day between Dominica and Martinique.[3] Barometric pressures lowering to as much as 1008 mbar (hPa; 29.77 inHg) in St. Lucia confirmed the presence of a developing tropical cyclone.[1] Shortly after traversing the islands, the disturbance strengthened to tropical storm intensity at 18:00 UTC on October 31.[3] Concurrently as the storm was gradually intensifying, the tropical cyclone began to take an unusual course towards the southwest.[4] On November 2, the storm intensified to hurricane status while north of the Netherlands Antilles.[3]

Steadily strengthening the hurricane reached Category 2 status on November 3.[3] During the day, the storm passed approximately 50 mi (80 km) north of Punta Gallinas in Colombia, the northernmost extent of South America.[4] However, at the same time the hurricane curved towards the west, causing the storm to move away from Colombia and Venezuela.[3] Over the next few days, the hurricane rapidly intensified, reaching major hurricane status late on November 4. The next day, the hurricane's intensity was analyzed to have reached the equivalent of a modern day Category 5 hurricane while curving northward.[3] Although the storm was operationally analyzed to have peaked as a Category 4 hurricane, reanalysis of the hurricane indicated that the tropical cyclone was much more intense than initially suggested based on observations by the S.S. Phemius, whose crew visually estimated winds of around 200 mph (320 km/h) at the height of the storm and measured unusually low pressures.[1] Early on November 6, the hurricane peaked with maximum sustained winds estimated at 175 mph (280 km/h).[3] During that time, the S.S. Phemius recorded a minimum barometric pressure of 915 mbar (hPa; 27.02 inHg); this measurement was the lowest documented throughout the storm's existed. As this report did not occur within the hurricane's eye, the storm's true minimum pressure may have been much lower.[1]

Pacing northward, the hurricane gradually weakened after peak intensity on November 6 but held its Category 5 strength for 72 consecutive hours before finally dropping to Category 4 status.[3] Due to a gradual curve towards the northeast, the hurricane tracked near Cayman Brac on November 9;[1] a minimum barometric pressure of 939 mbar (hPa; 27.73 inHg) was documented on the island. Only slight weakening occurred before the hurricane made landfall on the Caribbean coast of Cuba's Camagüey Province at 14:00 UTC that day. At the time of landfall, the tropical cyclone was estimated to have had a minimum pressure of 918 mbar (hPa; 27.11 inHg) and maximum sustained winds of 150 mph (240 km/h), with these winds extending as far as 40 mi (65 km) from the center of the hurricane. The storm traversed Cuba in six hours before emerging into the Atlantic Ocean late on November 9, after which it began to cross the central Bahamian archipelago. At 07:00 UTC on November 10, the hurricane made a second landfall on Long Island, Bahamas with an intensity equivalent to that of a modern-day Category 3. Continuing to track northeast, the storm moved east of Bermuda two days later.[1] On November 13, the hurricane began to interact with an extratropical cyclone centered over the Canadian Maritimes,[1][4] and later weakened to tropical storm strength.[3] The tropical cyclone later became extratropical itself before it was last noted at 18:00 UTC on November 14.[3]

Preparations and impact[edit]

Caribbean Sea, Jamaica, and northern South America[edit]

Sepia-toned image of a ship in open waters with a smokestack at center and two masts on either side of the funnel.
The British vessel S.S. Phemius, which followed the progress of the hurricane from November 5-7 and documented the storm's lowest measured pressure

As the hurricane slowly moved through the eastern and southern Caribbean, the rough seas and strong winds disrupted shipping routes. On November 6, the American schooner Abundance encountered the storm east of Jamaica, resulting in a destroyed rudder and a beaching on Jamaica's Morant Point.[5][6] However, the ship's six crew were extracted from the disabled vessel and were transported to the United States.[5] Although the S.S. Phemius would later safely return to port in Cuba,[1] reports that the ship had lost its smokestack and the relaying of an SOS message prompted the United Fruit liner Tela to search for the initially missing ship, which failed due to poor visibility conditions.[5][7] This was followed by a search operation undertaken by the USS Overton (DD-239) and USS Swan (AM-34).[8] On November 8, the S.S. Phemius was found damaged and later towed to shore by a salvage tug. However, during the same period of time both the steamer Tacira and the freighter San Simeon were disabled after encountering the storm, requiring towing to safety.[9] Several other ships in the immediate area were also hampered by the storm.[10]

Some damage was reported in northern South America as the hurricane swept near the coast. In Colombia, rail telecommunications were cut off near Santa Marta, and banana plantations in the area were believed to have suffered to some extent due to the storm's winds and rain.[5] In Santa Marta itself, several homes were inundated and automotive traffic was hampered by the storm's effects. Docks on Santa Marta's port were also damaged.[11] Heavy rains also washed out some railways and bridges, further disrupting the distribution of banana shipments.[12][13] Elsewhere along the coast, many of Colombia's seaports were damaged by the storm's impacts, while inland farms suffered extensive flood damage.[14] Due to sparse reports from the remainder of Colombia,[15] the extent of damage in Barranquilla remains unspecified,[5] with other nearby towns reporting "heavy" damage.[15] The village of Sevilla, Valle del Cauca was almost entirely destroyed.[16] Providencia Island just off of Colombia sustained significant agricultural damage and the loss of 36 homes.[4] To the northeast in Curacao, the passing hurricane destroyed the island harbor's fortifications.[14] A seawall near the entrance to Sint Anna harbor suffered partial collapse, while a pontoon bridge linking both sides of the harbor was completely destroyed. In nearby Bonaire, a pier succumbed to the driving rain and rough seas.[17]

With the hurricane threatening Jamaica, Pan American World Airways cancelled its flights servicing Kingston, Jamaica.[18] In Jamaica, the storm's passage to the west caused intense winds as strong as 71 mph (114 km/h) to sweep across the island,[19] destroying over 2 million trees.[20] Although impacts overall were generally minimal, some localized areas on the island experienced as much as a 50% loss of banana trees due to the storm.[4] The cost of damage on Jamaica reached US$4 million.[21]

Cayman Islands[edit]

The storm devastated the Cayman Islands, especially Cayman Brac which was virtually flattened by the storm surge, which was reported to be as high as 10 m (33 ft). Many homes and buildings were washed out to sea as a result of the storm and many people had to climb trees to escape the floodwaters. 110 people died on the islands; one of them was on Grand Cayman and the rest were on Cayman Brac.[22] The ship Balboa also sank as a result of the storm.[23]

Cuba[edit]

Santa Cruz del Sur, Camagüey Province, Cuba after the hurricane

Although no warnings were initially issued, the National Observatory of Cuba voiced concerns that the intense tropical cyclone presented a danger to Cuba, particularly Camagüey Province, as early as November 5. However, the observatory indicated that forecasting the future motion of the hurricane was difficult as the storm's intensity and previous motion was not consistent with climatology.[24] On November 8, a hurricane warning was issued for the southeastern extent of Cuba.[25] As a precautionary measure, shipping routes servicing ports in eastern Cuba were suspended.[26]

The town of Santa Cruz del Sur in Camagüey Province was virtually obliterated by a massive storm surge which measured 6.5 m (21.3 ft) in height.[27] Few buildings remained standing in the area. In that coastal town alone, a total of 2,870 people lost their lives. In total, 3,033 people died in Cuba and damage there was estimated at $40 million (1932 USD; $691.4 million today).[27]

In literature[edit]

The 1932 Cuba hurricane inspired an allegorical novel by Richard Arthur Warren Hughes. The captain of the S.S. Phemius of the Blue Funnel Line, D.L.C. Evans, asked Hughes to write of the harrowing trip through the hurricane. This led Hughes to write In Hazard (1938) in which the fictional Archimedes encounters a fierce November hurricane that nearly destroys the ship.[28]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

General
Specific
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Landsea, Chris et al. (April 2014). "Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 1, 2014. 
  2. ^ Millás, p. 1
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division (April 1, 2014). "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 28, 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Mitchell, C.L.; United States Weather Bureau (November 1932). "The Tropical Storm Of October 30–November 13, 1932" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review (Washington, D.C.: American Meteorological Society) 60 (11): 222. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1932)60<222:TTSOON>2.0.CO;2. Retrieved September 1, 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "Tropic Storm Coming North". The Daily Northwestern 65 (Oshkosh, Wisconsin). Associated Press. November 7, 1932. p. 1. Retrieved September 3, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  6. ^ "Ships Suffer As Caribbean Gale Strikes". The San Bernandino County Daily Sun 39. Associated Press. November 7, 1932. p. 1. Retrieved September 3, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  7. ^ "3 Ships Adrift in Caribbean As Hurricane Force Grows". Brooklyn Daily Eagle 92 (311) (New York City, New York). Associated Press. November 8, 1932. p. 3. Retrieved September 6, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  8. ^ "U.S. Warships Sent To British Ship's Aid". The Reading Times 74 (216) (Reading, Pennsylvania). Associated Press. November 8, 1932. p. 3. Retrieved September 3, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  9. ^ "Help Reaches Liner In Disabled Storm". Bluefield Daily Telegraph 40 (235) (Bluefield, West Virginia). Associated Press. November 8, 1932. p. 7. Retrieved September 3, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  10. ^ "Storm Ravages Caribbean Area". Indiana Evening Gazette 29 (6) (Indiana, Pennsylvania). International News Service. November 8, 1932. p. 7. Retrieved September 6, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  11. ^ "Damage Heavy". Montana Butte Standard 70 (30) (Butte, Montana). Associated Press. November 7, 1932. p. 2. Retrieved September 3, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  12. ^ "American Schooner Wrecked By Storm". The Lincoln Evening Journal (Lincoln, Nebraska). Associated Press. November 7, 1932. p. 11. Retrieved September 3, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  13. ^ "Second Ship Is In Distress With Rudder Disabled". Montana Butte Standard 70 (31) (Butte, Montana). Associated Press. November 8, 1932. p. 6. Retrieved September 3, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  14. ^ a b Ryan, James A. (November 7, 1932). "Coastline of Colombia Hit By Hurricane". Belvidere Daily Republican 38 (Belvidere, Illinois). International News Service. pp. 1, 4. Retrieved September 3, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  15. ^ a b "Central America Is Devastated By Hurricane". The Daily Courier 60 (307) (Connellsville, Pennsylvania). International News Service. November 7, 1932. p. 1. Retrieved September 3, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  16. ^ "West Cuba And Yucatan In Peril By Fierce Storm". The Helena Independent 67 (322) (Helena, Montana). Associated Press. November 8, 1932. p. 7. Retrieved September 6, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  17. ^ "Sea Wall Collapses". The Brownsville Herald 1 (104) (Belvidere, Illinois). Associated Press. November 2, 1932. p. 17. Retrieved September 3, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  18. ^ "Flights Canceled". The Kingsport Times (Kingsport, Tennessee). Associated Press. November 9, 1932. p. 1. Retrieved September 7, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  19. ^ "Jamaica Hit By Hurricane". Florence Morning News 24 (67) (Florence, South Carolina). Associated Press. November 9, 1932. pp. 1, 6. Retrieved September 7, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  20. ^ "Hurricane on Caribbean Sea Hits Freighter". The Coshocton Tribune 24 (67) (Coshocton, Ohio). Associated Press. November 7, 1932. p. 1. Retrieved September 3, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  21. ^ "$4,000,000 Loss In Kingston". Alton Evening Telegraph (Alton, Illinois). Associated Press. November 10, 1932. p. 2. Retrieved September 7, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  22. ^ Cayman Islands
  23. ^ Balboa
  24. ^ "Cuba In Danger". Montana Butte Standard 70 (30) (Butte, Montana). Associated Press. November 7, 1932. p. 2. Retrieved September 3, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  25. ^ "Hurricane Warning Issued at Havana". Ames Daily Tribune-Times 66 (110) (Ames, Iowa). United Press International. November 8, 1932. p. 1. Retrieved September 6, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  26. ^ "Twelve Die As Hurricane Hits Eastern Cuba". Warren Times-Mirror 33 (Warren, Pennyslvania). Associated Press. November 9, 1932. p. 1. Retrieved September 6, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  27. ^ a b Christopher Landsea et al. (2003). "Hurricane Vulnerability in Latin America and The Caribbean". NOAA. Archived from the original on 26 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-15. 
  28. ^ enrique. "Of Hyphens and Hurricanes". Retrieved October 5, 2014. 

External links[edit]