1977 Pacific hurricane season

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1977 Pacific hurricane season
Season summary map
First system formed May 26, 1977
Last system dissipated October 23, 1977
Strongest storm Florence – 105 mph (165 km/h) (1-minute sustained)
Total depressions 17
Total storms 8
Hurricanes 4
Total fatalities Unknown
Total damage $25 million (1977 USD)
Pacific hurricane seasons
1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979

The 1977 Pacific hurricane season was, at the time, the least active in recorded history. Only eight tropical storms formed, and four hurricanes; they would be tied and surpassed, respectively, by the 2010 Pacific hurricane season. There were no major hurricanes; the next time this happened would be the 2003 season. In addition, there was just one storm in each of May, June, July, August, and October, which is also low; the other three storms were in September. Activity in the central Pacific was zero, as no storms formed there nor moved in from the east.

The low seasonal activity also occurred in the Atlantic hurricane season and in the typhoon season of the western Pacific. This was a worldwide trend; various factors inhibited tropical cyclone development throughout the northern hemisphere, resulting in a record low level of tropical cyclones worldwide.

Seasonal summary[edit]

Hurricane Anita Hurricane Doreen (1977) Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale

The 1977 Pacific hurricane season had the lowest number of tropical storms since reliable records began in 1949,[1] producing 17 tropical depressions, 8 of which became tropical storms or hurricanes.[1] The season officially started on May 15, 1977 in the Eastern Pacific Ocean, the area east of 140°W and on June 1 in the Central Pacific which is between the International Date Line and 140°W, and lasted until November 30, 1977 in both areas.

The first storm of the season, Tropical Storm Ava, formed off the southwest coast of Mexico on May 26. Between June and August, three named storms formed, with one forming in each month. September was the most active month, producing three named storm storms. One of those storms was Hurricane Florence, the strongest of the season. Tropical Depression Seventeen, the last storm of the year, dissipated on October 23. This season was the last to use the old naming lists that only had female names. Starting in the 1978 season, the naming lists began to include male names.[2]

Timeline of events[edit]

Storms[edit]

Tropical Storm Ava[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration May 26 – May 30
Peak intensity 65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  997 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Storm Ava formed on May 26 about 600 miles (965 km) southwest of Manzanillo. It moved northward, quickly intensifying into a tropical storm. At its peak intensity it had winds of 65 mph (101 km/h) and lowest pressure of 997mb. It weakened to a tropical depression on May 29 and dissipated on May 30 about 390 miles (630 km) west of Manzanillo.[13]

Tropical Depression Two[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Counterclockwise vortex
Duration May 30 – June 1
Peak intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 

This depression formed 70 miles (110 km) southwest of the Honduras–Nicaragua border. On June 1 it dissipated just off the El Salvador coast.[14]

Tropical Depression Three[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Counterclockwise vortex
Duration June 9 – June 11
Peak intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 

Tropical Depression Three formed 350 miles (565 km) west of the Honduras–Nicaragua border on June 9. Two days later it dissipated in almost the same location.[14]

Tropical Storm Bernice[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration June 25 – June 28
Peak intensity 40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min) 

Tropical Storm Bernice formed on June 25 about 555 miles (895 km) southeast of Acapulco. It moved northwestward and strengthened to a tropical storm on June 26. At its peak intensity it had winds of 40 mph (64 km/h). It continued moving north-west and dissipated on June 28 about 890 miles (1430 km) west of Cabo San Lucas, Mexico.[13]

Hurricane Claudia[edit]

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration July 3 – July 7
Peak intensity 90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min) 

Hurricane Claudia formed on July 3 about 580 miles (935 km) south of Cabo San Lucas, Mexico. It moved westward, quickly intensifying into a tropical storm and becoming a hurricane on July 4. At its peak intensity it had winds of 90 mph (148 km/h). It continued moving westward, weakening to a tropical storm on July 5 before dissipating on July 7.

Tropical Depression Six[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Duration July 8 – July 9
Peak intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 

This depression existed from July 8 until July 9 off the southwest coast of the Baja California peninsula.[14]

Tropical Depression Seven[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Duration July 9 – July 10
Peak intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 

This depression existed from July 9 until July 10.[14]

Tropical Depression Eight[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Duration July 25 – July 25
Peak intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 

This depression existed on July 25.[14]

Tropical Depression Nine[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Duration August 1 – August 2
Peak intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 

This depression existed from August 1 until August 2.[14]

Hurricane Doreen[edit]

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration August 13 – August 18
Peak intensity 75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min)  979 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Doreen formed on August 13 and moved northward. The next day it intensified into a hurricane. At its peak intensity it had winds of 75 mph (121 km/h) and lowest pressure of 979mb, making it the lowest measured pressure of the season. It paralleled Mexico, moving north. It brushed the extreme west of Mexico on August 16 and dissipated before reaching California on the August 18. The remnants of the hurricane did bring heavy rain to California, however. The highest amount reported was 7.45 inches at Mount San Jacinto in southern California.[15] In desert areas in the southwestern part of the state, rains destroyed 325 homes and businesses and caused the evacuation of several people. Parts of the recently repaired Interstate 8 were destroyed again, and two of the lanes of Interstate 15 between Barstow and Las Vegas were washed out. In San Diego and Imperial County, the total damage to agricultural interests was $25 million (1977 USD).

Tropical Depression Eleven (Anita)[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Duration September 3 – September 4
Peak intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 
Main article: Hurricane Anita

The remains of Atlantic Hurricane Anita entered the Pacific Ocean September 3 as a tropical depression. It was designated Tropical Depression Eleven, which lasted for one day before dissipating.

Tropical Storm Emily[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration September 13 – September 14
Peak intensity 40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min) 

Tropical Storm Emily formed on September 13 and moved northwestward. At its peak intensity it had winds of 40 mph (64 km/h). It continued moving north-west and dissipated on September 14 about 875 miles (1410 km) west of Cabo San Lucas, Mexico.

Tropical Depression Thirteen[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Counterclockwise vortex
Duration September 19 – September 23
Peak intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 

This depression existed from September 19 until September 23.[14]

Hurricane Florence[edit]

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration September 20 – September 24
Peak intensity 105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min) 

A tropical depression formed on September 20 and moved northward, intensifying into a tropical storm the next day. On September 22 it became Hurricane Florence. At its peak intensity of 105 mph (165 km/h), Florence became the strongest storm of the season. It turned moving northeast and dissipated on September 24. Its remnants brought rain to California.

Tropical Storm Glenda[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration September 24 – September 27
Peak intensity 45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min) 

Tropical Storm Glenda formed on September 24 and moved northwestward. At its peak intensity it had winds of 40 mph (64 km/h). It continued moving north-northwest and dissipated on the September 27.

Hurricane Heather[edit]

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration October 4 – October 7
Peak intensity 85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min)  984 mbar (hPa)

A tropical depression formed on October 4 about 495 miles (800 km) west of Acapulco, Mexico. It quickly intensified into a tropical storm as it moved northwestward, and became Hurricane Heather on October 5. At its peak intensity it had winds of 85 mph (138 km/h). It turned moving north-northeast and dissipated on October 7. The remnants of Heather continued moving in that direction, and brought rain to Arizona. Up to 14 inches fell in the mountains of southeast Arizona.[16]

Tropical Depression Seventeen[edit]

This depression existed from October 22 until October 23 off the southwest coast of the Baja California peninsula.[14]

1977 Storm names[edit]

This is the same list used in the 1973 season. This is also the last time that this list was used, as modern naming began in 1978. This is therefore the final Pacific hurricane season to have lists with only female names.

  • Ava
  • Bernice
  • Claudia
  • Doreen
  • Emily
  • Florence
  • Glenda
  • Heather
  • Irah (unused)
  • Jennifer (unused)
  • Katherine (unused)
  • Lillian (unused)
  • Mora (unused)
  • Natalie (unused)
  • Odessa (unused)
  • Prudence (unused)
  • Roslyn (unused)
  • Sylvia (unused)
  • Tillie (unused)
  • Victoria (unused)
  • Wallie (unused)

The central Pacific used names and numbers from the western Pacific's typhoon list. No names were required.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Tropical Systems in the East Pacific 1949—2008". National Hurricane Center. May 29, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-11. 
  2. ^ Associated Press (1978-05-31). "Hedge Bets on Hurricanes". 
  3. ^ a b Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. "Frequently Asked Questions: When is hurricane season?". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2008-08-21. 
  4. ^ a b c d e "Tropical Storm Ava Best Track". Tropical Prediction Center. Retrieved 2009-07-10. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Gunther, Emil B. "Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclones of 1977". Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center (National Weather Service). 
  6. ^ a b c d "Tropical Storm Bernice Best Track". Tropical Prediction Center. Retrieved 2009-07-10. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f "Hurricane Claudia Best Track". Tropical Prediction Center. Retrieved 2009-07-10. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g "Hurricane Doreen Best Track". Tropical Prediction Center. Retrieved 2009-07-10. 
  9. ^ a b c "Tropical Storm Emily Best Track". Tropical Prediction Center. Retrieved 2009-07-10. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h "Hurricane Florence Best Track". Tropical Prediction Center. Retrieved 2009-07-10. 
  11. ^ a b c "Tropical Storm Glenda Best Track". Tropical Prediction Center. Retrieved 2009-07-10. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f "Hurricane Heather Best Track". Tropical Prediction Center. Retrieved 2009-07-10. 
  13. ^ a b National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division; Central Pacific Hurricane Center (July 7, 2014). "The Northeast and North Central Pacific hurricane database 1949-2013". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved July 10, 2014. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclones of 1977
  15. ^ Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Hurricane Doreen. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  16. ^ Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Hurricane Heather. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.

External links[edit]