1977 Pacific typhoon season

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1977 Pacific typhoon season
Season summary map
First system formed January 10, 1977
Last system dissipated January 3, 1978
Strongest storm Babe – 905 hPa (mbar), 205 km/h (125 mph) (10-minute sustained)
Tropical depressions 26
Total storms 20
Typhoons 11
Super typhoons 1
Total fatalities 143 direct, 47 indirect
Total damage Unknown
Pacific typhoon seasons
1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979

The 1977 Pacific typhoon season was one of the least active Pacific typhoon seasons on record, with only 19 tropical storms forming. It was also the only known typhoon season during the satellite era (since 1960) to not produce a Category 5 equivalent super typhoon. The season's first storm, Severe Tropical Storm Patsy, formed on March 23 and the last, Typhoon Mary, dissipated on January 2, 1978. With Mary spanning two calendar years, it became the fourth typhoon to do so since 1945. Since then, two other typhoons have achieved this feat.

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean, north of the equator and west of the international date line. Storms that form east of the date line and north of the equator are called hurricanes; see 1977 Pacific hurricane season. Tropical Storms formed in the entire west pacific basin were assigned a name by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Tropical depressions in this basin have the "W" suffix added to their number. Tropical depressions that enter or form in the Philippine area of responsibility are assigned a name by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration or PAGASA. This can often result in the same storm having two names.

Storms[edit]

A total of 26 tropical depressions were recognized by the various warning agencies this year in the Western Pacific, of which 20 became tropical storms. Eleven storms reached typhoon intensity, of which one reached super typhoon strength.[1]


Tropical Depression Atring[edit]

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHS)
Counterclockwise vortex
Duration January 10 – January 13
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min) 

Severe Tropical Storm Patsy[edit]

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration March 23 – March 31
Peak intensity 95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  990 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Depression 02W (Bining)[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHS)
Duration May 26 – May 27
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (1-min)  1000 mbar (hPa)

Severe Tropical Storm Ruth (Kuring)[edit]

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration June 14 – June 17
Peak intensity 110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min)  975 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Depression 04W (Daling)[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHS)
Duration July 5 – July 6
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (1-min)  995 mbar (hPa)

Typhoon Sarah (Elang)[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration July 16 – July 21
Peak intensity 130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min)  970 mbar (hPa)

Typhoon Thelma (Goring)[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration July 21 – July 26
Peak intensity 130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min)  950 mbar (hPa)

A tropical disturbance east of the Philippines organized into a tropical depression on July 21. It moved to the northwest, strengthening into a tropical storm later that day and into a typhoon on the 22nd. After passing northern Luzon and dropping heavy rains, Thelma turned to the north, where it reached a peak intensity of 95 mph winds. The typhoon hit southern Taiwan on the 25th, crossed the island, and dissipated over southeastern China on the 26th. Though not a particularly strong storm, Thelma brought strong wind gusts and heavy rain, claiming more than 30 lives and bringing damage and destruction not seen to the island for over 80 years.

Typhoon Vera (Huling)[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 3 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration July 28 – August 1
Peak intensity 205 km/h (125 mph) (10-min)  925 mbar (hPa)

Just 6 days after Thelma hit Taiwan, another typhoon was brewing to its east. Typhoon Vera, which developed on July 28, hit eastern Taiwan on the 31st as a 130 mph typhoon. It continued westward, and dissipated over southeastern China. The storm caused 25 additional fatalities to the island, with vast amounts of crop and property damage occurring.

Tropical Storm Wanda[edit]

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration July 31 – August 4
Peak intensity 75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  985 mbar (hPa)

Severe Tropical Storm Amy (Ibiang)[edit]

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration August 20 – August 23
Peak intensity 110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min)  985 mbar (hPa)

August Tropical Storm[edit]

Tropical storm (JMA)
Counterclockwise vortex
Duration August 21 – August 22
Peak intensity 75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  989 mbar (hPa)

Super Typhoon Babe (Miling)[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 super typhoon (SSHS)
Duration September 2 – September 12
Peak intensity 205 km/h (125 mph) (10-min)  905 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Typhoon Babe (1977)

Developing as a tropical depression on September 2, Babe initially tracked west-northwestward as it intensified. On September 5, an abrupt shift in steering currents caused the system to turn north-northwestward. Over the following two days, Babe quickly intensified, ultimately attaining its peak intensity early on September 8 with winds of 240 km/h (150 mph) and a barometric pressure of 905 mbar (hPa; 26.72 inHg). Not long after reaching this strength, another shift in the steering patterns caused the typhoon to execute a prolonged counter-clockwise arc, causing it to track through the Ryukyu Islands, as it interacted with a low pressure originating from the Korean Peninsula. During this time, the system gradually weakened and eventually it made landfall near Shanghai, China on September 11 as a minimal typhoon before dissipating inland the following day.[2][3]

Passing through the Ryukyu Islands as a powerful typhoon, Babe caused considerable damage in the region. More than 1,000 homes were destroyed and nearly 7,000 more were damaged or flooded. One person was killed on Amami Ōshima and 77 others were injured throughout the country.[4] Total losses reached ¥6.1 billion (US$23 million).[5] Offshore, over 100 vessels were affected by the storm, including a Panamanian freighter where 13 people lost their lives.[2] In China, more than 24,000 homes were destroyed and nine people were killed.[6]

Tropical Storm Carla (Luming)[edit]

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration September 3 – September 5
Peak intensity 65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  990 mbar (hPa)

Typhoon Dinah (Openg)[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration September 14 – September 23
Peak intensity 130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min)  965 mbar (hPa)

The monsoon trough spawned a tropical storm on September 14 northeast of the northern Philippines. The previous typhoon brought the trough more northward, hence the unusually high latitude for a monsoon storm. Strong high pressure to Dinah's northwest forced the storm to the southwest, where it crossed northern Luzon on the 15th and 16th. Weak steering currents in the South China Sea allowed Dinah to drift, first then to the northeast then back to the west-southwest. Generally favorable conditions allowed Dinah to reach typhoon strength on the 19th, but a developing tropical storm to its northeast caused it to weaken. The building of the subtropical ridge forced Dinah to the southwest, where it hit southern Vietnam on the 23rd as a tropical depression. The remnants turned northward, crossed the Gulf of Tonkin, and dissipated over China on the 27th.

Dinah brought heavy rain and flooding to Luzon that killed 54 people and left 11 others missing.[7]

Tropical Depression Narsing[edit]

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHS)
Counterclockwise vortex
Duration September 11 – September 13
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min) 

Severe Tropical Storm Emma[edit]

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration September 15 – September 20
Peak intensity 110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min)  965 mbar (hPa)

Severe Tropical Storm Freda (Pining)[edit]

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration September 23 – September 25
Peak intensity 100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  980 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Storm Freda struck Hong Kong killing one person.[8]

Typhoon Gilda[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration October 3 – October 10
Peak intensity 120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min)  965 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Depression Rubing[edit]

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHS)
Counterclockwise vortex
Duration October 14 – October 16
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min) 

Tropical Storm Harriet (Saling)[edit]

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration October 16 – October 20
Peak intensity 100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  980 mbar (hPa)

Typhoon Ivy[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration October 21 – October 27
Peak intensity 150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  940 mbar (hPa)

Typhoon Jean[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration October 28 – November 3
Peak intensity 120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min)  970 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Depression Tasing[edit]

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHS)
Counterclockwise vortex
Duration November 3 – November 5
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min) 

Typhoon Kim (Unding)[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration November 6 – November 17
Peak intensity 205 km/h (125 mph) (10-min)  920 mbar (hPa)

Typhoon Kim was a 135 mph typhoon that hit the northern Philippines on November 13. The typhoon's heavy rains caused flash flooding that left 55 people dead with widespread damage. A further 47 people died when an upper floors of a hotel caught fire during the storm.

Typhoon Lucy (Walding)[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration November 28 – December 7
Peak intensity 205 km/h (125 mph) (10-min)  920 mbar (hPa)

Typhoon Mary (Yeyeng)[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration December 20 – January 3
Peak intensity 155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min)  945 mbar (hPa)

1977 storm names[edit]

Western North Pacific tropical cyclones were named by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. The first storm of 1977 was named Patsy and the final one was named Mary.

  • Agnes
  • Bonnie
  • Carmen
  • Della
  • Elaine
  • Faye
  • Gloria
  • Hester
  • Irma
  • Judy
  • Kit
  • Lola
  • Mamie
  • Nina
  • Ora
  • Phyllis
  • Rita
  • Susan
  • Tess
  • Viola
  • Winnie
  • Alice
  • Betty
  • Cora
  • Doris
  • Elsie
  • Flossie
  • Grace
  • Helen
  • Ida
  • June
  • Kathy
  • Lorna
  • Marie
  • Nancy
  • Olga
  • Pamela
  • Ruby
  • Sally
  • Therese
  • Violet
  • Wilda
  • Anita
  • Billie
  • Clara
  • Dot
  • Ellen
  • Fran
  • Georgia
  • Hope
  • Iris
  • Joan
  • Kate
  • Louise
  • Marge
  • Nora
  • Opal
  • Patsy 1W
  • Ruth 3W
  • Sarah 5W
  • Thelma 6W
  • Vera 7W
  • Wanda 8W
  • Amy 9W
  • Babe 10W
  • Carla 11W
  • Dinah 12W
  • Emma 13W
  • Freda 14W
  • Gilda 15W
  • Harriet 16W
  • Ivy 17W
  • Jean 18W
  • Kim 19W
  • Lucy 20W
  • Mary 21W
  • Nadine
  • Olive
  • Polly
  • Rose
  • Shirley
  • Trix
  • Virginia
  • Wendy

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1977 ATCR TABLE OF CONTENTS
  2. ^ a b "Annual Tropical Cyclone Report: Typhoon Babe" (PDF). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. United States Navy. 1978. pp. 27–29. Retrieved April 17, 2013. 
  3. ^ "1977 Babe (1977243N05156)". International Best Track Archive. 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013. 
  4. ^ Associated Press (September 11, 1977). "Typhoon Rakes Japan". The Spokesman-Review (Tokyo, Japan). p. A5. Retrieved April 17, 2013. 
  5. ^ (Japanese) "台風197709号 (Babe) [沖永良部台風] - 災害情報". Digital Typhoon. National Institute of Informatics. 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013. 
  6. ^ Yongqiang Zong and Xiqing Chen (March 1999). "Typhoon Hazards in the Shanghai Area" (PDF). Disasters 23 (1): 66–80. doi:10.1111/1467-7717.00105. Retrieved April 17, 2013.  (subscription required)
  7. ^ "Destructive Typhoons 1970-2003". National Disaster Coordinating Council. November 9, 2004. Archived from the original on November 9, 2004. Retrieved April 22, 2013. 
  8. ^ Historical Information

External links[edit]