Alfonso IX of León
||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Spanish Wikipedia. (June 2012)|
|King of León and Galicia|
|Reign||22 January 1188 – 24 September 1230|
|Consort||Theresa of Portugal
Berengaria of Castile
Constance, Abbess of Las Huelgas
Alfonso of Molina
Berengaria, Latin Empress
|House||House of Ivrea|
|Father||Ferdinand II of León|
|Mother||Urraca of Portugal|
15 August 1171|
|Died||23/24 September 1230
Villanueva de Sarria
|Burial||Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela|
Alfonso IX (15 August 1171 – 23 or 24 September 1230) was king of León and Galicia from the death of his father Ferdinand II in 1188 until his own death. According to Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406), he is said to have been called the Baboso or Slobberer because he was subject to fits of rage during which he foamed at the mouth.
He took steps towards modernizing and democratizing his dominion and founded the University of Salamanca in 1212. In 1188 he summoned the first parliament reflecting full representation of the citizenry ever seen in Western Europe, the Cortes of León.
Alfonso was born in Zamora. He was the only son of King Ferdinand II of León and Urraca of Portugal. His father was the younger son of Alfonso VII of León and Castile, who divided his kingdoms between his sons, which set the stage for conflict in the family until the kingdoms were re-united by Alfonso IX's son, Ferdinand III of Castile.
Alfonso IX had great difficulty in obtaining the throne through his given birthright. In July 1188 his cousin Alfonso VIII of Castile required the younger Alfonso to recognize the elder as overlord in exchange for recognizing the younger's authority in León.
The convening of the Cortes de León in the cloisters of the Basilica of San Isidoro would be one of the most important events of Alfonso's reign. The difficult economic situation at the beginning of his reign compelled Alfonso to raise taxes on the underprivileged classes, leading to protests and a few towns revolts. In response the king summoned the Cortes, an assembly of nobles, clergy and representatives of cities, and subsequently faced demands for compensatory spending and greater external control and oversight of royal expenditures. Alfonso's convening of the Cortes is considered by many historians, including Australia's John Keane, to be instrumental to the formation of democratic parliaments across Europe. Note that Iceland had already held what may have been what is Europe's first parliament, the Þingvellir, in 930 CE. However, the Cortes' 1188 session predates the first session of the Parliament of England, which occurred in the thirteenth century.
In spite of the democratic precedent represented by the Cortes and the founding of the University of Salamanca, Alfonso is often chiefly remembered for the difficulties his successive marriages caused between him with Pope Celestine III. He was first married in 1191 to his first cousin, Theresa of Portugal, who bore him two daughters, and a son who died young. The marriage was declared null by the papal legate Cardinal Gregory for consanguinity.
After Alfonso VIII of Castile was defeated at the Battle of Alarcos, Alfonso IX invaded Castile with the aid of Muslim troops. He was summarily excommunicated by Pope Celestine III. In 1197, Alfonso IX married his first cousin once removed, Berengaria of Castile, to cement peace between León and Castile. For this second act of consanguinity, the king and the kingdom were placed under interdict by representatives of the Pope. In 1198, Pope Innocent III declared Alfonso and Berengaria's marriage invalid, but they stayed together until 1204. The annulment of this marriage by the pope drove the younger Alfonso to again attack his cousin in 1204, but treaties made in 1205, 1207, and 1209 each forced him to concede further territories and rights. The treaty in 1207 is the first existing public document in the Castilian dialect.
The Pope was, however, compelled to modify his measures by the threat that, if the people could not obtain the services of religion, they would not support the clergy, and that heresy would spread. The king was left under interdict personally, but to that he showed himself indifferent, and he had the support of his clergy. Berengaria left him after the birth of five children, and the king then returned to Theresa, to whose daughters he left his kingdom in his will.
- 1) Ferdinand (ca. 1192 – August 1214, aged around 22), unmarried and without issue
- 2) Sancha (ca. 1193–bef. 1243), unmarried and without issue. She and her sister Dulce became nuns or retired at the Monastery of San Guillermo Villabuena (León) where she died before 1243.
- 3) Dulce, (1194/ca. 1195 - ca./aft. 1243), unmarried and without issue
- 4) Eleanor (1198/1199 - 11 November 1202)
- 5) Constance (1 May 1200 - 7 September 1242) became a nun at Las Huelgas, Burgos, where she died.
- 6) King Ferdinand III the Saint (1201–1252)
- 7) Alfonso, 4th Lord of Molina (1203–1272)
- 8) Berengaria of León (1204–1237), married John of Brienne
Alfonso also fathered many illegitimate children, some fifteen further children born out of wedlock are documented.
- 9) Pedro Alfonso de León, 1st Lord of Tenorio (ca. 1196/ca. 1200–1226), Grand Master of Santiago, married N de Villarmayor, and had issue
- 10) Alfonso Alfonso de León, died yong
- 11) Fernando Alfonso de León, died young
- 12) Rodrigo Alfonso de León (ca. 1210 - ca. 1267), 1st Lord of Aliger and Governor of Zamora, married ca. 1240 to Inés Rodriguez de Cabrera (ca. 1200-), and had issue
- 13) Teresa Alfonso de León (ca. 1210-), wife of Nuño González de Lara el Bueno, lord of Lara
- 14) Aldonza Alfonso de León (ca.1215–1266), wife, first, of Diego Ramírez Froilaz, nephew of her stepfather, without issue, and then before June 1230 married Pedro Ponce de Cabrera (bef. 1202-between 1248 and 1254), and had issue, ancestors of the Ponce de León family.
Alfonso's child by Inés Iñíguez de Mendoza (born c. 1180) (daughter of Lope Iñiguez de Mendoza, 1st Lord of Mendoza (ca. 1140–1189) and wife Teresa Ximénez de los Cameros (ca. 1150-)):
- 15) Urraca Alfonso de León (ca. 1190/ca. 1197-), first wife ca. 1230 of Lope Díaz II de Haro (1192-15 December 1236), 6th Sovereign Lord of Viscaya and had issue, including Mécia Lopes de Haro.
- 16) Fernando Alfonso de León (born c. 1211), died young
Alfonso's children by Maua, of unknown origin:
- 17) Fernando Alfonso de León (ca. 1215/1218/1220 - Salamanca, 1278/1279), Archdean of Santiago, married to Aldara de Ulloa and had issue
- 18) María Alfonso de León (ca. 1190/1200/1222 - aft. 1252), first married Álvaro Fernández de Lara, without issue, married as his second wife Soeiro Aires de Valadares (ca. 1140-) and had issue and later mistress of her nephew Alfonso X of Castile
- 19) Sancha Alfonso de León (1210/ca. 1210–1270), a nun at the convent of Santa Eufemia in Cozuelos de Ojeda after divorcing without issue Simón Ruíz, Lord of Los Cameros
- 20) Martín Alfonso de León (ca. 1210/ca. 1225-1274/ca. 1275)
- 21) Urraca Alfonso of León (ca. 1210/1228 - aft.1252, married twice, first to García Romeu of Tormos, without issue, then Pedro Núñez de Guzmán, son of Guillén Pérez de Guzmán and María González Girón, with issue.
Alfonso IX of León died on 24 September 1230. His death was particularly significant in that his son, Ferdinand III of Castile, who was already the King of Castile also inherited the throne of León from his father. This was thanks to the negotiations of his mother, Berengaria, who convinced her stepdaughters to renounce their claim on the throne. In an effort to quickly consolidate his power over León, Ferdinand III abandoned a military campaign to capture the city of Jaén immediately upon hearing news of his fathers death and traveled to León to be crowned king. This coronation united the Kingdoms of León and Castile which would go on to dominate the Iberian Peninsula.
|Ancestors of Alfonso IX of León|
- Gerli 2003, p. 54.
- Shadis 2010, p. xix.
- Shadis 2010, p. 53.
- Shadis 2010, p. 61-62.
- Moore 2003, p. 70-71.
- Reilly 1993, p. 133.
- Shadis 2010, p. 78-84.
- Túy 2003, p. 324, 4.84.
- Wright 2000.
- Echols 1992, p. 400-401.
- Gerli 2003, p. 162.
- Ruano 1779, p. 34.
- Doubleday 2001, p. 158.
- Shadis 2010, p. 3.
- Doubleday, Simon R. (2001). The Lara family: crown and nobility in medieval Spain. Harvard University Press.
- Echols, Anne; Williams, Marty (1992). An Annotated index of Medieval Women. Markus Weiner Publishing Inc.
- Gerli, E. Michael; Armistead, Samuel G., eds. (2003). Medieval Iberia: an encyclopedia. Routledge.
- Moore, John Clare (2003). Pope Innocent III (1160/61-1216): To root up and to plant. Brill.
- Reilly, Bernard F. (1993). The Medieval Spains. Cambridge University Press.
- Ruano; Ribadas, Joannes (1779). Casa de la Cabrera en Córdoba.
- Shadis, Miriam (2010). Berenguela of Castile (1180–1246) and Political Women in the High Middle Ages. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-23473-7.
- Túy, Lucas (2003). Rey, Emma Falque, ed. Chronicon mundi. Turnhout, Brepols.
- Wright, Roger (2000). El tratado de Cabreros (1206): estudio sociofilológico de una reforma ortográfica. Queen Mary and Westfield College, London.
- Florez, Enrique. Reinas Catolicas, 1761
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Alphonso IX". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Szabolcs de Vajay, "From Alfonso VIII to Alfonso X" in Studies in Genealogy and Family History in Tribute to Charles Evans on the Occasion of his Eightieth Birthday, 1989, pp. 366–417.
- Sánchez Rivera, Jesús Ángel, "Configuración de una iconografía singular: la venerable doña Sancha Alfonso, comendadora de Santiago", Anales de Historia del Arte, nº 18 (2008), Madrid, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, pp. 167–209.
Alfonso IX of LeónBorn: 15 August 1171 Died: 23/24 September 1230
|King of León and Galicia