This is rare and is usually due to mutations in the R-spondin 4 (RSPO4) gene which is located on the short arm of chromosome 20 (20p13). Clinically it is manifest by the absence (anonychia) or hypoplasia (hyponuchia) of finger- and/or toenails.
^James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. (10th ed.). Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.
^Khan TN, Klar J, Nawaz S, Jameel M, Tariq M, Malik NA, Baig SM, Dahl N (2012) Novel missense mutation in the RSPO4 gene in congenital hyponychia and evidence for a polymorphic initiation codon (p.M1I). BMC Med Genet 13(1):120