|Dame Antonia Fraser, DBE|
Antonia Fraser in 2010
|Born||Antonia Margaret Caroline Pakenham
27 August 1932
|Period||1969 – the present|
|Genres||Biography, detective fiction|
|Spouse(s)||Hugh Fraser (1956–1977)
Harold Pinter (1980–2008)
|Children||Six (three sons and three daughters) with Fraser;
one stepson with Pinter
Dame Antonia Margaret Caroline Fraser, DBE (born 27 August 1932), née Pakenham, is an Anglo-Irish author of history, novels, biographies and detective fiction, best known as Lady Antonia Fraser. She is the widow of Harold Pinter (1930–2008), the 2005 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and, prior to her husband's death, was also known as Antonia Pinter.
Family background and education
Fraser is the daughter of Frank Pakenham, 7th Earl of Longford (1905–2001), and his wife, Elizabeth Pakenham, Countess of Longford, née Elizabeth Harman (1906–2002). As the daughter of an Earl, she is accorded the honorific courtesy title "Lady" and thus customarily addressed formally as "Lady Antonia".
As a teenager, she and her siblings converted to Catholicism, following the conversions of their parents. Her "maternal grandparents were Unitarians – a non-conformist faith with a strong emphasis on social reform ...". In response to criticism of her writing about Oliver Cromwell, she has said, "I have no Catholic blood". Before his own conversion in his thirties following a nervous breakdown in the Army, as she explains, "My father was Protestant Church of Ireland, and my mother was Unitarian up to the age of 20 when she abandoned it."
She began work as an "all-purpose assistant" for George Weidenfeld at Weidenfeld & Nicolson (her "only job"), which later became her own publisher and part of Orion Publishing Group, which publishes her works in the UK.
Her first major work, published by Weidenfeld & Nicolson, was Mary, Queen of Scots (1969), which was followed by several other biographies, including Cromwell, Our Chief of Men (1973). She won the Wolfson History Award in 1984 for The Weaker Vessel, a study of women's lives in 17th century England. From 1988 to 1989, she was president of English PEN, and she chaired its Writers in Prison Committee.
More recently, Fraser published The Warrior Queens, the story of various military royal women since the days of Boadicea and Cleopatra. In 1992, a year after Alison Weir's book The Six Wives of Henry VIII, she published a book with the same title.
She chronicled the life and times of Charles II in a well-reviewed 1979 eponymous biography. The book was cited as an influence on the 2003 BBC/A&E mini-series, Charles II: The Power & the Passion, in a featurette on the DVD, by Rufus Sewell who played the title character. Fraser has also served as the editor for many monarchical biographies, including those featured in the Kings and Queens of England and Royal History of England series, and, in 1996, she also published a book entitled The Gunpowder Plot: Terror and Faith in 1605, which won both the St Louis Literary Award and the Crime Writers' Association (CWA) Non-Fiction Gold Dagger.
Two of the most recent of her thirteen non-fiction books are Marie Antoinette: The Journey (2001, 2002), which has been made into the film Marie Antoinette (2006), directed by Sofia Coppola, with Kirsten Dunst in the title role, and Love and Louis XIV: The Women in the Life of the Sun King (2006).
Fraser's memoir Must You Go? My Life with Harold Pinter was published in January 2010 and she read a shortened version as BBC Radio Four's Book of the Week that month.
At the Cheltenham Literary Festival on 17 October 2010, Lady Antonia announced that her next work would be on the subject of the Great Reform Bill 1832. She is no longer planning a biography of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland, as this subject has already been extensively covered.
Marriages and later life
From 1956 until their divorce in 1977, she was married to Sir Hugh Fraser (1918–1984), a descendant of Scottish aristocracy 14 years her senior and a Roman Catholic Conservative Unionist MP in the House of Commons (sitting for Stafford), who was a friend of the American Kennedy family. They had six children: three sons, Benjamin, Damian, and Orlando; and three daughters, Rebecca Fitzgerald, wife of barrister Edward Fitzgerald, QC, Flora Fraser and Natasha Fraser-Cavassoni. All three daughters are writers and biographers. Benjamin Fraser works for JPMorgan, Damian Fraser is the managing director of the investment banking firm UBS AG (formerly S. G. Warburg) in Mexico, and Orlando Fraser is a barrister specializing in commercial law (Wroe). Antonia Fraser has 18 grandchildren.
On 22 October 1975, Hugh and Antonia Fraser, together with Caroline Kennedy, who was visiting them at their Holland Park home, in Kensington, west London, were almost blown up by an IRA car bomb placed under the wheels of his Jaguar, which had been triggered to go off at 9 am when he left the house; the bomb exploded killing a noted cancer researcher, Gordon Hamilton-Fairley. Hamilton-Fairley, a neighbour of the Frasers, had been walking his dog, when he noticed something amiss and stopped to examine the bomb.
In 1975 Antonia Fraser began an affair with playwright Harold Pinter, who was then married to the actress Vivien Merchant. In 1977, after she had been living with Pinter for two years, the Frasers' union was legally dissolved. Merchant spoke about her distress publicly to the press, which quoted her cutting remarks about her rival, but she resisted divorcing Pinter. In 1980, after Merchant signed divorce papers, Fraser and Pinter married. After the deaths of both their spouses, Fraser and Pinter were married by a Jesuit priest, Fr. Michael Campbell-Johnson, in the Roman Catholic Church. Harold Pinter died from cancer on 24 December 2008, aged 78.
Lady Antonia Fraser lives in the London district of Holland Park, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, south of Notting Hill Gate, in the Fraser family home, where she still writes in her fourth-floor study.
The Lady Antonia Fraser Archive in the British Library
Lady Antonia Fraser's uncatalogued papers (relating to her "Early Writing", "Fiction", and "Non-Fiction") are on loan at the British Library. Papers by and relating to Lady Antonia Fraser are also catalogued as part of the Harold Pinter Archive, which is part of its permanent collection of Additional Manuscripts.
- James Tait Black Memorial Prize (1969), for her book Mary, Queen of Scots.
- Wolfson History Prize (1984), for her book The Weaker Vessel.
- Crime Writers' Association Macallan Gold Dagger for Non-Fiction (1996), for her book The Gunpowder Plot.
- St Louis Literary Award (1996), for her book The Gunpowder Plot.
- Historical Association Norton Medlicott Medal (2000).
- Enid McLeod Literary Prize (2001), from the Franco-British Society, for Marie Antoinette.
- Mary Queen of Scots (1969). ISBN 0-385-31129-X. Reissued, Phoenix paperback, 2001; ISBN 978-1-84212-446-8. 40th anniversary ed., reissued Orion paperback, 7 May 2009; ISBN 978-0-7538-2654-6.
- King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table (1970)
- Dolls (1963)
- Cromwell, Our Chief of Men (1973); also published as Cromwell: The Lord Protector. ISBN 0-8021-3766-0.
- King James VI and I (1974)
- The Lives of the Kings and Queens of England (1975) [Editor.]
- King Charles II (1979). Also published as Royal Charles: Charles II and the Restoration and Charles II; ISBN 0-7538-1403-X.
- The Weaker Vessel: Woman's Lot in Seventeenth-century England (1984)
- The Warrior Queens: Boadicea's Chariot (1988) Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London. Also published as Warrior Queens: The Legends and Lives of Women Who have led Their Nations in War.
- The Six Wives of Henry VIII (1999; rpt. & updated ed., London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 2007); ISBN 978-0-297-64355-5. Also published as the Orion audio-book The Six Wives of Henry VIII (November 2006); ISBN 0-7528-8913-3. The first paperback ed. is The Six Wives of Henry VIII (London: Mandarin, 1993); ISBN 978-0-7493-1409-5. The 1st American ed. is entitled The Wives of Henry VIII. New York: Knopf, 1992; ISBN 978-0-394-58538-3.
- The Gunpowder Plot: Terror and Faith in 1605 (1996); also published as Faith and Treason: The Gunpowder Plot; ISBN 0-385-47189-0.
- Marie Antoinette (2001); ISBN 0-385-48949-8 (also published with the subtitle Marie Antoinette: The Journey, 2002); ISBN 978-0-7538-2140-4.
- Love and Louis XIV: The Women in the Life of the Sun King (2006); ISBN 0-297-82997-1.
- Must You Go? My Life with Harold Pinter (2010). 1st ed. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson (Orion Books); ISBN 978-0-297-85971-0. 1st U.S. ed., New York: Nan A. Talese/Doubleday; ISBN 978-0-385-53250-1. 1st paperback ed. London: Phoenix, 2010; ISBN 978-0-7538-2758-1 (also published in audio & digital eds.) - "Shortlisted for Galaxy National Book Awards: Non-Fiction Book of the Year 2010."
Jemima Shore novels
- Quiet as a Nun (1977)
- The Wild Island (1978)
- A Splash of Red (1981)
- Cool Repentance (1982)
- Oxford Blood (1985)
- Jemima Shore's First Case (1986)
- Your Royal Hostage (1987)
- The Cavalier Case (1990)
- Jemima Shore at the Sunny Grave (1991)
- Political Death (1995)
- Scottish Love Poems (1975)
- Love Letters (1976)
- "The Pleasure of Reading" (1992)
- Mel Gussow, "The Lady Is a Writer", The New York Times Magazine, 9 September 1984, Sunday Late City Final Ed., Sec. 6, Health: 60, col. 2. Print. New York Times, New York Times Company, 9 September 1984, Web, 8 April 2009. Cached version.
- Antonia Fraser, "Writer's Rooms: Antonia Fraser", Guardian, Culture: Books, Guardian Media Group, 13 June 2008, Web, 8 April 2009. (Includes photograph of Antonia Fraser's study.)
- "Non-Fiction: Author: Antonia Fraser", Orion Books (Orion Publishing Group), © 2004–2007, [updated 2009], Web, 9 April 2009.
- Ginny Dougary, "Lady Antonia Fraser's Life Less Ordinary: In a Frank Interview, the Famed Writer Talks about Motherhood, Catholicism, Her Parents and Soulmate Harold Pinter", Times, News Corporation, 5 July 2008, Web, 9 April 2009.
- Daniel Snowman, "Lady Antonia Fraser", History Today 50.10 (October 2000): pp. 26–28, History Today, n.d., Web, 8 Apr. 2009 (excerpt; full article available to subscribers or pay-per-view customers).
- "Non-Fiction: Antonia Fraser: Author Q&A", Orion Books (Orion Publishing Group), © 2004–2007, [updated 2009], Web, 9 April 2009.
- Nicholas Wroe, "Profile: The History Woman", Guardian, Arts & Humanities, Guardian Media Group, 24 August 2002, Web, 8 April 2009.
- "Featured Alumni: Antonia Fraser: Author, Lady Margaret Hall", University of Oxford Alumni, University of Oxford, 29 October 2007, Web, 17 June 2008.
- "History Books by Antonia Fraser" and "Other Books by Antonia Fraser" at AntoniaFraser.com, Antonia Fraser, © 2007, Web, 9 April 2009; "Author: Antonia Fraser: Non-Fiction", Orion Books (Orion Publishing Group), © 2004–2007 [updated 2009], Web, 9 April 2009.
- "Our President in 1983/84 was: Lady Antonia Fraser", biography, Edinburgh Sir Walter Scott Club, n.d., Web, 8 April 2009.
- Antonia Fraser, The Gunpowder Plot, 2007, Antonia Fraser, Web, 13 June 2008.
- Antonia Fraser, "Sofia's Choice", Vanity Fair, November 2006, Condé Nast Publications, Web, 9 April 2009.
- Cf. My Word!, BBC Radio 4, BBC, World Wide Web, 9 April 2009
- "Benefits", Franco-British Society, Franco-British Society, © 2008, Web, 9 April 2009.
- Alex Danchev, "They Remember, But Others Forget", Times Higher Education Supplement, News Corporation, 2 March 2007, Web, 13 June 2008.
- "Antonia Fraser To Tell Harold Pinter 'love story' ", Guardian, Guardian Media Group, 9 June 2009, Web, 19 June 2009. ("Historical biographer will publish her 'portrait of a marriage' to the Nobel laureate in January 2010.") [There is a factual error in this account; the Pinter-Merchant marriage was not dissolved in 1977, as stated, but in 1980, shortly before Pinter and Fraser married; Merchant's delay in signing the divorce papers resulted in the reception (scheduled for Pinter's 50th birthday on 10 October 1980) being held before the wedding, which occurred two weeks later, according to Michael Billington's authorised biography of Pinter (Harold Pinter, pp. 271–72). It was the Frasers' marital union that was dissolved in 1977.]
- "Sir Hugh Fraser Dead; Long a Tory Legislator", New York Times, Obituaries, New York Times Company, 7 March 1984, Web, 13 June 2008.
- Moysey, Steven (2008). The Road to Balcombe Street: The IRA Reign of Terror in London. Haworth Press. pp. 109–110. ISBN 978-0-7890-2913-3.
- "Timeline: 1974–75: The Year London Blew Up", Channel 4, History, Channel 4, 27 August 2007, Web, 8 April 2009.
- Melanie McDonagh, "Mr. and Mrs. Pinter, At Home", The Tablet, 30 January 2010, pg. 21.
- The London Gazette: . 31 December 2010.
- Loan No. 110B/1–19: Lady Antonia Fraser Archive, British Library Manuscripts Catalogue, Web, British Library, 1993– , Web, 8 April 2009.
- "Gold Daggers", Crime Writers' Association, Web, Crime Writers Association, n.d., 13 June 2008.
- "Enid McLeod Literary Prize", Book Trust, Book Trust, 2007, Web, 9 Apr. 2009.
- Must You Go?, Shortlist for Non-Fiction Book of The Year award category (Book 5), Galaxy National Book Awards, 2010, Web, 6 December 2010.
Biographies and profiles
- Gussow Mel. "The Lady Is a Writer". The New York Times Magazine, 9 September 1984.
- "Our President in 1983/84 was: Lady Antonia Fraser" bio at Edinburgh Sir Walter Scott Club.
- Snowman, Daniel. "Lady Antonia Fraser". History Today 50.10 (Oct. 2000): 26–28.[dead link]
- Wroe, Nicholas. "Profile: The History Woman." Guardian, 24 August 2002.
Interviews and articles
- Dougary, Ginny. "Lady Antonia Fraser's Life Less Ordinary: In a Frank Interview, the Famed Writer Talks about Motherhood, Catholicism, Her Parents and Soulmate Harold Pinter". Times, 5 July 2008.[dead link]
- "Interviews: Antonia Fraser Peers into the Heart of Louis XIV". National Public Radio, Weekend Edition Saturday, 11 November 2006.
- Leith, Sam. "Literary Lazing". Daily Telegraph, 10 July 2007.
- Talese, Nan A. Interview with Antonia Fraser. Random House Books, 2001.[dead link]
- Weinberg, Kate. "Culture Clinic: Lady Antonia Fraser". The Daily Telegraph. 15 Mar. 2008.
- AntoniaFraser.com – Official website of Antonia Fraser.
- "Antonia Fraser" – Author webpage at Orion Publishing Group (UK publisher)
- "Antonia Fraser" – Author webpage at Random House (US publisher)
- Antonia Fraser – Client page at Curtis Brown Literary and Talent Agency
- "Antonia's Choice" – In Desert Island Discs on BBC Radio 4 (first broadcast 27 July 2008)
- "Lady Antonia Margaret Caroline Pakenham" – Biography posted at thePeerage.com
- Must You Go? extract – "First Night" (Chapter One), Galaxy National Book Awards (Phoenix ed.)