Aristides de Sousa Mendes

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Aristides de Sousa Mendes
Aristides20I.jpg
Born Aristides de Sousa Mendes do Amaral e Abranches
(1885-07-19)July 19, 1885
Cabanas de Viriato, Viseu, Portugal
Died April 3, 1954(1954-04-03) (aged 68)
Nationality Portuguese
Alma mater University of Coimbra
Occupation Consul
Known for Saving the lives of thousands of refugees seeking to escape the Nazi terror during World War II
Religion Roman Catholic
Spouse(s)
  • Maria Angelina Coelho de Sousa Mendes (1908-48)
  • Andrée Cibial de Sousa Mendes (1949-54)
Children Aristides César, Manuel Silvério, José António, Clotilde Augusta, Isabel Maria, Feliciano Artur Geraldo, Elisa Joana, Pedro Nuno, Carlos Francisco Fernando, Sebastião Miguel Duarte, Teresinha Menino Jesus, Luís Felipe, João Paulo, Raquel Herminia, Marie-Rose
Parents
  • José de Sousa Mendes (father)
  • Maria Angelina Ribeiro de Abranches de Abreu Castelo-Branco (mother)

Aristides de Sousa Mendes do Amaral e Abranches, GCC, OL (July 19, 1885 – April 3, 1954; Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐɾiʃˈtiðɨʒ ðɨ ˈsowzɐ ˈmẽdɨʃ]) was a Portuguese consul. As Portuguese Consul-General in Bordeaux, France, he defied the orders of Portugal's António de Oliveira Salazar dictatorship, issuing visas in 1940 to thousands of refugees fleeing from invading German military forces in the early period of World War II. He was punished by his government for his actions but was eventually vindicated after his death. He was honored posthumously by Yad Vashem as Righteous Among the Nations, the first diplomat to be so honored.

Early life[edit]

Aristides de Sousa Mendes was born in Cabanas de Viriato, in Carregal do Sal, in the district of Viseu, Centro Region of Portugal, on July 19, 1885, shortly after midnight.[1] His twin brother César, born a few minutes earlier, had a July 18 birthday.[1] Their ancestry included a notable aristocratic line: their mother, Maria Angelina Ribeiro de Abranches de Abreu Castelo-Branco, was a maternal illegitimate granddaughter of the 2nd Viscount of Midões, a lower rural aristocracy title.[2] Their father, José de Sousa Mendes, was a judge on the Coimbra Court of Appeals.[3] César served as Foreign Minister in 1932, in the early days of António de Oliveira Salazar's regime.[4] Their younger brother, Jose Paulo, became a naval officer.[5]

Aristides and Angelina de Sousa Mendes with their first six children, 1917

Sousa Mendes and his twin studied law at the University of Coimbra, and each obtained his degree in 1908.[6] In that same year, Sousa Mendes married his childhood sweetheart, Maria Angelina Coelho de Sousa (born August 20, 1888).[7] They eventually had fourteen children, born in the various countries in which he served. Shortly after his marriage, Sousa Mendes began the consular officer career that would take him and his family around the world. Early in his career, he served in Zanzibar, Brazil, Spain, the United States, and Belgium.[8]

Sousa Mendes was not shy about expressing his independent views. In August 1919, while posted in Brazil, he was "temporarily suspended by the Foreign Ministry, which regarded him as hostile to the republican regime."[9] Subsequently, "he had financial problems and was forced to take out a loan in order to provide for his family needs."[9] He returned home to Portugal where his son Pedro Nuno was born in Coimbra in April 1920. In 1921, Sousa Mendes was assigned to the Portuguese consulate in San Francisco, and two more of his children were born there.[10] In 1923, he angered some members of the Portuguese-American community because of his insistence that certain applicants contribute to a Portuguese charity. Both sides decided to publish their arguments in local newspapers.[11] Ultimately the conflict led to the US Department of State canceling his consular exequatur[12] which prevented him from continuing his consular services in the US.[13][14][A] While in San Francisco, Sousa Mendes helped establish a Portuguese Studies program at the University of California at Berkeley.[22]

In May 1926 a coup d'état replaced the republic in Portugal with a dictatorship,[23] a regime that according to Sousa Mendes "had been greeted with delight" in Portugal.[24] He supported the new regime at first and his career started to improve.[25] In March 1927, Sousa Mendes was assigned to serve as the Consul in Vigo, Spain, where he helped the new regime neutralizing the Oppositionists.[25] He was then sent to Antwerp, Belgium, in 1929 to serve as Dean of the Consular Corps.[26] 1934 was a tragic year for the Sousa Mendes family. The family lost two children, Raquel barely one year old and Manuel just graduated from Louvain University. In Antwerp, Sousa Mendes was disciplined for tardiness in transferring funds to the ministry.[27] He was assigned in 1938 to be Consul-General of Bordeaux, France, with jurisdiction over all of southwest France.[27]

World War II and Circular 14[edit]

Refugees in Belgium, May 1940 F4499

Beginning in 1932, Portugal was under the dictatorship of Antonio de Oliveira Salazar. In 1933 Salazar created his secret police, the Polícia de Vigilância e de Defesa do Estado ("State Defense and Surveillance Police") or PVDE. According to historian Avraham Milgram, by 1938 Salazar "knew the Nazis' approach to the 'Jewish question'... In keeping with his fear of aliens, who, according to his worldview, might undermine his regime, he severely limited their entry. Toward this end, he expanded the apparatus of the PVDE [whose] International Department, in particular, was given greater control over matters relating to border patrol and entry of aliens. Presumably, most aliens wishing to enter Portugal at that time were Jews."[28] Portugal, like other countries, started to adopt tighter immigration policies that prevented refuges for settling in the country. Circular number 10 of October 28, 1938, addressed to consular representations, settling in Portugal was forbidden to Jews; however, they were allowed entry as tourists for thirty days.[29]

On November 9, 1938, the Nazi government of Germany began open war against its Jewish citizens in the pogrom known as Kristallnacht, when 1,000 synagogues were burned, 30,000 Jews were arrested, and at least 91 Jews were murdered. On September 1, 1939, Nazi Germany invaded Poland, home at that time of the largest Jewish community in the world, and World War II began. Salazar reacted sending a telegram to the Portuguese Embassy in Berlin ordering that it should be made clear to the German Reich that Portuguese law did not allow any distinction based on race and therefore Portuguese Jewish citizens could not be discriminated against.[30]

On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland, and on September 3 France and United Kingdom declared war on Germany. The numbers of people trying to use neutral Portugal as an escape route increased and between September 1939 and December 1939, approximately 9,000 refugees entered in Portugal.[31] Passport forgery and false statements had become common and the police felt the need for a tighter control.[B]

On November 11, 1939, the Portuguese government issued Circular 14, an order sent to Portuguese consuls throughout Europe that spelled out the categories of war refugees whom the PVDE considered to be "inconvenient or dangerous."[33] The circular allowed consuls to keep on granting Portuguese transit visas, but established that in the case of "foreigners of indefinite or contested nationality; the stateless; Russians; holder of Nansen passports, or Jews expelled from their countries and also all those alleging that they will be embarking from a Portuguese port but have no consular visa in their passports for their country of destination, or air or sea tickets, or an embarkation guarantee from the respective companies the consuls needed to ask previous permission to the Ministry in Lisbon."[34] With Europe at war, this meant that refugees from Nazism would have a difficult time escaping Europe.

Historian Neill Lochery asserts that Circular 14 “was not issued out of thin air” and that this type of barriers was not unique to Portugal and with the country’s very limited economic resources it was viewed as necessary. It was economic reasons rather than ideology that made the Portuguese avoid accepting more refugees says Lochery.[35] Milgram expressed similar views, asserting that Portugal’s regime did not distinguish between Jews and non-Jews but rather between immigrant Jews who came and had the means to leave the country and those lacking them.[36] Portugal prevented Jews from putting down roots in the country not because they were Jews but because the regime feared foreign influence in general, and feared the entrance of Bolsheviks and left-wing agitators fleeing from Germany.[36] Milgram believes that antisemitic ideological patterns had no hold in the ruling structure of the "Estado Novo" and a fortiori in the various strata of Portuguese society.[37] Milgram also says that modern anti-Semitism failed "to establish even a toehold in Portugal"[38] while it grew racist and virulent elsewhere in early twentieth-century Europe.Salazar`s policies towards the Jews seem to have been favorable and consistent. "[37] Nevertheless although it was not anti-Semitism that motivated the Portuguese government, but the danger of mass emigration to the country,[39]the outcome of the border policy made life difficult for Jews fleeing Nazism.

Sousa Mendes' disobedience of the orders of the Salazar dictatorship[edit]

Aristides de Sousa Mendes, 1940

According to Dr. Mordecai Paldiel, past Director of the Department of the Righteous at Yad Vashem, "In Portugal of those days, it was unthinkable for a diplomatic official, especially in a sensitive post, to disobey clear-cut instructions and get away with it."[40] However Yad Vashem historian Avraham Milgram has a different view. Migram says that “issuing visas in contravention of instructions was widespread at Portuguese consulates all over Europe” and that “this form of insubordination was rife in consular circles."[41] Sousa Mendes began disobeying Circular 14 almost immediately, on the grounds that it was an inhumane and racist directive.[42]

Life saving visa issued by Dr. Aristides de Sousa Mendes in June 19, 1940.

The process that ended with Sousa Mendes’ discharge from his consular career began with two visas: the first issued on November 28, 1939 to Professor Arnold Wiznitzer, an Austrian historian who had been stripped of his nationality by the Nuremberg Laws, and the second on March 1, 1940 to the Spanish Republican Eduardo Neira Laporte, an anti-Franco activist living in France.[43] Sousa Mendes was reprimanded and warned in writing that "any new transgression or violation on this issue will be considered disobedience and will entail a disciplinary procedure where it will not be possible to overlook that you have repeatedly committed acts which have entailed warnings and reprimands."[44]

When Sousa Mendes issued these visas and thousands of others, it was a deliberate act of disobedience to the decree of an authoritarian dictatorship. "Here was a unique act by a man who believed his religion imposed certain obligations," said Paldiel. "He said, 'I'm saving innocent lives,' as simply as he might have said, 'Come, walk with me in my garden.'"[45]

It is also at this time that Andrée Cibial, a French pianist and singer, started to disturb Sousa Mendes' family life. Andrée became his mistress and got pregnant. Andrée did not try to hide it, quite the contrary, she made a public announcement, during a Sunday mass at Riberac`s cathedral.[46]

On May 10, 1940, Germany launched the blitzkrieg offensive against France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, and millions of refugees took to the roads. On May 15, Sousa Mendes issued transit visas to Maria Tavares, a Luxembourg citizen of Portuguese origin, and to her husband Paul Miny, also a Luxembourger.[47] Two weeks later, the couple returned to the Bordeaux Consulate asking Sousa Mendes to issue them false papers.[48] Sousa Mendes agreed to their request, and on May 30, 1940, he issued a Portuguese passport listing Paul Miny as Maria's brother, therefore as having Portuguese citizenship. This time Sousa Mendes risked himself a great deal more than he had before, disobeying Circular 14 was one thing, but issuing a passport with a false identity, for someone of military age was a crime.[49] Sousa Mendes later provided the following explanation: “This couple asked me for a Portuguese passport, where they would figure as brother and sister, for fear that the husband, who was still of military age, would be detained on passing the French border, and incorporated in the Luxembourg army then being organized in France."[50] Under the terms imposed by the German occupation of Luxembourg in World War II, that army was under Nazi control.

There were other cases from May 1940 where Sousa Mendes disobeyed Circular 14 issued by the Salazar dictatorship. Examples include issuing visas to the Ertag, Flaksbaum and Landesman families, all granted on May 29, 1940 despite having been rejected in a telegram from the Portuguese dictator Salazar to Sousa Mendes.[51] Another example is the writer Gisèle Quittner, rejected by Salazar, but rescued by Sousa Mendes, to whom she expressed her gratitude: "You are Portugal's best propaganda and an honor to your country. All those who know you praise your courage...."[52]

Encounter with Rabbi Chaim Kruger[edit]

Rabbi Chaim Kruger with Aristides de Sousa Mendes, 1940

As the German army approached Paris, the largest single movement of refugees in Europe since the Dark Ages began. An estimated six to ten million people took to the roads and railways to escape the German invasion.[53] Bordeaux and other southern French cities were overrun by desperate refugees. One of these was a Chassidic Rabbi, Chaim Kruger, originally from Poland but more recently from Brussels, escaping with his wife and five children. Kruger and Sousa Mendes met by chance in Bordeaux, and quickly became friends.[54] Sousa Mendes offered a visa to the Kruger family in defiance of Circular 14. In response, Kruger took a moral stand and refused to accept the visa unless all of his "brothers and sisters" (the mass of Jewish refugees stranded on the streets of Bordeaux) received visas too. Kruger's response plunged Sousa Mendes into "a moral crisis of incalculable proportions."[55]

At the same time Sousa Mendes was also living a personal drama. Andrée Cibial, Sousa Mendes’ lover, pregnant with his child, showed up in the consulate, provoked a scandal in front of Sousa Mendes' family and ended up being Imprisoned.[56] Sousa Mendes had a nervous breakdown. He secluded himself and prayed, pondering whether or not he should issue visas to everyone he could, saving their lives at the expense of his own career.[57] "Here the situation is horrible and I am in bed because of a strong nervous breakdown,"[58] he wrote to his son-in-law on June 13, 1940.

Act of conscience[edit]

On June 12, despite the guarantees given by Franco, personally, to the Portuguese Ambassador Teotónio Pereira, that even if Italy entered the war, Spain would remain neutral,[59][60] Spain took on the status of a non-belligerent power and invaded Tangiers, further endangering Portuguese neutrality.[59][60][C] With the German tanks approaching the Pyrenean frontier and with anti-British demonstrations in Spain, demanding the returning of Gibraltar, there was every prospect that Portugal and Spain would become embroiled in the hostilities.[59]

On June 16, despite his seclusion, Sousa Mendes issued 40 visas, including those for the Rothschild family, and he was paid his customary personal compensation fee for issuing visas on a Sunday.[61]

On June 17 Petain announced in a broadcast to the French people that “It is with a heavy heart that I tell you today that we must stop fighting.” and he calls on the Germans for an armistice that will end the fighting. On that same day Sousa Mendes emerged from his seclusion, impelled by "a divine power,"[62] and with his decision made. According to his son Pedro Nuno:

My father got up, apparently recovering his serenity. He was full of punch. He washed, shaved and got dressed. Then he strode out of his bedroom, flung open the door to the chancellery, and announced in a loud voice: "From now on I'm giving everyone visas. There will be no more nationalities, races or religions." Then our father told us that he had heard a voice, that of his conscience or of God, which dictated to him what course of action he should take, and that everything was clear in his mind.[63]

His daughter Isabel and her husband Jules strongly opposed his decision, and tried to dissuade him from what they considered to be a major mistake.[64] But Sousa Mendes did not listen to them and instead began to work intensively to grant the visas. "I would rather stand with God and against man than with man and against God,"[65] he reportedly explained. He set up an assembly line process, aided by his wife, sons Pedro Nuno and José Antonio, his secretary José Seabra, Rabbi Kruger and a few other refugees.[66]

On June 18, American writer Eugene Bagger queued for a couple of hours, at the Portuguese Consulate hoping to get a visa. The pushing and the elbowing drove him to despair and he gave up. The next morning he joined again a mob of four hundred in front of the Portuguese Consulate. He waited in line from 9 a.m. till 11 o’clock, again to no avail and he quit. He then decided to have a drink at Hotel Splendid where he found Sousa Mendes having an aperitif with a friend. Sousa Mendes told him he was tired from overworking the previous day, from the crowds and from the heat. Then, at Bagger’s request, Sousa Mendes signed Bagger’s passport and told him to go back to the consulate to have it stamped. To Bagger’s surprise he was then helped by M. Skalski the Polish consul at Arcachon. At the Consulate M. Skalski was able to cut through the crowds and get Bagger’s passports duly stamped. [67][68]

Bordeaux was bombed by the Wehrmacht on the night of June 19–20, 1940.[69] In the morning, the demand for Portuguese visas intensified, not only in Bordeaux but also in nearby Bayonne, near the Spanish border. Sousa Mendes rushed to the Portuguese consulate in Bayonne, which was under his jurisdiction, to relieve the Vice-Consul Faria Machado, who was refusing to grant visas to the crush of refugees.[70] However American writer Eugene Bagger says that, at Bayonne, he saw Sousa Mendes rushing out of the Portuguese Consulate, pursued by a mob, and that Sousa Mendes holding his head between his hands was crying “Go away! No more visas!” then jumped into a car and shot down the hill pursued by curses from the mass of visa seekers.[71]

On June 20, the British Embassy in Lisbon sent a letter to the Portuguese Foreign Office accusing Sousa Mendes of "deferring until after office hours all applications for visas" as well as "charging them at a special rate" and requiring at least one refugee "to contribute to a Portuguese charitable fund before the visa was granted."[72][73] This complaint from the British Embassy and the timing of Sousa Mendes’ unilateral decision could not have been worse for Salazar and his carefully planned attempt to preserve Portuguese neutrality.[74] Salazar had instructed the consulates in Spain and those in the south of France ― Bordeaux, Bayonne, Perpignan, Marseilles, Nice, etc. ― to facilitate transit visas to British citizens.[75]

In issuing visas to the thousands at the Bayonne consulate, Sousa Mendes was aided by the Bayonne consular secretary, Manuel de Vieira Braga. Faria Machado, a Salazar loyalist in charge of the Bayonne consulate, reported this behavior to Portugal's ambassador to Spain, Pedro Teotónio Pereira. Teotónio Pereria a loyalist to the historic Anglo-Portuguese alliance[76] promptly set out for the French/Spanish border to put a stop to this activity.[77] After observing Sousa Mendes' action, Teotónio Pereira sent a telegram to the Lisbon authorities in which he described Sousa Mendes as being “out of his mind” and also said that Sousa Mendes’ “disorientation has made a great impression on the Spanish side with a political campaign against Portugal being created immediately accusing our country of giving shelter to the scum of the democratic regimes and defeated elements fleeing before the German victory."[78][79] He declared Sousa Mendes to be mentally incompetent and, acting on Salazar's authority, he invalidated all further visas.[80] The timing of Sousa Mendes’ unilateral decision to start issuing visas without following procedures could not have been worse for Salazar and his attempt to preserve Portuguese neutrality. [74][D] Teotonio Pereira’s role in drawing Spain with Portugal into a really neutral Peninsular bloc in line with the allies´ strategy was praised both by the British and the American ambassadors.[83][84]

Emile Gissot, honorary Portuguese Vice-Consul in Toulouse, France

Sousa Mendes continued on to Hendaye to assist there, thus narrowly missing two cablegrams from Lisbon sent on June 22 to Bordeaux ordering him to stop even as France's armistice with Germany became official.[85] Furthermore, Sousa Mendes ordered the honorary Portuguese vice-consul in Toulouse, Emile Gissot, to issue transit visas to all who applied.[86]

The Armistice was signed on June 22. Under its terms, two thirds of France was to be occupied by the Germans. On June 26 the British Ambassador in Madrid writes to London “The arrival of the Germans to the pyrenees is a tremendous event in the eyes of every Spaniard. Will it mean the passage of troops through Spain to Portugal or Africa?”[87] Meanwhile, Teotónio Pereira, following Spanish protests,[88] declared the visas issued by Sousa Mendes to be null and void. The New York Times reported that some 10,000 persons attempting to cross over into Spain were excluded because authorities no longer granted recognition to their visas: "Portugal announced that Portuguese visas granted at Bordeaux were invalid, and Spain was permitting bearers of these documents to enter only in exceptional cases."[89] The Jewish Telegraphic Agency reported that small Portugal, whose population was just over 7 million, had received an estimated 2 million applications for visas, permanent or transit. Most of them came from Frenchmen, Belgians, Dutch and Poles in France who required Portuguese visas to pass through Spain. The applications must have included tens of thousands from Jews.[90]

On June 24, Salazar recalled Sousa Mendes to Portugal, an order he received upon returning to Bordeaux on June 26 but complied with slowly, arriving in Portugal on July 8.[91] Along the way, he continued issuing Portuguese visas to refugees now trapped in occupied France, and even led a large group to a remote border post that had not received Lisbon's order. His son John-Paul Abranches told the story:

"As his diplomatic car reached the French border town of Hendaye, my father encountered a large group of stranded refugees for whom he had previously issued visas. Those people had been turned away because the Portuguese government had phoned the guards, commanding 'Do not honor Mendes's signature on visas.' ... Ordering his driver to slow down, Father waved the group to follow him to a border checkpoint that had no telephones. In the official black limousine with its diplomatic license tags, Father led those refugees across the border toward freedom."[92]

After the intervention of Augusto d'Esaguy and Amzalak most of the refugees issued visas by Sousa Mendes were allowed to continue on their way to Portugal[93] and were well received.[E]and on June 26 the main HIAS-HICEM (Jewish relief organization) European Office was authorized by Salazar to be transferred from Paris to Lisbon.

Disciplinary proceeding and punishment[edit]

Upon returning to Portugal in early July 1940, Sousa Mendes was subjected to a disciplinary proceeding that has been described as "a severe crackdown"[94] and "a merciless disciplinary process."[95] The charges against him included: "the violation of Circular 14; the order to the consul in Bayonne to issue visas to all those who asked for them 'with the claim that it was necessary to save all these people'; the order given to the consul in Bayonne to distribute visas free of charge; the permission given by telephone to the consul in Toulouse that he could issue visas; acting in a way that was dishonorable for Portugal vis-à-vis the Spanish and German authorities." the confessed passport forgery to help Luxembourger Paul Miny escape army mobilization, abandoning his post at Bordeaux without authorization and extortion, this latest one based on the accusation made by the British Embassy.[86] Rui Afonso wrote in 1990's Injustiça (Injustice) that the disciplinary action against Sousa Mendes was less due to the granting of too many visas and more the result of his various financial intrigues such as requiring applicants to donate to charity, and his personal use of public monies. Afonso softened this stance in his 1995 book Um Homem Bom (One Good Man). Historian Avraham Milgram observes that Afonso holds a minority view: the mainstream view is that Sousa Mendes was disciplined for the granting of too many visas, in violation of his instructions.[13]

The accusation asserted that “an atmosphere of panic does in fact provide an extenuating circumstance for the acts committed by the Defendant during the month of June and possibly even for those committed in the second half of the month of May (…), however, the acts committed during that period are no more than a repetition or extension of a procedure that already existed, for which the same extenuating circumstance cannot be invoked. There had been infractions and repetitions long before 15 May (…) as regards his previous good professional conduct, it should be noted that this is the 4th case of disciplinary proceedings brought against the Defendant".[33]

Sousa Mendes submitted his response to the charges on August 12, 1940, in which he clarified his motivation:

"It was indeed my aim to save all those people whose suffering was indescribable: some had lost their spouses, others had no news of missing children, others had seen their loved ones succumb to the German bombings which occurred every day and did not spare the terrified refugees.... There was another aspect that should not be overlooked: the fate of many people if they fell into the hands of the enemy.... eminent people of many countries with whom we have always been on excellent terms: statesmen, ambassadors and ministers, generals and other high officers, professors, men of letters, ... officers from armies of countries that had been occupied, Austrians, Czechs and Poles, who would be shot as rebels; there were also many Belgians, Dutch, French, Luxembourgers and even English... Many were Jews who were already persecuted and sought to escape the horror of further persecution. Finally an endless number of women attempting to avoid being at the mercy of Teutonic sensuality. I could not differentiate between nationalities as I was obeying the dictates of humanity that distinguish between neither race nor nationality; as for the charge of dishonorable conduct, when I left Bayonne I was applauded by hundreds of people, and through me it was Portugal that was being honored...."[96]

On October 19, 1940, the verdict was handed down: "disobeying higher orders during service."[97] The disciplinary board recommended a demotion.[98] On October 30, 1940, Salazar rejected this recommendation and imposed his own sentence: "I sentence Consul First Class, Aristides de Sousa Mendes, to a penalty of one year of inactivity with the right to one half of his rank's pay, being obliged subsequently to be retired."[99] He further ordered that all files in the case be sealed.[99]

There was also an unofficial punishment: the blacklisting and social banishment of Aristides de Sousa Mendes and his family. "My grandfather ... knew there would be some retribution, but to lose everything and have the family disgraced, he never thought it would go that far," said the hero's grandson, also named Aristides.[100] The family took meals at the soup kitchen of the Jewish community of Lisbon. When told that the soup kitchen was intended for refugees, Sousa Mendes replied, "But we too are refugees."[101]

Sousa Mendes was listed in the Portuguese Consular and Diplomatic Yearbook until 1954.[102][103] After the one-year punishment with half-pay, he received a monthly payment of 1,593 Portuguese escudos per month.[104][105][106] According to Rui Afonso, "although it was not a salary of a prince, one should not forget that at that time, in Portugal, the monthly salary of a school teacher was only 500 Escudos”.[104] When he died, in 1954 he was receiving a monthly salary of 2,300 Portuguese Escudos.[104][107]

According to Milgram, Mendes’ action, while exceptional in its scope, was not unique, as issuing visas in contravention of the Portuguese government's instructions occurred at other Portuguese consulates as well.[41]

After the war, with the victory of the Allied forces over the Axis led by Nazi Germany, Salazar took credit for Portugal having received the refugees,[108] and the Portuguese history books were written accordingly. Manuela Franco, Director of the Portuguese Foreign Ministry archives, stated in 2000 that "the image of 'Portugal, a safe haven' was born then in Bordeaux, and it lasts to this day."[109]

Last years[edit]

Aristides de Sousa Mendes, 1950

Throughout the war years and beyond, Sousa Mendes was optimistic that his punishment would be reversed and his deed would be recognized.[66] In a 1945 letter to the Portuguese Parliament, he explained that he had disobeyed orders because he had considered them to be unconstitutional as the Portuguese Constitution forbade discrimination on the basis of religion. This was the first time that Sousa Mendes used this line of argument and he explained that he hadn’t used it before because, being a public official, he did not want to attract publicity and therefore compromise Portugal’s neutrality.[110][111]

In 1941 Sousa Mendes applied to the Portuguese bar association and he was admitted to the bar to practice law. But in 1942, he wrote a letter to the bar, explaining that since he was living in a small village, in his mansion at Passal, he was not able to work as a lawyer and he asked for his license to be cancelled.[112] Later, in 1944, he asked again for readmission and readmission was granted again.[113][114] He then, as a lawyer, won a court case, where he defended two of his sons, Carlos and Sebastian, who were being deprived of Portuguese Citizenship because they had enlisted in the allied armed forces in the UK.[115]

Just before the war's end in 1945, Sousa Mendes suffered a stroke that left him at least partially paralyzed and unable to work.[116][117]

In 1946, a Portuguese journalist tried to raise awareness for Sousa Mendes outside of Portugal by publishing the facts under a pseudonym in a US newspaper.[118] Sousa Mendes' wife Angelina died in 1948.[119]

The following year he married his former mistress Andrée Cibial, with whom he had a daughter, Marie-Rose. Andrée soon clashed with Sousa Mendes' sons and the couple moved to Cabanas de Viriato. It did not take long for Andrée to show to Sousa Mendes's sons that they were not welcome at Passal and soon the youngsters were separated from their father.[120] John Paul joined other brothers and sisters already living in California. Pedro Nuno left to the Congo. Geraldo went to Angola and Clotilde went to Mozambique.[120] On the account of Andrée`s spending habits, Sousa Mendes also started to have disputes with his brothers Cesar and Joao Paulo and his cousin Silverio.[121]

As his financial situation deteriorated he would sometimes write to the people he had helped asking for money.[122] On one occasion Maurice de Rothschild sent him 30,000 Portuguese Escudos, a considerable amount of money for Portugal at that time.[123]

In 1950 Sousa Mendes and Andrée travelled to France. Their daughter, Marie-Rose had been raised in France by her aunt and uncle and she was ten when she met her father for the first time; her parents then started to spend the summer months with her each year.[124]

In his final years, Sousa Mendes was abandoned by most of his colleagues and friends and at times was blamed by some of his close relatives.[125] His children moved to other countries in search of opportunities they were now denied in Portugal, although by all accounts they never blamed their father or regretted his decision.[126] He asked his children to help clear the family name and make the story known.[126] In 1951, one of his sons, Sebastião, published a novella about the Bordeaux events, Flight Through Hell.[127][128] César de Sousa Mendes, twin brother of Aristides, did everything he could to try to get Salazar to reverse his punishment, but to no avail.[129] Sousa Mendes never regretted his action. "I could not have acted otherwise, and I therefore accept all that has befallen me with love,"[130] he reportedly said. To his lawyer he wrote:

In truth, I disobeyed, but my disobedience does not dishonor me. I did not respect orders that to me represented the persecution of true castaways who sought with all their strength to be saved from Hitler's wrath. Above the order, for me, there was God's law, and that's the one I have always sought to adhere to without hesitation. The true value of the Christian religion is to love one's neighbor.[131]

Sousa Mendes always lived with financial problems and Andrée’s spending habits did not help him much. The couple eventually ended up selling all their furniture from their family mansion and raising debts with banks.[132] Sousa Mendes died in poverty on April 3, 1954, owing money to his lenders and still in disgrace with his government. The only person present when he died was one of his nieces.[133]

Number of visa recipients[edit]

It is impossible to determine the precise number of refugees who were granted visas by Sousa Mendes, although all sources agree that the number was in the thousands, and most say that it was in the tens of thousands. Holocaust scholar Yehuda Bauer characterized Sousa Mendes' deed as "perhaps the largest rescue action by a single individual during the Holocaust."[134] One generally accepted figure is that he issued visas to approximately 30,000 people, of whom around 10,000 were Jews.[66] This figure includes not only those refugees who successfully transited through Portugal, but also those trapped by the Portuguese government's order to seal the French/Spanish border on June 24, 1940.[135]

In 1999 Yad Vashem historian Avraham Milgram published a study where he asserted that "the discrepancy between the reality and the myth of the number of visas granted by Sousa Mendes is great."[13] To make his point Milgram cross checked the numbers from the Bordeaux ‘s visa register entry books with those of the HICEM reports and although he acknowledged that visas delivered in cities of Bayonne, Hendaye and Toulouse cannot be exactly determined Milgram asserted that the numbers are exaggerated. Again in 2011, Milgram published a densely researched book, “Portugal Salazar and the Jews” and for a second time he asserted that: "authors, especially those who wish to sing the praises of Aristides de Sousa Mendes, tend to overstate the number of visas with figures that not satisfy research criteria, but rather correspond to their wishful thinking".[136] A similar opinion is shared by British historian Neill Lochery, in 2011, Lochery quoted Milgram´s numbers and to further support his view he also cross checked numbers with the Portuguese Emigration Police files and he also concluded that the numbers usually published by popular literature are a “Myth”.[137] Both these historians concur that this does not diminish the greatness of Sousa Mendes´s gesture. Rui Afonso, the first Sousa Mendes biographer, also says, that José Seabra, Sousa Mendes´ deputy at Bordeaux, always testified that the order of magnitude of irregular visas issued at Bordeaux was within hundreds.[138]

In 2008 the Portuguese ambassador João Hall Themido took a stand affirming that in his opinion the Sousa Mendes story was a Myth and asserting his disbelief in the 30,000 figure.[139][140] A similar path was followed by Portuguese Historian José Hermano Saraiva.[141][142]

As a reaction to Milgram´s assertion, French writer, Eric Lebreton, in 2010, argued that “Milgram does not account for the visas that were delivered in Bayonne, Hendaye and Toulouse, and on the other hand, he [Milgram] holds firm to the number presented in the one surviving registry book of José Seabra (Sousa Mendes' deputy). Milgram's article, while very interesting in other ways, lacks details and knowledge on this point.”[143]

Posthumous rehabilitation and recognition[edit]

Yad Vashem ceremony in honor of Aristides de Sousa Mendes

From 1954 on, Sousa Mendes' children[144] worked tirelessly to clear his name and make the story known. In the early 1960s a few articles began appearing in the U.S. press.[145] On February 21, 1961, Ben Gurion, the Prime Minister of Israel, ordered that twenty trees be planted by the Keren Kayemet in memory of Sousa Mendes and in recognition of his deed.[146] In 1963, the Israeli Holocaust authority Yad Vashem began recognizing Holocaust rescuers as Righteous Among the Nations, and Sousa Mendes, in 1966, was among the earliest to be so named, thanks in large part to the efforts of daughter Joana.[147] But with Salazar still in power, "the diplomat and his efforts remained unknown even in his own country for years."[148] Moreover, Salazar's representatives gave statements to the press casting doubt on Sousa Mendes' heroism by denying that Circular 14 had ever existed.[149]

Following the 1974 Carnation Revolution in Portugal when the Estado Novo dictatorship was overthrown and democracy was established, Dr. Nuno A. A. de Bessa Lopes, a Portuguese government official, took the initiative of reopening the Sousa Mendes case and making recommendations.[150] His assessment, based on his viewing of previously sealed government files, was that the Salazar government had knowingly sacrificed Sousa Mendes for its own political ends, and that the verdict and punishment were illegal and should be overturned.[151] "Aristides de Sousa Mendes was condemned for having refused to be an accomplice to Nazi war crimes,"[152] the report concluded. The report was suppressed by the Portuguese government for over a decade.[153] "The failure to act on the Lopes report reflects the fact that there was never a serious purge of Fascist supporters from government ministries,"[154] explained journalist Reese Erlich.

In 1986, inspired by the election of Mário Soares, a civilian president in Portugal, Sousa Mendes' youngest son John Paul began to circulate a petition to the Portuguese president within his adopted country, the United States. "I want people in Portugal to know who he was, what he did, and why he did it,"[155] explained John Paul. He and his wife Joan worked with Robert Jacobvitz, an executive at the Jewish Federation of the Greater East Bay in Oakland, California, and lawyer Anne Treseder to create the "International Committee to Commemorate Dr. Aristides de Sousa Mendes."[156] They were able to gain the support of two members of the California delegation of the United States House of Representatives, Tony Coelho and Henry Waxman, who introduced a resolution in Congress to recognize his humanitarian actions.[157] That same year, Sousa Mendes was honored at the Simon Wiesenthal Center in Los Angeles, where John Paul and his brother Sebastião gave impassioned speeches and Waxman spoke as well.[158]

In 1987, the Portuguese Republic began to rehabilitate Sousa Mendes' memory and granted him a posthumous Order of Liberty medal, one of that country's highest honors, although the consul's diplomatic honors still were not restored. In October of that year, the Comité national français en hommage à Aristides de Sousa Mendes was established in Bordeaux, France, presided for the next twenty-five years by Manuel Dias Vaz.[159]

In 1995 the Portuguese President Mário Soares declared Sousa Mendes to be "Portugal's greatest hero of the twentieth century."[160]

On March 18, 1988, the Portuguese parliament officially dismissed all charges, restoring Sousa Mendes to the diplomatic corps by unanimous vote[161] and honoring him with a standing ovation. He was promoted to the rank of Ministro Plenipotenciário de 2ª classe and awarded the Cross of Merit. In December of that year, the U.S. Ambassador to Portugal, Edward Rowell, presented copies of the congressional resolution from the previous year to Pedro Nuno de Sousa Mendes, one of the sons who had helped his father in the assembly line at Bordeaux, and to Portuguese President Mário Soares at the Palácio de Belém. In 1994 former President Mario Soares dedicated a bust of Sousa Mendes in Bordeaux, along with a commemorative plaque at 14 quai Louis‑XVIII, the address at which the consulate at Bordeaux had been housed.[162]

Aristides de Sousa Mendes plaza in Vienna

In 1995, Portugal held a week-long National Homage to Sousa Mendes, culminating with an event in a 2000-seat Lisbon theater that was filled to capacity.[163] On that occasion, a commemorative stamp was issued in Portugal.[164]

In 1997, an international homage to Sousa Mendes was organized by the European Union in Strasbourg, France.[165]

Casa do Passal, the mansion that Sousa Mendes had to abandon and sell in his final years, was left for decades to decay into a "ghost of a building,"[166] and at one time was to be razed and replaced by a hotel. However, with reparations funds given by the Portuguese government to Sousa Mendes' heirs in 2000, the family decided to create the Fundação Aristides de Sousa Mendes.[167] With assistance from government officials, the foundation purchased the family home in order to develop a museum in his honor.[168]

In April 2004, to mark the 50th anniversary of Sousa Mendes' death, the International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation and the Angelo Roncalli Committee organized more than 80 commemorations around the world. Religious, cultural and educational activities took place in 30 countries on five continents, spearheaded by João Crisóstomo.[169]

On May 11, 2005, a commemoration in memory of Aristides de Sousa Mendes was held at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris.

On January 14, 2007, Sousa Mendes was voted into the top ten of the poll show Os Grandes Portugueses (the greatest Portuguese). On March 25, 2007, when the final rankings were announced, it was revealed that Sousa Mendes came in third place overall, behind communist leader Álvaro Cunhal (runner-up) and the dictator António de Oliveira Salazar (winner).[170]

In February 2008, Portuguese parliamentary speaker Jaime Gama led a session which launched a virtual museum, on the Internet; it offers access to photographs and other documents chronicling Sousa Mendes' life.[171]

On September 24, 2010, the Sousa Mendes Foundation was formed in the United States with the purpose of raising money for the conversion of the Sousa Mendes home into a museum and site of conscience, and in order to spread his story throughout North America.[172]

On March 3, 2011, the Casa do Passal was designated a National Monument of Portugal.[173]

In May 2012, a campaign was launched to name a Bordeaux bridge after Sousa Mendes.[174]

In January 2013, the United Nations headquarters in New York honored Sousa Mendes and featured Sousa Mendes visa recipient Leon Moed as a keynote speaker during its International Days of Commemoration of Victims and Martyrs of the Holocaust.[175]

On June 20, 2013, a big rally was held in front of the Sousa Mendes home, Casa do Passal, to make a plea for its restoration. An American architect, Eric Moed, spearheaded the event, attended by visa recipient families from all over the world.[176] At this event, a representative of the Portuguese Ministry of Culture publicly pledged $400,000 in European Union funds for the restoration effort.[177]

On October 20, 2013, a playground in Toronto, Canada was renamed in honor of Sousa Mendes.[178] That same month, the Portuguese airline Windavia named an airplane after him.[179] In December 2013, a letter that Sousa Mendes had penned to Pope Pius XII in 1946 begging for help from the Catholic Church was delivered to Pope Francis.[180]

In late May 2014 construction began at the Casa do Passal with funds from the European Union.[181]

Notable people issued visas by Sousa Mendes[edit]

Salvador Dalí
Academics
Tereska Torrès as a soldier in Charles de Gaulle's Free French Forces
Creative artists
Journalists
Political figures
Refugee advocates
  • Ilja Dijour, HIAS official[222]
  • Edouard and Louis Oungre, leading figures in HICEM and ICA[223]
Religious leaders
  • Rabbi Fajbus Dembinski[224]
  • Rabbi Chaim Kruger[225]

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ Sousa Mendes wanted to raise funds for an institution that helped orphans of war in Rio, Brazil. He became aware that the Cult of the Holy Spirit, an organization supported by the Oakland American-Portuguese community, had decided to donate funds to the American Red Cross and to the Sacred Heart Hospital in Hanford, California instead of donating funds to the organization he favored. [15] He decided to publish an article in a local newspaper accusing the directors of the Cult of the Holy Spirit of lack of love and respect for Portugal and he [15] also banned the Portuguese notaries from performing any further services to the consulate. [16]The directors of the Cult of the Holy Spirit reacted and also published an article and the dispute reached the form of insults, published by both sides. .[17] A significant part of the local Portuguese community took sides with Sousa Mendes and defended him. The Portuguese Ministry sent telegrams to Mendes ordering him to stop publishing more articles in the newspapers and reminding him that the local community was free to choose the institutions to whom they elected to donate funds, and that his decision to ban the notaries was illegal and should be reverted immediately. [18] He was also warned that the American authorities would also not approve his conduct. [19] Mendes ignored the Ministry and kept on with the dispute. He ended up with his exequatur canceled and being transferred to Maranhao in Brazil. [12]For a complete description see Madeira . [20] Fralon asserts that in this episode Mendes stood up for had stood up for his poorest compatriots when they protested against the working conditions to which they were subjected by their employers, who were also Portuguese, but much better off." [21] However this assertions is not confirmed neither by primary sources (newspaper articles) or by other published sources.
  2. ^ Before 1939 the Portuguese Police had already dismantled several criminal networks responsible for passport forgeries and several consuls had been expelled from service also for falsifying passports.[32]
  3. ^ At this time rumors abounded in the diplomatic circles of a possible “coup” in Lisbon, promoted by the Germans or a German attack on Portugal in the Axis interest.[59]
  4. ^ Two days later, on June 26, 1940, the Spanish Minister Serrano Suñer told Pereira that Hitler would no longer tolerate the independent existence of an ally of Britain on the continent and Spain would soon be forced to permit passage of German troops to invade Portugal.[81][82] Pereira counter-acted with astute diplomatic actions that culminated in an additional protocol to Iberian Pact, signed on 29 July 1940, a key contribution to a neutral Peninsular bloc.
  5. ^ Testimonial from American writer Eugene Bagger: Two Portuguese frontier guards, with rifles flung across their backs, came walking down the line of cars. When they saw our number plate they stopped, all wrapped up in smiles. “Inglés?” “Americano e inglesa.” “Aliados!” We shook hands. It was a new world, a world of friends (…) The soldiers carried large open bags and held them out to the refugees. Round golden-brown loaves of freshly baked Portuguese bread, still warm from the oven; the best white bread in the world, as we were to find. Tins of delicious large sardines. Bars of chocolate. The ladies distributed sweet crackers and tins of condensed milk for the children. As long as we live we shall not forget the Portuguese officials of Vilar Formoso.... They fed all comers, regardless of nationality; those who had money paid what they chose to; most refugees had no money, and paid nothing.

Sources[edit]

Primary[edit]

Secondary, by scholars[edit]

Secondary, Other[edit]

  • Afonso, Rui (1995). Um homem bom: Aristides de Sousa Mendes, o "Wallenberg portugues" (in Portuguese). Lisbon: Editorial Caminho. p. 354. ISBN 9722110047. 
  • Fralon, Jose-Alain (2000). A Good Man in Evil Times: Aristides De Sousa Mendes - the Unknown Hero Who Saved Countless Lives in WWII. England: Viking. p. 192. ISBN 9780670888030. 
  • Hayes, Carlton J.H. (1945). Wartime mission in Spain, 1942-1945. Macmillan Company 1st Edition. p. 313. ISBN 9781121497245. 
  • Hoare, Samuel (1946). Ambassador on Special Mission. UK: Collins; First Edition edition. p. 320. 
  • Lebreton, Eric (2010). Des visas pour la vie : Aristides Sousa Mendes, le Juste de Bordeaux (in French). Paris: Le Cherche Midi. ISBN 9782749117287. 
  • Payne, Stanley (2008). Franco and Hitler: Spain, Germany, and World War II. UK: Yale University Press; 1St Edition edition. p. 336. ISBN 9780300122824. 
  • Tusell, Javier (1995). Franco, España y la II Guerra Mundial: Entre el Eje y la Neutralidad (in Spanish). Ediciones Temas de Hoy. ISBN 9788478805013. 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Fralon 2000, p. 1.
  2. ^ Fralon 2000, p. 6.
  3. ^ Fralon 2000, p. 4.
  4. ^ Fralon 2000, p. 20.
  5. ^ Fralon 2000, p. 25.
  6. ^ Fralon 2000, p. 7.
  7. ^ Fralon 2000, p. 14.
  8. ^ Reese Ehrlich, "A Hero Remembered," Hadassah Magazine (November 1987): 26.
  9. ^ a b Fralon 2000, p. 17.
  10. ^ Fralon 2000, p. 18.
  11. ^ Fralon 1999.
  12. ^ a b Madeira 2007, p. 201.
  13. ^ a b c Milgram 1999, p. 123–156.
  14. ^ Afonso 1995, p. 193.
  15. ^ a b Madeira 2007, p. 194.
  16. ^ Madeira 2007, pp. 197-198.
  17. ^ Madeira 2007, p. 195.
  18. ^ Madeira 2007, pp. 198-199.
  19. ^ Madeira 2007, p. 200.
  20. ^ Madeira 2007, p. 189-203.
  21. ^ Fralon 1999, p. 18.
  22. ^ Aristides de Sousa Mendes, "A Lingua Portuguesa na Universidade da California," O Lavrador Portugues, November 28, 1923, p.1.
  23. ^ Fralon 2000, p. 19.
  24. ^ Fralon 1999, p. 19.
  25. ^ a b Afonso 1995, p. 195.
  26. ^ Fralon 2000, p. 21.
  27. ^ a b Fralon 2000, p. 39.
  28. ^ Milgram 2011, p. 63–64.
  29. ^ Milgram 1999, p. page number needed.
  30. ^ Dez anos de Politica Externa, Vol 1, pag 137. Edicao Imprensa Nacional 1961
  31. ^ Pimentel 2006, p. 87.
  32. ^ Pimentel 2006, p. 46-52.
  33. ^ a b Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Portugal, Spared Lives: The Actions of Three Portuguese Diplomats in World War II, Documentary Exhibition, Catalogue, September 2000, p.81.
  34. ^ Spared Lives pp.81-82
  35. ^ Lochery 2011, p. 42-43.
  36. ^ a b Milgram 2011, p. 266.
  37. ^ a b Milgram 2011, p. 13.
  38. ^ Milgram 2011, p. 11.
  39. ^ Milgram 2011, p. 70.
  40. ^ Paldiel 2007, p. 74.
  41. ^ a b Milgram 2011, p. 89.
  42. ^ Afonso 1995, pp. 29-39.
  43. ^ Fralon 2000, p. 48.
  44. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Portugal, Spared Lives: The Actions of Three Portuguese Diplomats in World War II, Documentary Exhibition, Catalogue, September 2000, p.36.
  45. ^ Mordecai Paldiel as cited in Gerald Clark, "The Priceless Signature of Aristides de Sousa Mendes," Reader's Digest (December 1988): 66.
  46. ^ Afonso 1995, p. 39.
  47. ^ Fralon, p. 48 and "Miny," Sousa Mendes Foundation. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  48. ^ Afonso 1995, p. 63.
  49. ^ Afonso 1995, p. 52.
  50. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Portugal, Spared Lives: The Actions of Three Portuguese Diplomats in World War II, Documentary Exhibition, Catalogue, September 2000, p.98.
  51. ^ "Albuquerque-Ertag-Flaksbaum-Landesman-Untermans," Sousa Mendes Foundation. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  52. ^ Fralon, p.109 and "Quittner," Sousa Mendes Foundation. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  53. ^ Lansing Warren, "Refugee Millions Suffer in France; Roads From Paris to Bordeaux Jammed With Wanderers Pitifully in Need," The New York Times, 19 June 1940.
  54. ^ Gerald Clark, "The Priceless Signature of Aristides de Sousa Mendes," Reader's Digest (Canadian edition, December 1988): 61-62.
  55. ^ Mordecai Paldiel, The Righteous Among the Nations: Rescuers of Jews During the Holocaust, Jerusalem: Collins, 2007, p.264.
  56. ^ Afonso 1995, p. 65.
  57. ^ Paldiel, The Righteous Among the Nations, p.264.
  58. ^ Aristides de Sousa Mendes to Silvério de Sousa Mendes, 13 June 1940, "De Winter," Sousa Mendes Foundation. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  59. ^ a b c d Stone, Glyn (1994). The Oldest Ally: Britain and the Portuguese Connection, 1936-1941. Royal Historical Society. ISBN 9780861932276. 
  60. ^ a b Rezola, Maria Inácia. "The Franco–Salazar Meetings: Foreign policy and Iberian relations during the dictatorships (1942-1963)". e-Journal of Portuguese History. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  61. ^ Spared Lives and Lochery p. 48
  62. ^ César de Sousa Mendes (nephew), as cited in Wheeler, "A Hero of Conscience," p.69.
  63. ^ Pedro Nuno de Sousa Mendes, as cited in Paldiel, The Righteous Among the Nations, p.265.
  64. ^ Mordecai Paldiel, Diplomat Heroes of the Holocaust, p.76.
  65. ^ Robert Jacobvitz, "Reinstating the Name and Honor of a Portuguese Diplomat Who Rescued Jews During World War II: Community Social Work Strategies," Journal of Jewish Communal Service, (Spring 2008): 250.
  66. ^ a b c Wheeler 1989, pp. 119-139.
  67. ^ Bagger, Eugene (1941). For the Heathen are Wrong: An impersonal autobiography. Little, Brown and Co; 1st edition. pp. 153–155. 
  68. ^ Afonso 1995, p. 104.
  69. ^ Christiano D'Adamo, "The Bombardments of Bordeaux," Regia Marina Italiana. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  70. ^ Paldiel, The Righteous Among the Nations, p.265.
  71. ^ Bagger, Eugene (1941). For the Heathen are Wrong: An impersonal autobiography. Little, Brown and Co; 1st edition. p. 160. 
  72. ^ Lochery 2011, p. 47.
  73. ^ Milgram 2011, p. 47.
  74. ^ a b Lochery 2011, p. 46.
  75. ^ Milgram 1999, p. 20.
  76. ^ Hoare, Samuel (1946). Ambassador on Special Mission. UK: Collins; First Edition edition. p. 320.  Hayes, Carlton J.H. (2009). Wartime mission in Spain, 1942-1945. Macmillan Company 1st Edition. p. 313. ISBN 9781121497245. 
  77. ^ Fralon 2000, p. 89.
  78. ^ Spared Live - Telegram sent by Teotonio Pereira to Lisbon
  79. ^ Pedro Teotónio Pereira telegram to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Lisbon, late June 1940, as cited in Mordecai Paldiel, The Righteous Among the Nations; Rescuers of Jews During the Holocaust, Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 2007, p.266.
  80. ^ Fralon, p.105. The Jewish Virtual Library article notes that a Spanish newspaper headline the next day announced the sudden insanity of "the Consul of Portugal in Bayonne," an ironic error that labeled Sousa Mendes' accuser as the one who had lost his faculties.
  81. ^ Payne 2008, p. 75.
  82. ^ Tusell 1995, p. 127.
  83. ^ Hayes 1945, p. 36.
  84. ^ Hoare 1946, p. 45.
  85. ^ Fralon 2000, p. 91.
  86. ^ a b Fralon 2000, pp. 106-107.
  87. ^ Hoare, Samuel (1946). Ambassador on Special Mission. UK: Collins; First Edition edition. p. 36. 
  88. ^ Spared Live - Telegram sent by Teotonio Pereira to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Lisbon, late June 1940.
  89. ^ "American Writers Escape Into Spain," The New York Times, 26 June 1940, p.15.
  90. ^ "Anti-semitic Agitation Flared in Paris on Eve of Nazi Entry; 50,000 Jews Fled Capital". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. June 28, 1940. Retrieved May 18, 2014. 
  91. ^ Ronald Weber, The Lisbon Route: Entry and Escape in Nazi Europe, Lanham: Ivan R. Dee, p.10.
  92. ^ John Paul Abranches, "A Matter of Conscience," Guideposts (June 1996): 2-6.
  93. ^ Milgram 2011, p. 136.
  94. ^ Milgram 2011, p. 289.
  95. ^ Margarida Ramalho, Lisbon: City During Wartime, p.12.
  96. ^ Aristides de Sousa Mendes statement of defense, 12 August 1940, as cited in Paldiel, The Righteous Among the Nations, p.267.
  97. ^ Fralon, p.114.
  98. ^ Paldiel, The Righteous Among the Nations, p.268.
  99. ^ a b Fralon, p.115.
  100. ^ Aristides de Sousa Mendes (grandson) as cited in Mark Fonseca Rendeiro, "The Bravery of a Portuguese War Hero Resonates Today," The Guardian, 29 March 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  101. ^ Fralon p.118 and Isaac Bitton testimonial, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 17 May 1990, 6:30-9:45. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  102. ^ Anuário Diplomático e Consular Português - 1954. Portugal: Imprensa Nacional - Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros. 1954. p. 270. 
  103. ^ Sousa Mendes, Alvaro. "NOTA BIOGRÁFICA – ARISTIDES DA SOUSA MENDES". Ministério das Finanças - Portugal. Retrieved 20 April 2014. 
  104. ^ a b c Afonso 1995, p. 257.
  105. ^ Lochery 2011, p. 49.
  106. ^ Wheeler 2011, p. 128.
  107. ^ "Abranches, Aristides de Sousa Mendes do Amaral e - Personal File". Arquivo Digital - Ministério das Finanças / (in Portuguese). Portuguese Ministry of Finance. Retrieved April 24, 2014. 
  108. ^ Fralon, pp.122 and 126. Sousa Mendes' accuser Teotonio Pereira also took some of the credit: Fralon, p.106.
  109. ^ Manuela Franco, "Politics and Morals" in Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Portugal, Spared Lives: The Actions of Three Portuguese Diplomats in World War II, Documentary Exhibition, Catalogue, September 2000, p.19.
  110. ^ Afonso 1995, pp. 283-284.
  111. ^ Wheeler 1989, p. 129.
  112. ^ "Letter from Sousa Mendes to the Portuguese Bar Association". Sousa Mendes Virtual Museum. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  113. ^ Afonso, Rui p. 269
  114. ^ Sousa Mendes` complete track record of admissions can be found at the Portuguese Bar Association summarizes Sousa Mendes’ several admissions. An online version can be found at the Sousa Mendes Virtual Museum in this link [1].
  115. ^ Afonso 1995, pp. 269-270.
  116. ^ Afonso 1995, p. 275.
  117. ^ A letter writen by Sousa Mendes, saying he is ill and unable to work, can be found at the Portugures Bar Association, an online copy can be found in the Sousa Mendes Virtual Museum at [2]
  118. ^ Miguel Valle Ávila, “Was Lisbon Journalist ‘Onix’ Portugal’s Deep Throat? Aristides de Sousa Mendes Defended in the US Press in 1946,” The Portuguese Tribune (1 October 2013): 28.
  119. ^ Afonso 1995, p. 294.
  120. ^ a b Afonso 1995, p. 303.
  121. ^ Afonso 1995, pp. 306-307.
  122. ^ Fralon 2000, pp. 132.
  123. ^ Afonso 1995, pp. 289-290.
  124. ^ Afonso 1995, p. 307.
  125. ^ Luis-Filipe de Sousa Mendes, "Words of Remembrance," 1987, Sousa Mendes Foundation. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  126. ^ a b Luis-Filipe de Sousa Mendes, "Words of Remembrance", 1987, Sousa Mendes Foundation. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  127. ^ Michael d'Avranches [pseudo. Sebastião de Sousa Mendes], Flight Through Hell, New York: Exposition Press, 1951.
  128. ^ Sebastian Mendes, "Lifelong Champion of Major Holocaust Hero Dies", 17 December 2006. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  129. ^ Fralon, pp.124-25.
  130. ^ Aristides de Sousa Mendes, as cited in Paldiel, The Righteous Among the Nations, p.268.
  131. ^ Aristides de Sousa Mendes, letter to his lawyer Palma Carlos, as cited in Manuel Dias Vaz, Aristides de Sousa Mendes, héros "rebelle," juin 1940, Souvenirs et témoignages, Quercy : éditions Confluences, 2010, p.26.
  132. ^ Fralon 2000, pp. 136-138.
  133. ^ Fralon 2000, p. 142.
  134. ^ Yehuda Bauer, A History of the Holocaust, Franklin Watts, 2002, p.235.
  135. ^ "Spain Halts Flow of War Refugees; Border Guards Hold Up Most of Those Seeking Entrance," The New York Times, 25 June 1940, p.3; "American Writers Escape Into Spain," The New York Times, 26 June 1940, p.15.
  136. ^ Milgram 2011, p. 121.
  137. ^ Lochery 2011, p. 44.
  138. ^ Afonso 1995, p. 283.
  139. ^ Themido, J. Hall (2008). Uma Autobiografia Disfarçada - A mitificação de Aristides de Sousa Mendes. Lisbon: Instituto Diplomático - Portuguese Foreign Office. ISBN 9789898140012. 
  140. ^ Themido, João Hall (Nov 1, 2008). "Aristides de Sousa Mendes é um "mito criado por judeus"". Expresso (Portuguese newspaper) (in Portuguese) (Lisbon). Retrieved 19 March 2014.  - Expresso is the biggest portuguese weekly newspaper.
  141. ^ Saraiva, José Hermano (20 July 2012). "Recorde a grande entrevista de José Hermano Saraiva ao SOL (2ª parte)". Sol (newspaper) (in Portuguese) (Lisbon). Retrieved 19 March 2014.  - Sol is the second portuguese weekly newspaper.
  142. ^ Saraiva, José Hermano (2007). Album de Memórias (in Portuguese). Lisbon: Portuguese Diplomatic Institute - Portuguese Foreign Ministry. 
  143. ^ Lebreton p.231
  144. ^ Particularly active were Sebastião, Joana, John Paul, Luis Felipe and Pedro Nuno.
  145. ^ Examples include Guy Wright, "Straightening the Record on Dictator and a Hero," San Francisco New Call Bulletin, 4 May 1961 and an article in the Portuguese press of Massachusetts: "Um português salvou 10.000 judeus no tempo da guerra, mas foi castigado," Diario de Noticias (New Bedford, MA), 19 May 1961, pp.1 and 5.
  146. ^ "Um português salvou 10.000 judeus no tempo da guerra, mas foi castigado," Diario de Noticias (New Bedford, MA), 19 May 1961, p.5.
  147. ^ Robert McG. Thomas Jr., "Joana Mendes, 77, Champion of Father's Effort to Save Jews," The New York Times, 10 April 1997, obituaries, C29. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  148. ^ "Portugal's Unforgettable Forgotten Hero," USC Shoah Foundation, 10 July 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  149. ^ Anibal Martins, "Ainda o Caso do Consul Sousa Mendes," letter to the editor, Diário de Noticias (New Bedford, MA), 13 October 1967, p.2.
  150. ^ Reese Erlich, "Mending the Past; Belatedly, the righteous Dr. Mendes has been recognized. Full recognition, however, has yet to come," Moment, June 1987, p.52.
  151. ^ Fralon, p.151.
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Further reading[edit]

Filmography[edit]

  • ... With God Against Man ..., documentary by Semyon Pinkhasov (U.S., 2014).
  • I am Alive Thanks to Aristides de Sousa Mendes, short documentary by Priscilla Fontoura (Portugal, 2013).
  • Os Nove Dias de Sousa Mendes, documentary by Inês Faro (Canada, 2012).
  • The Consul of Bordeaux, fictionalized historical drama by Francisco Manso and João Correa, with Vítor Norte and Antonio Capelo (Portugal, 2011).
  • Disobedience: The Sousa Mendes Story, docudrama by Joël Santoni with Bernard Le Coq and Nanou Garcia (France, 2009).
  • Diplomats for the Damned, documentary, The History Channel (U.S., 2000).
  • Le consul proscrit, documentary by Diana Andringa and Teresa Olga (Portugal, 1994).

External links[edit]