|Arnold Harris Mathew|
Arnold Harris Mathew consecration
|Successor||Rudolph de Landas Berghes, Bernard Mary Williams|
|Ordination||24 June 1877|
|Consecration||28 April 1908
by Gerardus Gul
|Birth name||Arnold Harris Ochterlony Matthews|
7 August 1852|
Montpellier, Hérault, France
|Died||19 December 1919
South Mimms, Hertfordshire, England
|Buried||South Mimms, Hertfordshire, England|
|Denomination||Old Roman Catholic, Anglican and Roman Catholic|
|Spouse||Margaret Florence Duncan (1892–?, separated 1910)|
|Children||daughter (born 1895)
son (born 1900)
daughter (born 1907)
|Coat of arms|
|Ordination history of|
|Date of ordination||24 June 1877|
|Principal consecrator||Gerardus Gul|
|Date of consecration||28 April 1908|
|Bishops consecrated by as principal consecrator|
|citation needed][||8 June 1910|
|Herbert Ignatius Beale||13 June 1910|
|Arthur William Howarth||13 June 1910|
|Francis Herbert Bacon||7 January 1911|
|Cuthbert Francis Hinton||7 January 1911|
|Frederick Clement Christie Egerton||7 January 1911|
|William Edmond Scott-Hall||7 January 1911|
|citation needed][a][||15 June 1913|
|Rudolph de Landas Berghes||29 June 1913|
|James Arron Bell[a]||7 October 1914|
|Frederick Samuel Willoughby||28 October 1914|
|Bernard Mary Williams||14 April 1916|
|James Columba McFall||2 July 1916|
Arnold Harris Mathew, self-styled de jure 4th Earl Landaff of Thomastown,[b] (7 August 1852 – 19 December 1919) was the founder and first bishop of the Old Catholic Church in the United Kingdom and a noted author on ecclesiastical subjects.
Mathew had been both a Roman Catholic and an Anglican before becoming a bishop in the Union of Utrecht (UU). His early life is the subject of some interest from researchers as a result of his aristocratic connections and his father's connection with colonial India.[not verified in body]
- 1 Biography
- 2 Contemporary significance
- 3 Validity
- 4 See also
- 5 Publications
- 6 Further reading
- 7 Notes and references
Mathew was a relative of Theobald Mathew the noted "Apostle of Temperance".[not in citation given] Born in France in 1852 and baptised in the Roman Catholic Church (RCC); due to his mother's scruples he was rebaptised in the Church of England (CoE). He studied for the ministry in the Scottish Episcopal Church, but sought reconciliation and confirmation in the Church of Rome.
As a Roman Catholic, Mathew was ordained a priest in 1877 in St Andrew's Cathedral, Glasgow, Scotland, by Archbishop Charles Eyre, apostolic administrator of the Vicariate Apostolic of the Western District. Mathew received a Doctor of Divinity degree from Pope Pius IX. He became a Dominican in 1878 but only persevered a year, moving around a number of dioceses: Newcastle, Plymouth, Nottingham and Clifton. He had met Hyacinthe Loyson in France,(p159) while Mathew was, c. 1888 – c. 1889, a missionary-rector in Bath where he apostatized in 1889 and sent an announcement to his congregation that having ceased to believe in the fundamental doctrines of the Christianity he could no longer act as a priest.(p159)(p42) He lost faith in the inspiration of Scripture and in the divinity of Christ. After leaving Bath, he went to Paris to consult with people there. Later in 1891 he was persuaded to "trial" the Anglican ministry and went to assist the rector of Holy Trinity, Sloane Street, London. He was never officially received into the Church of England, neither did he formally leave the Roman Catholic Church.
In October 1890, he changed his name, by deed poll, from Arnold Jerome Matthews to Arnoldo Girolamo Povoleri. Mathew, under the name Povoleri, married Margaret Florence Duncan at St Marylebone Parish Church, London, on 22 February 1892. He was "described as a clerk in holy orders." In 1892, when he had reconciled with the RCC as a layman, he at the same time participated in non-Catholic religious functions and officiated at marriages in a CoE church without a license from the CoE. He stopped using the name Povoleri in 1894. While his wife was listed in the 1897 Royal Blue Book as la Contessa Povoleri di Vicenza,[c] he stopped using the title of Count in 1894.
In 1897, Mathew had met Father Richard O'Halloran[not in citation given] and became curious about the suggestion of an Old Catholic Church in Great Britain. In 1897, O'Halloran was suspended in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Westminster for "reasons of canonical discipline". O'Halloran condemned the censure and created the "Ealing schism". O'Halloran was, according to The Tablet, also suspected of heresy.
IBC bishops had corresponded with O'Halloran since 1902.(p344) O'Halloran believed that such a movement would interest a large number of disaffected Roman Catholics and Anglo-Catholics. In June 1906 the Royal Commission appointed in 1904 to inquire into "ecclesiastical disorders", afterwards known as the Ritual Commission, The king issued Letters of Business after the report. It was expected that the Catholic-minded Anglican clergy, with their congregations, might, by Act of Parliament, be forced out of the Anglican Communion. Persuaded by O'Halloran, Mathew joined the movement and was elected the first Regionary Old Catholic Bishop for Great Britain and in 1908 the Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands (OKKN) was petitioned to consecrate him to this charge.
Mathew's election was to some extent a precautionary endeavour by those[who?] anticipating a precipitous action by the Government regarding the Ritual Commission's findings, there were only a small number of Old Catholics in England. However, the King's Letters of Business dealing with the Report of the Ritual Commission received no further attention and no action was taken. The result was that those who had taken part in Mathew's election were able to remain within the Anglican Communion.[clarification needed] Added to the natural differences[which?] with their former brethren in the Roman Church was a campaign of persecution[examples needed] directed by certain elements[who?] of the CoE.[clarification needed] In 1898 Willibald Beyschlag wrote, in The American Journal of Theology, that Old Catholic churches sought "federation with other churches having an" episcopal polity. They sought "recognition that they all belong to the one ecumenical church which rests upon the dogmatic and episcopal foundation of the early church, and can, therefore, practice communion with each other." Those negotiations had "no tangible result" in 1898, according to Beyschlag, who did not "think that such a result would be of any great value," because some Anglicans "emphatically desire to be 'catholic', and are at the same time wholly out of sympathy with the Old Catholics." Beyschlag distinguished that the Ritualist Anglican Catholics "are on the way to Rome; the Old Catholics on the way from Rome."
Mathew was consecrated in St. Gertrude's Cathedral, Utrecht, on 28 April 1908, by the OKKN Archbishop Gerardus Gul of Utrecht, assisted by two OKKN bishops, Jacobus Johannes van Thiel of Haarlem and Nicolaus Bartholomeus Petrus Spit of Deventer, and one Catholic Diocese of the Old Catholics in Germany bishop, Josef Demmel of Bonn.(p12)
Soon after the consecration, Mathew and O'Halloran were estranged and O'Halloran, under a pseudonym,(p346) questioned if the seventeen priests and the eight congregations did not exist in reality but were only a deception and if "the Old Catholic theology teaches that deception of any kind invalidates the consecration" then was Mathew "a validly consecrated Old Catholic bishop according to the teaching of Old Catholic theology?" Unprepared for the position in which he then found himself,[clarification needed] Mathew informed Gul that he was himself a deceived victim and "the information given him by O'Halloran was entirely false" and offered to resign but his resignation was not accepted.(pp12–13)(pp174–175)[d] Yet weeks earlier, Mathew and O'Halloran traveled to Utrecht where Mathew personally presented him to Gul.(p346) Within weeks, van Thiel wrote that the IBC "had no reason to suppose that we were mistaken in complying with" O'Halloran's request and stated that their "confidence in Bishop Mathew remains unshaken, after carefully perusing a large number of the documents bearing upon this matter," and they "earnestly hope that his ministrations will be abundantly blessed by Almighty God, and that he will receive the cordial support of the British people and Church in the trying circumstances in which he has been placed."[e] Brandreth thought that the IBC "exonerated him from personal blame" in this letter.(p13) But Anson believed that it "was a polite way of stating that he had been consecrated under false pretenses, though not of his making."(p176)
The 1908 Lambeth Conference "deprecate[d] the setting up of a new organised body" and requested that Randall Davidson, Archbishop of Canterbury, notify the IBC bishops about the resolution. This was a protest against the consecration and although it was not publicized at the time, Gul replied with explanations and promised "that in future they 'would take care not to make trouble by encroaching on the order of a friendly Church'."(pp154–156)
Mission in England 1908–1919
Mathew published The Old Catholic Missal & Ritual in 1909, for Old Catholics using the English language.
In September 1909, he attended the Old Catholic Congress in Vienna, where he sympathized with the Dutch Old Catholics conservative position which opposed the innovations being introduced among the German and Swiss Old Catholics to renounce the Sacrament of Penance (auricular confession), the intercession of saints and alterations to the liturgy, including the omission of the Pope's name from the Canon of the Mass. He proposed the acceptance of the 1673 Synod of Jerusalem's doctrines.(p303) Mathew expressed fears that the trend of Continental Old Catholicism was towards Modernism, perhaps because of the growing association with Anglicans and Lutherans, and hoped for a return to the traditional principles of the Church of Utrecht. Moss wrote that Mathew thought they were becoming "steadily more Protestant".(p302) IBC rejected Herford's request to join. "the IBC was uncertain about Herford's credentials" and, only one bishop, i.e. Mathew, was needed for England.(p196) Mathew also rejected Herford's applications several times.
Brandreth wrote that for two years Mathew, "with the status of a missionary bishop", remained in full communion with the UU. In October 1909, Mathew assisted Gul at the consecration of Jan Maria Michał Kowalski as archbishop of the Polish Mariavite Church.(p13)
In June 1910, he secretly consecrated, without agreement of the IBC,(p193) Beale and Howarth, both of whom did not accept or sign the Convention of Utrecht,(p302) and Mathew informed the Holy See of these consecrations. Beale and Howarth were suspended.
In August, van Thiel declared that Old Catholics "could not be considered responsible for [...] Mathew's eventual particular attitude or opinions, because he only represents his own clergy and himself in England." Mathew was "in no sense a representative of the Church of Holland in England."[f] In October, Mathew defended the consecrations in The Church Times against a critical article in Katholik.[g] In December 1910, De Oud-Katholiek concluded that Mathew had "given up communion with the other Old Catholics" when he acted against the Convention of Utrecht. He ignored "his duty to inform" the IBC prior to "any consecration", so "that the case may be duly examined and all precautions taken that no unworthy person be consecrated;" he consecrated men who belonged to another Church "knowing that they were Roman Catholics and would probably remain so"; he consecrated alone without need and in secret.(p302)
Autonomy and Independence
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2013)|
Within weeks of the De Oud-Katholiek article, on 29 December 1910, Mathew issued A Declaration of Autonomy And Independence from the UU. On 7 January 1911, Mathew consecrated four men to the episcopate: Francis Herbert Bacon, Cuthbert Francis Hinton, William Edmond Scott-Hall, and Frederick Clement Christie Egerton. An episcopal synod then followed and Mathew was unanimously elected Old Roman Catholic Archbishop of Great Britain and Ireland.
Although the Holy See usually did not respond to notifications about episcopal consecrations, in this case, on 11 February 1911, Pope Pius X excommunicated Beale, Howarth, and Mathew. The Times reported on their excommunication and included an English language translation of the Latin language document which described Mathew as a "pseudo-bishop".[h] Father David Fleming testified during the Mathew v. "The Times" Publishing Co., Ltd. trial at the King's Bench Division in April 1913 that the three were excommunicated on the strength of their own communication to the Holy See.
A noted author and historian, Mathew had an excellent knowledge of the Eastern Orthodox Church and  Now an archbishop, Mathew was in contact with people[who?] interested in expanding the Eastern Orthodox Churches' presence in Western Europe. Olga Novikov,[i] along with Baroness Natalie Uxkull-Gyllenband, encouraged and financially assisted Mathew and according to Anson, one of them also introduced Mathew to Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch Archbishop Gerassimos Messara, Metropolitan of Beirut.(p186) On 5 August 1911, Messara, Legate of the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, Mathew and others.[who?] After a long and full discussion the  Mathew was then solemnly received into the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch by Messara and  Moss wrote that Messara "had no power to do this without the consent of" Gregory IV, in Damascus, "which was never given".(p306) According to Herzog, Gregory IV retracted Messara's statement.[j] "It is hard to believe that an Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch would have been prepared to accept a married prelate into communion with his Church," Anson wrote. Mathew's wife "did not take part in the conference, and it is probable that her existence behind the scenes was again kept dark, as at the time of her husband's consecration in 1908."(p186) On 26 February 1912, [better source needed] The Mathew v. "The Times" Publishing Co., Ltd. trial revealed that although Mathew "was originally informed that all were welcome, he was not ultimately admitted" as a cleric into the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch. As  [according to whom?] but bishops of a canonically autocephalous church in communion with two historical patriarchal sees of the ancient undivided Church.[disputed (for: repudiated by Gregory IV) ]
The trial, Mathew v. "The Times" Publishing Co., Ltd., "was tense with laughter over the elaborate and convoluted ecclesiastical definitions." Mathew lost the case. A "material part of the case" about whether Mathew was truthful was the 1889 printed announcement sent to his congregation in Bath. The trial revealed that in 1897 Mathew restated that he had apostatized in 1889 and had circulated the printed announcement but by 1897 had concluded that his change in belief was a mistake; he therefore recanted the 1889 document, in 1897, which during the trial he said that he never wrote. He testified that he was hypnotized in Bath and so the announcement was written without his knowledge. The jury considered whether the consecrations of Beale and Howarth "would not be rightfully described as a sacrilegious crime of which all those holding Christian views would be ashamed." Mathew's attorney argued that publication of the excommunication by The Times in English was high treason under a 1571 law re-enacted in 1846.[k] The trial was, according to a 1932 article in The Tablet, the last time this principle was invoked and the judge, Charles Darling, 1st Baron Darling, "held that it was not unlawful to publish a Papal Bull in a newspaper simply for the information of the public."
Either Novikov or Uxkull-Gyllenband, according to Anson, introduced Mathew to Rudolph de Landas Berghes.(p189) By 1913 all six bishops which Mathew consecrated had separated from him, so he consecrated Berghes to continue his succession and initially to establish the ministry of the Old Roman Catholic Church in Scotland and then later in the United States. After Berghes emigrated to the U.S., Mathew consecrated Bernard Mary Williams, in 1916, and on 25 March 1917, Mathew appointed Williams as his successor.
Shortly thereafter, Father Carmel Henry Carfora, an Italian Franciscan friar, who had been excommunicated from the RCC, was elected[by whom?] to succeed Berghes as Archbishop of the Old Roman Catholic Diocese of America.
Although the Orders of the Dutch schismatical clergy were, down to 1910, undisputed in Rome, I make no claim to be recognized as a bishop, or to exercise episcopal functions, or to use any episcopal insignia. I desire to conform in everything to whatever may be the commands or wishes of the Holy See. Neither do I intend or claim even to exercise priestly functions, unless and until, as I earnestly hope, this privilege may be permitted to me. It is my firm resolve, which nothing will ever alter, to obey the commands of the Holy Father, whose word I am perfectly willing to await, and I shall do nothing whatever, whether publicly or privately, in any ecclesiastical matters without the permission of Superiors.
But because the Holy See insisted that he would only be reconciled as a layman and would be obliged to accept the doctrine of papal infallibility and primacy of the Roman Pontiff, Mathew then sought union with the CoE but the Archbishop of Canterbury refused to give him any position in the CoE. Mathew retired to South Mimms, a village in the English countryside in Hertfordshire, and contented himself with assisting at services in a CoE parish church. He died suddenly, on 20 December 1919, at South Mimms and was buried in the churchyard at South Mimms.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2013)|
In 1964, Anson identified several independent sects which derived their apostolic succession through Mathew: the "Old Roman Catholic Church (Western Catholic Uniate Church)",[l] "Old Catholic Church of Ireland", Liberal Catholic Church, "The Church Catholic", "Old Catholic Church in America",[m] and the "North American Old Roman Catholic Church".[m] He noted that, except for the Liberal Catholic Church, the "sects hardly counted numerically at all."(p324) Moss characterized, in 1948, that "there are several sects which claim to derive their episcopal succession from him, which are often confused with the Old Catholics, and which in some cases make use of the name 'Old Catholic'." But, Moss emphasized, "none of these sects is Old Catholic, or is recognized in any way by the genuine Old Catholic churches in communion with the Archbishop of Utrecht."(p308)
There are many independent churches, "rites" and ecclesiastic bodies in the English speaking world, particularly in North America and some in Continental Europe which trace derive their apostolic succession through Mathew. This makes Mathew a significant figure in the Independent Sacramental Movement. However, genuine Old Roman Catholic jurisdictions directly descended from the missionary endeavours of the first generation of Mathew's bishops are very few.
Mathew's activities as a bishop gave birth to the Liberal Catholic Church and the more conservative Old Roman Catholic churches, which are autocephalous churches holding to a traditional Roman Catholic worship style, most rejecting the dogmas of the First Vatican Council but some offering nominal acceptance.
Old Roman Catholic Church
according to whom?] the only global Old Roman Catholic jurisdiction with provinces in North America, South America, Asia and Africa] and the Old Roman Catholic Church in Great Britain (ORCC/GB) headed by Archbishop Douglas Lewins, the lineal descendant of Mathew's original church.[
In the United States, as well as the Old Roman Catholic Church Latin Rite (ORCC/LR), the following are [according to whom?] the only churches descended directly from the Old Roman Catholic Church of North America founded by Landas Berghes succeeded by Carfora, namely the Old Roman Catholic Church: See of Caer-Glow (ORCC/SoG) headed by Archbishop John Humphreys; the Old Roman Catholic Church in North America (ORCCNA) headed by Archbishop Francis P. Facione; the North American Old Roman Catholic Church (NAORCC) headed by Archbishop Edward J. Ford; the North American Old Roman Catholic Church (NAORCC) headed by Archbishop Theodore Rematt. In Italy the only traditional Old Roman Catholic Church is the "Ecclesia Vetero-Catholica Romana" headed by Mons. Alessandro de Landerset, lineal descendant of Utrecht's original church. There are other churches using the name "Old Roman Catholic" that have no direct connection to the above jurisdictions and are not directly descended from the original Old Roman Catholic missions. Such churches' claims to being Old Roman Catholic are usually by virtue of having attained Mathew's succession from various episcopi vagantes or by adopting the polity of Old Roman Catholicism.
Liberal Catholic Church
Mathew was a traditional Ultrajectine and Roman Catholic in his religious beliefs and believed the bishops he consecrated were orthodox in their theology as well, preaching doctrines common to the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches.
Anson wrote that, for at least two years, Mathew was "in close touch with leading Theosophists, apparently without investigating the orthodoxy of their beliefs," and believed that Mathew "had no excuse" for not understanding the cult of Maitreya beliefs held by the majority of his clergy.(pp195–196) The manifestations of Maitreya included the Hindu deity Krishna and Christ during the three years of the ministry of Jesus.(p278) Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke wrote, in Constructing Tradition, that the identification of Christ as Maitreya was Charles Webster Leadbeater's "innovation, closely linked to his assimilation of Christianity to Theosophy."(p144) According to Catholic Encyclopedia, theosophy "is a form of pantheism and denies a personal God," and pantheism is simply atheism. According to Anson, the majority of clergy involved with Mathew were members of the Theosophical Society and the Order of the Star in the East (OSE), and were dismayed when Mathew directed them to separate from these organizations in 1915.(pp200, 342) Instead, within weeks, they had separated from Mathew and elected Rupert Gauntlett, secretary of the Theosophical Society's Order of Healers, and Robert King, a consulting psychic and astrologer, to the episcopate.(p19)(p344)
But the "effective leader of the schism" was James Ingall Wedgwood.(p344)(p32) Wedgwood explored an Anglo-Catholic vocation in the CoE and was associated with the Order of Corporate Reunion prior to his involvement with the Theosophical Society.(p573) Mathew ordained Wedgwood as a priest in 1913.(pp345–348) In 1916 Willoughby consecrated Gauntlett, King, and Wedgwood.(p19) Leadbeater wrote to Annie Besant, in 1916, that Wedgwood offered Mathew's Old Catholic movement to Maitreya, one of the Great White Brotherhood's ascended masters and holder of the office of World Teacher, "as one of the vehicles for [... Maitreya's] force, and a channel for the preparation of His Coming." Leadbeater took Wedgwood during a festival in Sydney to make that offering.(pp3–5)[n] Goodrick-Clarke wrote that the LCC was used for "the assimilation of Catholicism and its sacraments into the Theosophical Society" as a subsidiary movement of a diversified second generation Neo-Theosophy which emphasized "the acquisition and practice of psychic and occult powers, notably clairvoyance, explorations of the astral plane, past lives research."(p142) Leadbeater promoted an unorthodox esoteric understanding of Christian creeds;[o] he interpreted Christian doctrines through Theosophy.(p160)[p][q] Leadbeater and Wedgwood revised The Old Catholic Missal and Ritual, c. 1916 – c. 1918, by "eliminating references to fear of God, everlasting damnation, the insistence on sinfulness and appeals for mercy," according to Joanne Pearson, in Wicca and the Christian Heritage.(p33)(pp6–8) Later that year, before the end of World War I, the schism which separated from Mathew's group was renamed the Liberal Catholic Church (LCC) and Wedgwood became the first presiding bishop.(p32)[r] Leadbeater informed Besant that Maitreya approved of the LCC founding.(p39–40) The LCC "affirms a number of Christian beliefs but injects a Gnostic or theosophical meaning into them," according to Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. "The church believes that humans are sparks of divinity (rather than creatures of God) and believes in reincarnation (rather than resurrection). The church also accepts the idea of the spiritual hierarchy of masters, or highly evolved beings who guide the spiritual development of the race. In this regard, it accepts the idea that Jesus is one of the masters, but separates the human Jesus [...] from the master Jesus." In other words, Jesus, "the person known in his early life as Appolonius of Tyanna" in that system of beliefs, is not the same as the entity known as Maitreya in that same system beliefs.
The LCC self identifies as a part of the historical Catholic Church; has doctrines but does not regulate how they are believed by congregants, unlike Roman Catholic dogma; and has membership based on acceptance of a common worship without the profession of a common belief.
|Belief in invisible superiors||Secret Chiefs||Mahātmās|
|Belief in a world teacher||Crowley (Therion)||Krishnamurti (Alcyone[s])|
|Oath bound body||A∴A∴||E.S.|
|Fraternal body||Ordo Templi Orientis (OTO)||Co-Masonic Order|
||The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. The dispute is about whether any episcopal acts originating from Mathew can be considered valid or if Mathew's consecration can be considered valid taking into account the IBC's annulment declaration. (April 2014)|
Concerning the validity of the Holy Orders conferred by Mathew in the period following his departure from the UU.
After Mathew died in 1919, the IBC declared in 1920 that Mathew's "consecration was obtained mala fide and that consequently it is null and void."(xvi, pp14–15) The suggestion was that the petition for his consecration and its 150 signatories collated by O'Halloran was false in its premise for the consecration and thus the consecration was invalid.(p97) However, Mathew had disclosed the matter fully to the Dutch bishops days after the consecration when it transpired that the Anglicans who had participated in his election withdrew from the petition due to the changed situation regarding the Ritual Commission (see above).  The IBC bishops inquired into the circumstances and Mathew was publicly exonerated from all suggestion of misrepresentation in a letter to The Guardian of 3 June 1908, the bishops also refused Mathew's request to retire. Also, on 5 October 1909, Mathew assisted Gul together with Thiel, Demmel, and Spit at Kowalski's consecration, so clearly there was no suggestion of mala fides or "invalidity" then by the Old Catholic bishops.
Smit explained that in 1913, "ties of the IBC with Mathew were formally severed",(p197) and after World War I, the IBC "distanced itself more from the 'episcopus vagans' Mathew and those ordained and consecrated by him."(p213) Consecrations derived from Mathew were not recognised by the IBC.(xvi)
Herzog's discourse was published in Internationale Kirchliche Zeitschrift in 1915. He wrote that a surreptitious consecration, under false pretenses and on presentation of false documents, can not be recognized as valid, even if the rite of ordination had been accurately performed by real bishops.(pp271)
according to whom?] In 1908, Lambeth had expressed regret over the consecration of Mathew. Lambeth also indicated a desire for a closer relationship with Utrecht. [according to whom?] [according to whom?] [according to whom?] Randall Davidson, Archbishop of Canterbury, and William Maclagan, Archbishop of York, replied to the Holy See in Saepius Officio giving a defence of Anglican orders. Discussions about union with Utrecht had been taking place since the end of the 19th century, such as the conferences of reunion in Bonn in 1874 and 1875 convoked by Johann von Döllinger. Though the Dutch bishops in a report of 1894 still could not decide on the recognition of Anglican orders.(p109) It would appear that a desire for closer cooperation on the part of Utrecht with an Anglican desire for the recognition of their orders, conspired to impugn the reputation of Mathew.[page needed] By June 1925, Davidson stated that the OKKN had "after lengthy investigations and serious discussions" arrived "without any reservation (to recognise) that the apostolic succession was not interrupted in the Church of England" and in 1931 the Bonn Agreement was signed and intercommunion agreed between the UU and the Anglican Communion.[
As the ceremony took place and no-one questioned the intentions of the bishops involved, according to sacramental theology and canonical principles,[u] [according to whom?] "…an act, especially one as solemn as an ordination, must be regarded as valid, as long as invalidity would not be clearly demonstrated."
Old Roman Catholic jurisdictions have consistently employed the Tridentine Ordinal and Roman Pontifical for the conferral of ordinations and the consecration of bishops. This was the case with the See of Utrecht right up to and some years beyond the consecration of Mathew himself, without any alterations to the ceremonies. Mathew's Old Catholic Missal & Ritual contains his English translation of the Roman Pontifical;(p289–326) and, either this or the original Latin is used in all Old Roman Catholic ceremonies still to this day, even by those jurisdictions who permit modern liturgies for the Mass.
"A priest or bishop who confers a sacrament doesn't have to 'prove' that he intends to do what the Church does. He is automatically presumed to intend what the rite means. This is certain theological doctrine, taught by the Church. And to deny it is 'theologically rash'," according to Cekada.[v]
"Schismatic" or "excommunicate" ordinations
According to Cekada, Traditionalist Catholics sometimes assert that "without a papal dispensation, an episcopal consecration performed without two priest-assistants is doubtful". Using the 1917 Code of Canon Law but not the current 1983 Code of Canon Law which replaced it, he argued against this assertion and stated that "no law or canonist supports this" and reasoned that "teachings of the canonists directly contradict it too". Cekada quoted Marie Dominique Bouix, who wrote: "Even if there should be a consecration without any assistants and without obtaining a pontifical dispensation, it would still be valid." Cekada wrote that Eduardo Regatillo's writing "goes even further. He [Regatillo] says that a consecration performed without a dispensation would be valid even if the bishop 'is the only one who is present at the consecration';" and that, "Pope Alexander VII, Pope Clement XI and Pope Benedict XIV declared that consecrations performed without such a dispensation are valid."[w]
Sometimes, it is asserted that, because Mathew was excommunicated by Pius X, anyone ordained or consecrated by him thereafter incurs the same penalty.
"Penalties aren't 'contagious'", according to Cekada, even if a bishop "had personally incurred excommunication, it would not be incurred by clergy who derive their orders from him"; he wrote that the CIC1917 states: "It is not permitted to extend penalties from person to person or from case to case, even though the reason is the same or even stronger."(can.2219.3) "Receiving orders from an excommunicate incurs only suspension", wrote Cekada, which prohibits "licitly exercising orders".[x]
Thus, based on the CIC1917, Mathew's excommunication is not "contagious" and would not pass to clergy deriving their orders from him.
Furthermore, the CIC1917 states that "Except as provided in §3, the faithful can for any just cause ask for sacraments or sacramentals of one who is excommunicated, especially if there is no one else to give them; and in such cases the excommunicated person so asked may administer them, and is not obliged to ask the reason for the request."(can.2261)
No Old Roman Catholic bishops have been declared excommunicate since Mathew.[y][clarification needed] Thus as his excommunication is not contagious, this scenario does not apply.[clarification needed]
Licit or illicit
It is also suggested that such orders are "illicit", i.e. non-canonical.[by whom?]
Gul consecrated and commissioned Mathew as a bishop in accordance with the norms of universal ecclesiastical law, nominating and electing him to a title. according to whom?] Mathew declared autonomy from the UU on 29 December 1910 and asserted of canonical rights and prerogatives for the continuation and perpetuation of the Old Roman Catholic Church from Utrecht.[
according to whom?] in all its duly constituted and canonically governed ecclesial communities around the world, nor particularly its bishops.[
Affirmations of validity
There are instances where Old Roman Catholic orders have been affirmed by theologians, canonists and even representatives of the Holy See.
In 1915, Berghes participated in the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America (PECUSA) consecration of Hiram Richard Hulse.   Anglican Communion bishops stated in 1920 Lambeth Conference resolution 27 and 1958 Lambeth Conference resolution 54 that they do not regard the Old Catholic Church in Great Britain, its extensions overseas, and "'episcopi vagantes' who call themselves either 'Old Catholic' or 'Orthodox,' in combination with other names" "as properly constituted Churches, or recognise the orders of their ministers."(p34)
Then on 9 January 1982, Archbishop Romolo Carboni, Apostolic Nuncio to Italy, wrote to the Cardinal Prefect of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church, [document 1490/82], asking him to look into the apostolic succession of Linale. This task was given to Monsignor Annibale Ilari, who had access to the Vatican Archives. In his report to the Cardinal Prefect, dated 8/2/83, Ilari concluded:[relevant? ]
I have attached a brief scheme of succession which ties Mgr Linale to the Supreme Pontiffs Benedict XIII, Benedict XIV and Pius IX, with the aim of assuring him that his lineage truly links him to the See of Peter.[this quote needs a citation][relevant? ]
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec, in a public statement, which included an apology made for miscategorizing Father Claude Lacroix, acknowledged the validity of Lacroix's holy orders and stated that OCCBC's certificates of baptism "may be accepted for the inscription of children to First Communion and Confirmation program" in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec. It also stated that when "Roman Catholics marry before an ordained minister belonging to another religious denomination, as in the case of the [... OCCBC], their marriage is invalid from a religious point of view."[relevant? ]
In 2002, Cardinal Édouard Gagnon investigated the documentation of Bishop André Letellier's episcopal orders and consecration.[third-party source needed] Letellier was consecrated on 23 May 1968 by Archbishop André Leon Zotique Barbeau of the Catholic Charismatic Church of Canada.[aa] Gagnon commented that, "nothing allows me to doubt the validity of episcopal ordination of Mgr André Letellier by Archbishop André Barbeau and that of Archbishop Barbeau by Archbishop Ignatius Charles Brearley, Primate of the Church of the 'Old Catholics' having its seat in England. The ordinations of the 'Old Catholics' are generally considered to be the same as those of Orthodox bishops."[relevant? ]
Despite critics,[who?] there is incontrovertible evidence that the apostolic succession of Mathew originating from the OKKN, has been consistently considered "valid" by Vatican officials and Roman Catholic canon lawyers and theologians.[ab] In 1913, Fleming testified in Mathew v. "The Times" Publishing Co., Ltd. about the OKKN that, "The Holy See or the Pontiff has never condemned these orders as invalid; but he has never explicitly recognized them."
But according to whom?] In all above cases too, only the Roman Pontifical was used for the Rite of Consecration, other liturgies are not therefore affirmed.[why?] [according to whom?] Similarly, though the canonical principles[which?] above may be applied to other scenarios,[how?] the conclusions rely inherently on orthodox Catholic praxis and [according to whom?][
It is generally suggested[according to whom?] that Roman Catholics may fulfill their Holy Day of Obligation by attending Mass celebrated by an Old Roman Catholic priest if unable to attend a Roman Catholic Mass.[disputed ][ac] The RCC teaches in Dominus Iesus that,
[...] there exists a single Church of Christ, which subsists in the Catholic Church, governed by the Successor of Peter and by the Bishops in communion with him. The Churches which, while not existing in perfect communion with the Catholic Church, remain united to her by means of the closest bonds, that is, by apostolic succession and a valid Eucharist, are true particular Churches. Therefore, the Church of Christ is present and operative also in these Churches, even though they lack full communion with the Catholic Church, since they do not accept the Catholic doctrine of the Primacy, which, according to the will of God, the Bishop of Rome objectively has and exercises over the entire Church.
On the other hand, the ecclesial communities which have not preserved the valid Episcopate and the genuine and integral substance of the Eucharistic mystery, are not Churches in the proper sense; however, those who are baptized in these communities are, by Baptism, incorporated in Christ and thus are in a certain communion, albeit imperfect, with the Church. Baptism in fact tends per se toward the full development of life in Christ, through the integral profession of faith, the Eucharist, and full communion in the Church.
The RCC further teaches that,
The Eastern Churches, as the same Vatican Council states, have maintained the sacrament of Orders and the same eucharistic faith as we have. On the other hand, the separated Churches in the West have not preserved the proper and integral nature of the eucharistic mystery, since they lack above all the sacrament of Order, [...]
- Mathew, Arnold H; Calthrop, Annette (1907). The life of Sir Tobie Matthew, Bacon's alter ego. London: Elkin Mathews. OCLC 564740658. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- Mathew, Arnold H (1907). Woman suffrage. The social problems series 5. London; Edinburgh: T.C. & E.C. Jack. OCLC 574296800. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- Mathew, Arnold H (1910). The life and times of Hildebrand, Pope Gregory VII. London: Francis Griffiths. OCLC 681821441. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- Mathew, Arnold H (1912). The life and times of Rodrigo Borgia, Pope Alexander VI. New York: Brentano. OCLC 682272315. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
Works by or about Mathew under his previous name, Arnold Harris Matthews, in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Pruter, Karl (1996). The Old Catholic Church, a history and chronology. San Bernardino: St. Willibrord's Press. ISBN 0912134194.
- Queen, Andre J. (2003). Old Catholic, history, ministry, faith & mission. Lincoln: iUniverse. ISBN 0595749364.
- Bruk, Kurt J. (2005). War Bischof Arnold Harris Mathew ein Vaganten-Bischof? (in German). Schäffern: Arcturus-Verlag. ISBN 3-901489-40-1.
Notes and references
- This person is not found in Brandreth.
- The title became extinct in 1833. Mathew claimed that his great-grandfather was Francis Mathew, 1st Earl Landaff. Mathew put forward his claim to Garter Principal King of Arms for the title of 4th Earl of Llandaff of Thomastown, Co. Tipperary in 1890. Mathew just had a pedigree placed on official record at the College of Arms. He did not intend to "definitely determine in the customary method his right to the dignity he claim[ed]" by establishing his right to vote at the elections of Representative Peers for Ireland. He has been advised that all he could hope to obtain would be the barren title. John H. Matthews, Cardiff archivist, said in 1898 that the number of claimants to the dormant earldom "is legion". In the archivist's opinion Mathew's published pedigree was "too extra-ordinary to commend itself to an impartial mind." The next year Mathew changed his mind. In 1899, his petition to the House of Lords, claiming a right to vote, was read and referred to the Lord Chancellor. In his petition, he wrote that Eliza Francesca Povoleri was a spinster and he did not claim she was the daughter of a Marchese and a Contessa. In 1902, the Lord Chancellor reported that Mathew's claim "is of such a nature that it ought to be referred to the Committee for Privileges; read, and ordered to lie on the Table."
- By 1899 no Povoleri was listed in Royal Blue Book.
- The Guardian (London). 20 May 1908. OCLC 21987594. cited by Herzog.(p346)
- By 1920, the IBC believed "that Mathew himself was responsible for the false testimony submitted in 1908 and, rather than being a victim of O'Halloran, was in fact his confederate."(p15) However, in the same year,[timeframe?] the CoE was eager to develop friendly relations with the UU and perhaps it was convenient, after the death of Mathew to try and repair relations by "brushing under the carpet" the original "failed experiment?"[speculation?]
- See The Guardian (London). 1910-08-05. OCLC 21987594. cited by Herzog and reprinted in Brandreth.(p14)(p347)
- Der Katholik (in German) (Bern). OCLC 8739103. and The Church Times (London). 28 October 1910. ISSN 0009-658X. cited by De Oud-Katholiek.
- In 1145, Pope Eugene III granted the cathedral chapter in Utrecht the right to elect bishops after such had been requested by the Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III and Bishop Heribert of Utrecht. The Fourth Lateran Council confirmed this in 1215. Pope Leo X issued the papal bull Debitum Pastoralis in 1520 giving extraordinary powers to Philip of Burgundy, 57th Bishop of Utrecht, essentially removing the ability of any external authority to "in the first instance, have his cause evoked to any external tribunal, not even under pretense of any apostolic letters whatever; and that all such proceedings should be, ipso facto, null and void".
- Novikov, "a well-known figure on the European diplomatic scene" whom Stephen Graham, quoted by Basil, described: "She stood for Russia, she was Russia."(p338) She was a close friend of Gladstone and rumored to be a Russian agent exerting a "foreign female influence" on him.(pp2, 18–22, 59–60) She was his source for "information about Russian affairs, particularly in respect of the union of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Old Catholics of the West."(p171) Benjamin Disraeli scoffed her as "the MP for Russia" in England.(p8)
- The Guardian (London). 12 April 1912. OCLC 21987594.[page needed] and The Guardian (London). 19 April 1912. OCLC 21987594.[page needed] cited by Herzog.(p347)
- Mathew's attorney cited An Act against the bringing in and putting in execution of bulls writings or instruments and other superstitious things from the See of Rome, Act No. 13 Eliz. 1, c. 2 of 1571 and An Act to relieve Her Majesty's subjects from certain penalties and disabilities in regard to religious opinions, Act No. 9 and 10 Vict., c. 59 of 1846
- This did not have a stable name. Berghes used the label "Old Roman Catholic Western Orthodox Church" for Mathew's group. But Mathew identified the group with a variety of labels which included: "English Catholic Church", "Western Orthodox Catholic Church in Great Britain and Ireland", "Catholic Church in England, Latin Uniate Branch", "The Catholic Church in England", "The Catholic Church of England", "The Catholic Church in England, Latin and Orthodox United", "Western Orthodox Church", "The 'Old' Catholic Church of England", and "The Ancient Catholic Church of England".(pp187, 192, 194, 198–200, 203) Anson did not identify which label was the actual legal name of the group.
- Berghes used the label "Old Roman Catholic Church of America" in 1915 for his group yet "Old Roman Catholic Church" was already incorporated by Joseph René Vilatte in Illinois in 1904 and located in Chicago. In 1917, "Old Roman Catholic Church of America" was still identified as Vilatte's sect in Chicago. While the "Catholic Church of North America (The)", associated with Francis, and the "North American Old Roman Catholic Diocese", associated with Berghes and Carfora, were both incorporated in Illinois in 1917 and located in and near Chicago.
- Also quoted by Anson who identified the festival as the Asala festival.(pp347–348) In his clairvoyant Theosophical syncretism of the Asala festival, Leadbeater wrote in The Masters and the Path, that it is an annual official occasion when all the members of the Great White Brotherhood attend the anniversary of Buddha preaching the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, commemorated on the full moon of the Hindu calendar month of Aashaadha at the house of Maitreya. He noted that it is not a physical event "but all astral visitors who know of the celebration are welcome to attend it."(p280)
- Leadbeater wrote, in The Christian Creed, that "I do not mean [... that] the Church which [...] recites these Creeds [...] known[s] their true meaning [... nor] that the ecclesiastical councils [...] ever realized the [...] signification of the [... phrases] used" because "much of the true meaning" was lost and "materializing corruption had been introduced long before those unfortunate assemblies were convoked."(p2) Although he referenced history, he explained that his approach was not scholarly and obtained from neither "ancient manuscripts" nor "theological writers" but obtained from clairvoyant "investigation into the records of Nature made by a few students of occultism" about the "inner sense of the Creeds."(pp3–4) He wrote that "three entirely separate ideas" are conflated together in "the words 'through Jesus Christ our Lord'." Those three ideas are: "(a) the disciple Jesus; (b) the great Master whom men call the Christ though he is known by another and far grander name among the Initiates; and (c) the Second Aspect or Person of the Logos."(p13) He wrote that both Jesus and Christ "are men of our own humanity however far in advance of us they are along the path of evolution. It is therefore incorrect to speak of either of them as a direct manifestation or incarnation of the Second Person of the Trinity."(p15) Jesus "was permitted to yield up his body for the use of a mighty Teacher sent out by the Great Brotherhood to found a new religion."(p14) That entity "took possession" of Jesus' body and used it for three years.(pp14–15) Helena Blavatsky explained, in Lucifer, that "the same spirit" which appeared in Jesus had appeared in other reformers in other ages; it is the "light of all true religion" by which Theosophists guide themselves along the path to salvation "by every incarnation of Christos or the Spirit of Truth." "'The Christ of esoteric science' is the Christos of Spirit—an impersonal principle entirely distinct from any carnalised Christ or Jesus." While "the Second Person of the Logos" in Gnosticism "is the greatest of all the aeons or emanations from the eternal Father."(p70)
- Goodrick-Clarke described that Leadbeater "wove in many trinitarian elements" into a pantheon.(p153) Leadbeater wrote, in The Masters and the Path, that "the Logos of our solar system [...] is a Trinity; he has, or rather is, Three Persons; he functions through Three Aspects."(p250) "As the Logos is a Trinity, so [...] the world is [...] ruled by three mighty Officials, who are not merely reflections of the Three Aspects of the Logos, but are in a very real way actual manifestations of them. They are the Lord of the World, the Lord Buddha and the Mahachohan, who have reached grades of Initiation which give them waking consciousness on the planes of nature beyond the field of evolution of humanity, where dwells the manifested Logos."(p254) The Lord of the World, in that system of beliefs, is Sanat Kumara,(p296) leader of beings known as "the Sons of the Fire, the Lords of the Flame from Venus" who govern the evolution of the Earth.(p145)
- For a visual explanation of the spiritual hierarchy of superior beings, see organizational chart in Goodrick-Clarke.(p148) The superior beings include a Solar Logos, a Planetary Logos, Sanat Kumara, Mahachohan, and others.
- The Theosophical Society's legacy for 20th "century occultism and Wicca has been well documented. It was not, however, from this scion of the Mathew succession, via the" LCC, that Gerald Gardner and his "associates received their ordinations and consecrations."(p34)
- The pseudonymous author of At the Feet of the Master attributed to Leadbeater or Krishnamurti.
- Bogdan notes that this is despite disclaimers by both sets of groups.
- Cekada wrote that canonists speak of "the queen of presumptions". "When it is shown that an act or contract has actually been entered upon, there is a general presumption of law, known as the queen of presumptions, which holds the act or contract as valid, until invalidity is proved," according to Francis Wanenmaker, in Canonical Evidence in Marriage Cases. Cekada explained that this principle "is applied to the sacraments in the following way: If someone goes before a church court to challenge the validity of a Catholic baptism, marriage or ordination, the burden of proof is on him. He must show that something essential was lacking when the sacrament was conferred." Cekada quoted from Stanislaus Woywod, in Practical Commentary on the Code of Canon Law: "A sacred order is presumed valid until its invalidity is established by proof to the effect that it was received with want of intention on the part of the petitioner."(p1905?)
- Leeming, Bernard (1956). Principles of Sacramental Theology. Westminster, MD: Newman. p. 482. OCLC 493504872. A priest or bishop who confers a sacrament doesn't have to "prove" that he intends to do what the Church does. He is automatically presumed to intend what the rite means. This is certain theological doctrine, taught by the Church. And to deny it is "theologically rash."
- Cekada cited: De Synodo Diocesana: libri tredecim in duos tomos distributi 2 (novissima ed.). 1767. 13.13.9–10. (p. 145). "consecrationem hujusmodi validam, licet illicitam, esse censuerunt… ratam firmamque, sed illicitam Consecrationem pronuntiavit" Quoting Pope Clement XI (26 November 1718). [decree].
- "Those who presume to receive orders from one who is excommunicated, or suspended, or interdicted, after a declaratory sentence has been passed upon him, or from a notorious apostate, heretic, or schismatic, ipso facto incur a suspension a divinis reserved to the Holy See; one who in good faith is ordained by any such person is forbidden to exercise the orders so received until he shall be dispensed."(can.2372)
- which must be publicly declared by the Apostolic See and the name of the excommunicated person made public,according to the CIC1917.(can.2258.2)
- In a letter, Joris Vercammen, OKKN Archbishop of Utrecht, wrote that "the IBC also has to reflect on the validity of the ordinations within your church. [...] we do not expect major problems concerning this issue. [...] we concluded we did not yet receive the official certificates of your election neither of your ordination. [...] send us these documents, as it is requested in the Guidelines of the IBC with respect to the recognition of a church as independent Old Catholic Church of the Union of Utrecht."( [letter] ) The OCCBC bishop was told by an IBC bishop the next year, among other issues, both that the OCCBC bishop's consecration was derived through the LCC and that "the line of Matthews succession is there and is not recognized by Utrecht".(rpt.pp.10–11) The IBC rejected an OCCBC request for consecration of a successor bishop,(rpt.pp.12–13) was told that the OCCBC "should be under 'the umbrella' of the Anglican Church",(rpt.p.13) and was informed that the IBC bishops reconsidered the OCCBC's probationary membership and were "no longer a member of the Utrecht Union".(rpt.p.14)
- André Barbeau had had been consecrated by Charles Brearley,[a] who had been consecrated by Matthew Cooper,[a] who had been consecrated by James Bartholomew Banks, who had been consecrated by Frederick Samuel Willoughby,(p23) who had been consecrated by Mathew.(p19)
- The RCC has repeatedly affirmed its recognition of the validity of the orders and sacraments of the Old Roman Catholic Church throughout the world.
The 1917 9th edition of William Addis and Thomas Arnold's A Catholic Dictionary states that "Dutch Jansenists [...] have retained valid orders, the celibacy of the clergy, the Mass and other services in Latin. They are known in Holland as old-Roman (oud-Roomsch), for they profess to be not only Catholics but Roman Catholics, and they acknowledge the Pope as the visible head of the Church," and also stated that, after reading their prayer-book, popular catechism, hymn-book, and Ordinary of the Mass, the author was "unable to discover any trace of heresy in these books". By the 1957 16th edition, A Catholic Dictionary was revised and did not retain these statements. The 1957 16th edition contains the preface from the 1948 15th edition which stated that the 1917 Code of Canon Law, "which came into force in 1918, has demanded a revision or rewriting of a very large number of articles. Since that date there have been new regulations for Papal elections, the settlement of the Roman Question, many important Encyclical letters, [...] all of which have involved alterations and corrections in the text."(vi)
The 1931 1st edition of Donald Attwater's The Catholic Encyclopaedic Dictionary, states that Old Catholic churches "are now to all intents and purposes a Protestant and Modernist body. [...] The Jansenist Church of Holland is now reckoned an Old Catholic church. There orders and sacraments are valid."
Konrad Algermissen wrote, in Christian Denominations, that "As a fundamentally pantheistic movement it cannot be reckoned among the Christian faiths. Nevertheless the Liberal Catholic Church has received valid orders from the Old Catholic Church and performs its ordination ceremony with the greatest ritual exactness. This fact shows with what ease the Old Catholic Church dispenses its valid consecration. In America, for instance. The American Catholic Church, The Old Catholic Church in America, The North American Old Roman Catholic Church, have all received valid episcopal consecration from the Old Catholic Church."(p363)
In 1928, The Far East magazine, answered an inquiry concerning the validity of orders conferred in the NAORCC. The magazine article mentions Carfora favorably and states that: "these orders are valid...".
William Whalen wrote, in the 1958 1st edition and 1966 2nd edition of Separated Brethren:
While no official pronouncement has been made by the Vatican concerning the validity of Old Catholic orders, we have no reason to doubt that they are valid. The apostolic succession does not depend on obedience to the see of Peter but rather on the objective line of succession from apostolic sources, the proper matter and form, and the proper intention. This means that Old Catholic priests are probably true priests with the full powers of the priesthood although they would be exercising these powers unlawfully. Likewise Old Catholic bishops are bishops in the apostolic succession. [...] Rationalism infected the movement from the beginning and together with nationalism turned Old Catholicism into a brand of liberal Protestantism, though closer to Anglicanism than to evangelical Protestantism.(p204)(p204)
- "Catholics may receive the Eucharist, penance, or anointing from sacred ministers of Catholic denominations whose Holy Orders are considered valid by the Roman Catholic Church. This includes all Eastern Orthodox priests, as well as priests of the Old Catholic or Polish National Church." "The principal condition is that these sacraments can be received only from validly ordained ministers. These are ministers who belong to 'churches that have preserved the substance of the Eucharistic teaching, the sacraments of orders, and apostolic succession'. This would include all Eastern non-Catholic churches, the Polish National Church, Old Catholic, and Old Roman Catholic. Occasionally, a bishop in apostolic succession may validly ordain a priest, even if his church is not recognized in this category."
- Edmonds, Stephen (2013) . "Mathew, Arnold Harris (1852–1919)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/103378. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
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