Bani Utbah

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The Bani Utbah (Arabic: بني عتبةbanī ʿUtbah) is a federation of Arab clans, which originated from Najd. The federation is thought to have been formed when a group of clans migrated to the Persian Gulf coast in the 16th century. Utub (Arabic: العتوبʿutūb) is the plural form, while the singular form is Utbi (Arabic: العتبيal-ʿUtbī ). The current monarchies of Bahrain and Kuwait trace their origins back to the federation.

Invasion of Oman (1697)[edit]

The Shia Safavids asked for the assistance of the Utub in invading Oman in 1697; however, they were defeated, as they were already engaged in another war with the Ottomans for the control of Basra.[1]

1717 Omani invasion of Bahrain[edit]

The sultan of Oman at the time asked for the assistance of the Utub in invading Bahrain in 1717.[2]

Migration[edit]

The Utub's ancestors were expelled from Umm Qasr in central Arabia by the Ottomans due to their predatory habits of preying on caravans in Basra and trading ships in Shatt al-Arab.[3] They migrated to Kuwait thereafter. Around the 1760s, the Al Jalahma and Al Khalifa clans, both belonging to the Utub federation, migrated to Zubarah in modern-day Qatar, leaving Al Sabah as the sole proprietors of Kuwait.[4] The two tribes established a free-trade port at Zubarah's harbor, but the Al Khalifas refused to share the economic gains with the Al Jalahmah, and so the latter migrated to Al Ruwais. The Al Khalifa went on to monopolize the pearl banks around Qatar.[5]

Putting aside their grievances, the Utub tribes of Al Jalahma and Al Khalifa, along with some Arab tribes, drove out the Persians from Bahrain in 1783 in an expedition which was launched in part due to Persian aggression towards Zubarah in 1782.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Persian Gulf: A Political and Economic History of Five Port Cities 1500-1730, William Floor, p295
  2. ^ ^ محمد خليل المرعشي , مجمع التواريخ , تحقيق عباس اقبال, طهران , 1328هـ - 1949م , ص 37-39
  3. ^ "'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part IA & IB. J G Lorimer. 1915' [1000] (1155/1782)". qdl.qa. p. 1000. Retrieved 16 January 2015. 
  4. ^ 'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part IA & IB. J G Lorimer. 1915' [1000] (1155/1782), p. 1001
  5. ^ Althani, Mohamed (2013). Jassim the Leader: Founder of Qatar. Profile Books. p. 28. ISBN 978-1781250709. 
  6. ^ "'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part IA & IB. J G Lorimer. 1915' [843] (998/1782)". qdl.qa. p. 840. Retrieved 16 January 2015.