Beheading video

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

A beheading video is a type of propaganda video in which hostages are graphically decapitated.[1] The videos were popularized in 2004 by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, a radical Islamic militant. The videos caused controversy among Islamic scholars, some of whom denounced them as against Islamic law; Al-Qaeda did not approve and Osama bin Laden considered them poor public relations. Regardless, they became popular with certain Islamic terrorist groups, such as Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.[2]

Early videos were grainy and unsophisticated, but, according to the Chicago Sun-Times, have been "growing in sophistication, using animated graphics and editing techniques apparently aimed at embellishing the audio to make a victim's final moments seem more disturbing".[3] These videos are often uploaded to the World Wide Web by terrorists, then discussed and distributed by web-based outlets,[4] such as blogs, shock sites, and traditional journalistic media. After a beheading video by a Mexican drug cartel spread virally on Facebook, the Family Online Safety Institute petitioned to have it removed.[5] Initially, Facebook refused to remove the video,[6] then did so,[7] and subsequently clarified their policies, stating that beheading videos would only be allowed if posted in a manner intended for its users to "condemn" the acts.[8]

Videos released[edit]

pre-2004[edit]

2004[edit]

2005–2013[edit]

2014[edit]

Hoax[edit]

A hoax beheading video filmed by Benjamin Vanderford, Robert Martin, and Laurie Kirchner in 2004 received wide attention by the American press.[36] The video used Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad's logo, but not the group's flag.[37] It was originally filmed for Vanderford's local election campaign.[38] He was seeking Matt Gonzalez's seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors.[39] Vanderford's second intention was to point out how uncritically the mainstream media would accept an anonymous video.[40] The Islamic Global Media Center claimed to have made the video, but removed it from their website after the hoax was discovered.[41] The video also appeared on other militant websites and was broadcast on Arabic television.[42][43]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stannard, Matthew B. (May 13, 2004). "Beheading video seen as war tactic". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved November 23, 2010. 
  2. ^ Bloom, Mia (August 22, 2014). "Even al-Qaeda denounced beheading videos. Why the Islamic State brought them back.". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 23, 2014. 
  3. ^ Shrader, Katherine Pfleger (September 29, 2004). "Terrorists sense power in beheading videos". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved August 23, 2014 – via Highbeam Research. (subscription required (help)). 
  4. ^ Palmer, Ewan (August 20, 2014). "James Foley: Police Warn Watching Beheading Video Is A 'Terrorist Offence'". International Business Times. Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  5. ^ Karis, Hustad (October 31, 2013). "Facebook Graphic Content Woes: When Are Beheading Videos Okay?". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on October 31, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2014 – via Highbeam Research. (subscription required (help)). 
  6. ^ a b Su, Reissa (4 November 2013). "Beheaded Woman in Viral Video on Facebook 'Unknown,' Authorities Not Investigating (VIDEO)". International Business Times. Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  7. ^ a b Grant, Willl (3 November 2013). "Facebook beheading video: Who was Mexico's Jane Doe?". BBC News Online. Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  8. ^ Oreskovic, Alexei (October 21, 2013). "Gory videos OK when posted for users to 'condemn': Facebook". Reuters. Retrieved August 23, 2014. 
  9. ^ "Reporter Daniel Pearl Is Dead, Killed by His Captors in Pakistan". Wall Street Journal. February 24, 2002. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  10. ^ Ansari, Massoud (May 9, 2004). "Daniel Pearl 'refused to be sedated before his throat was cut'". The Telegraph. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  11. ^ Nichols, Bill (May 11, 2004). "Video shows beheading of American captive". USA Today. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  12. ^ "American hostage beheaded in Saudi Arabia". USA Today. Associated Press. June 16, 2004. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  13. ^ Sohn, Jie-ae; Faraj, Caroline (June 23, 2004). "Pentagon: South Korean hostage beheaded". CNN. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  14. ^ Spinner, Jackie; Faiola, Anthony (June 23, 2004). "S. Korean Is Beheaded in Iraq". Washington Post. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  15. ^ "Video Shows Beheading of Iraq Hostage". Fox News. Associated Press. August 9, 2004. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  16. ^ "Beheading of 2nd Bulgarian captive confirned". NBC News. Associated Press. August 11, 2004. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  17. ^ "'Egyptian spy' beheaded in Iraq". Daily Times. August 11, 2004. Retrieved September 18, 2014. 
  18. ^ Youssef, Nancy A. (September 1, 2004). "Extremists in Iraq execute 12 Nepalese workers One was beheaded; the others, shot. The group said they were killed for helping the U.S. against Islam.". Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  19. ^ "American Hostage Beheaded in Iraq; Bush, Kerry Agree to Debate; Can Rather Survive Memogate?". CNN. September 20, 2004. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  20. ^ a b Faraj, Caroline; al-Hilli, Thaira; Muhy, Bassem; Qasira, Faris; Tawfeeq, Mohammed (September 22, 2004). "Report: Al-Zarqawi group kills American hostage". CNN. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  21. ^ Walker, Glen (August 19, 2014). "Video Claims to Show Terrorist Group ISIS Beheading U.S. Journalist James Foley". KTLA. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  22. ^ McCarthy, Rory (October 8, 2004). "Sad, bloody end to Bigley saga". The Guardian. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  23. ^ Shubert, Atika (October 31, 2004). "Beheaded Japanese to be flown home". CNN. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  24. ^ "Video shows beheading of Japanese hostage". NBC News. Associated Press. November 2, 2004. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  25. ^ Shah, Saeed (February 9, 2009). "Polish man beheaded in Pakistani militant video". The Guardian. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  26. ^ Titterton, Sarah (February 9, 2009). "Horrifying video of militants beheading Polish engineer is released by Pakistani Taliban". Daily Mail. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  27. ^ "Militants blame U.S. for their apparent beheading of U.S. journalist". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 20, 2014. 
  28. ^ "IS releases journalist beheading video in a message to the US". ABC Online. August 20, 2014. Retrieved August 23, 2014. 
  29. ^ Carter, Chelsea J.; Ashley, Fantz (September 9, 2014). "ISIS video shows beheading of American journalist Steven Sotloff". CNN. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  30. ^ Callimachi, Rukmini; De Freytas-Tamura, Kimiko (September 13, 2014). "ISIS Video Shows Execution of David Cawthorne Haines, British Aid Worker". New York Times. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  31. ^ Almasy, Steve; Meilhan, Pierre; Vitagliano, Brian; Mazloumsaki, Sara; Lopez, Elwyn; Fantz, Ashley; Hanna, Jason (September 24, 2014). "French president: Islamic extremists beheaded French hostage". CNN.com. Retrieved September 24, 2014. 
  32. ^ Castillo, Mariano (October 3, 2014). "ISIS video claims to show beheading of Alan Henning; American threatened". CNN.com. Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  33. ^ Castillo, Mariano; Brumfield, Ben (November 16, 2014). "Obama calls hostage's beheading by ISIS 'pure evil'". CNN.com. Retrieved November 16, 2014. 
  34. ^ "Abdul-Rahman Kassig killing is pure evil, says Obama". BBC. November 16, 2014. Retrieved November 17, 2014. 
  35. ^ Wkye, Thomas (November 16, 2014). "Jihadi John Leads Systematic Beheading of Peter Kassig and 18 Syrian Pilots". International Business Times. Retrieved November 16, 2014. 
  36. ^ Guthrie, Julian; Wallace, Bill (August 8, 2004). "Web hoax fools news services". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  37. ^ "'Beheaded hostage' video exposed as hoax". Daily Mail. August 7, 2014. Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  38. ^ "Man fakes own decapitation in video". The Age. August 8, 2004. Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  39. ^ DiMassa, Cara Mia; Hollis, Robert (August 8, 2004). "Region & State Man Fakes Own Beheading Video". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  40. ^ "American fakes own decapitation in tape". MSNBC. Associated Press. August 7, 2004. Retrieved November 23, 2010. 
  41. ^ "American's Iraq 'Beheading' a Hoax". Fox News. Associated Press. August 7, 2004. Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  42. ^ "US man made hoax execution video". BBC. August 7, 2004. Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  43. ^ "Iraq Beheading Video Of US Man A Hoax". Sky News. August 9, 2004. Retrieved October 3, 2014. 

External links[edit]