Belfast West (UK Parliament constituency)

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For other constituencies of the same name, see Belfast West.
Belfast West
Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
Outline map
Boundary of Belfast West in Northern Ireland.
Districts of Northern Ireland Belfast, Lisburn
Electorate 60,817 (March 2011)
Major settlements Belfast
Current constituency
Created 1922
Member of Parliament Paul Maskey (Sinn Féin)
Number of members One
18851918
Number of members One
Type of constituency Borough constituency
Replaced by Belfast Falls, Belfast St Anne's and Belfast Woodvale
Created from Belfast
Overlaps
European Parliament constituency Northern Ireland

Belfast West is a parliamentary constituency in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.

Boundaries[edit]

1950-1974: The county borough of Belfast wards of Court, Falls, St Anne's, St George's, Smithfield, and Woodvale.

1974-1983: The county borough of Belfast wards of Court, Falls, St Anne's, St George's, Smithfield, and Woodvale; and the electoral divisions of Andersonstown, Ballygammon, and Ladybrook in the rural district of Lisburn.

1983-1997: The District of Belfast wards of Andersonstown, Ballygomartin, Central, Clonard, Court, Falls, Grosvenor, Highfield, Ladybrook, Milltown, North Howard, St James, Suffolk, and Whiterock.

1997-2010: The District of Belfast wards of Andersonstown, Beechmount, Clonard, Falls, Falls Park, Glencairn, Glencolin, Glen Road, Highfield, Ladybrook, Shankill, Upper Springfield, and Whiterock; and the District of Lisburn wards of Collin Glen, Kilwee, Poleglass, and Twinbrook.

2010-present: The District of Belfast wards of Andersonstown, Beechmount, Clonard, Falls, Falls Park, Glencairn, Glencolin, Glen Road, Highfield, Ladybrook, Shankill, Upper Springfield, and Whiterock; and the District of Lisburn City wards of Collin Glen, Dunmurry, Kilwee, Poleglass, Twinbrook, and part of Derryaghy.

The seat was restored in 1922 (having been abolished for the 1918 general election) when as part of the establishment of the devolved Stormont Parliament for Northern Ireland, the number of MPs in the Westminster Parliament was drastically cut. In 1983 the Sandy Row and Donegall Road areas were removed[1] leaving a seat centred on the west section of Belfast, though between 1983 and 1996/7 it included the area around the Docks on the north east side of the Lagan Estuary.[2] Belfast West also contains part of the city of Lisburn district in the shape of the Poleglass and Twinbrook estates.

Prior to the 2010 general election, boundary changes added the Dunmurry ward and the northern part of Derriaghy ward to this seat. Following public consultation, the proposals were passed through Parliament via the Northern Ireland Parliamentary Constituencies Order.[3] In an unprecedented move by a Boundary Commission, an electoral ward was split between constituencies following disquiet in parts of Derriaghy. This ward is now split between Belfast West and Lagan Valley.

History[edit]

Belfast West has historically been the most nationalist of Belfast's four constituencies, though it is only in the last few decades that the votes for unionist parties have plunged to tiny levels. The constituency is largely made of a long, slender, belt along the Falls Road and its suburban extensions, with three of the five wards from the staunchly unionist Shankill area now something of a bolt-on, with a several kilometre long peace line dividing them from the rest of the constituency. There is also a smaller Protestant enclave at Suffolk.

Unsurprisingly, the tenor of the constituency is largely working class and in the 1991 census it was one of only twenty constituencies where the majority of housing was still state owned. Although there are now large pockets of middle-class housing in Andersonstown and other suburban parts of the seat. Closer to the centre public-sector terraced housing, both Victorian and high quality modern housing, predominates, while in the suburbs, leafy pockets are scattered among post-War housing estates such as Lenadoon and Twinbrook.

The Westminster constituency was consistently held by the Ulster Unionist Party but always had strong Labour movement sympathies. In the UK general election, 1923, the Belfast Labour Party came within 1,000 votes of taking the seat. A by-election in 1943 was won by Jack Beattie, standing for the Northern Ireland Labour Party. For the next twenty-three years the seat would regularly change from unionist to nationalist/labour, with the latter represented by a variety of parties.

In the 1966 general election the seat was won by Gerry Fitt of the Republican Labour Party. Later in 1970 he left that party to become a founder and first leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party. In the February 1974 general election, Belfast West was the only constituency in Northern Ireland to elect an MP supporting the Sunningdale Agreement. Fitt's majority was a narrow 2180 votes in February 1974 primarily due to the candidature of Albert Price, father of the Price sisters who were in prison in England for PIRA related offences. However the candidacy of a UVF backed candidate in October 1974 and a declining Unionist vote in 1979 led to him increasing his majorities in subsequent years. He retained the seat for the next nine years but increasingly distanced himself from nationalist groups and in late 1979 he left the SDLP altogether. He sat as an independent socialist but lost his seat in the 1983 when it was won by Gerry Adams of Sinn Féin. The Unionist vote which had still been at 30% in the 1982 Assembly elections was cut to 20% as a result of the 1983 boundary changes which, while adding the loyalist Glencairn area, removed the Donegall Road, Sandy Row and added the Nationalist Lenadoon area.

Adams' share of the vote, at 37%, was short of a majority and he achieved victory only due to Fitt and the SDLP candidate splitting the non-Sinn Féin vote. In 1987 Adams narrowly held his seat, but lost it in the 1992 general election amidst a strong tactical voting campaign in favour of Joe Hendron of the Social Democratic and Labour Party by unionists[4] in the Shankill Road area of the constituency. After the election a constituent, Maura McCrory, lodged an election petition challenging the result. The election court reported Hendron personally guilty of the illegal practice of failing to deliver a declaration verifying the return of his election expenses, and guilty through his election agent of failing to deliver a verified return of election expenses within 35 days, exceeding the maximum spending by £782.02, and failing to pay all the expenses within 28 days. Hendron's agent was also reported personally guilty of distributing election material without the name and address of the printer and publisher. The Judges granted both Hendron and his agent relief from their findings, on the grounds that the law had been broken through inadvertence; they therefore certified that Hendron had been duly elected.[5]

In the mid-1990s the Boundary Commission originally suggested removing the Shankill wards from the constituency and replacing them with about half of the Belfast South constituency namely the 6 wards of the Balmoral Electoral Area and the Shaftesbury ward, effectively transforming the seat into a Belfast South West constituency.

The subsequent local enquiries were bitterly contested with the SDLP favouring the commission's original proposals which would add an area where Sinn Féin had little support (and aside from the Shaftesbury ward, had not contested in council elections), while Sinn Féin argued instead for adding the mostly republican Twinbrook and Poleglass estates (where they were outpolling the SDLP in council elections by a margin of 3 to 1). With all parties except the SDLP supporting an option of retaining four seats in Belfast the latter option became the commissions final proposals and the Shankill wards remained in the constituency.

The boundary changes, coupled with the IRA ceasefire, meant that support for Sinn Féin in the constituency soared to new levels and in all elections held in the seat since 1996 they have taken over 50% of the vote. In 1997 Adams regained the seat and held it in 2001, 2005 and 2010. In 2011, Adams decided to stand in the 2011 Republic of Ireland general election and resigned his seat.

Members of Parliament[edit]

The Member of Parliament since a 2011 by-election is Paul Maskey of Sinn Féin, who succeeded Gerry Adams, the party president. He previously held the seat from 1983 to 1992 when he lost it to Joe Hendron of the Social Democratic and Labour Party but regained it in 1997.

In November 2010, Adams announced his intention to contest the imminent election in the Republic of Ireland. Although the Disqualifications Act 2000 permits MPs to sit in Dáil Éireann, he submitted a letter of resignation to the Speaker in January 2011. However, the prescribed procedure for resigning would involve applying for the post of Crown Steward and Bailiff of the Manor of Northstead, which he has "no intention" of doing. Thus he was still considered to hold the seat.[6] On 26 January, HM Treasury announced that Adams had been appointed as Steward and Bailiff of the Manor of Northstead. The Prime Minister, David Cameron claim that Adams had applied for the appointment, but this was later clarified to state that although he had not requested the appointment. Adams stated the Prime Minister's private secretary had apologised to him for making the announcement that Adams had 'accepted' the position, when in fact Adams resignation letter was taken to be a request to be so appointed, whatever his own wishes.[7]

Monument to James Horner Haslett, MP & Mayor of Belfast, grounds of Belfast City Hall
Election Member Party
1885 James Horner Haslett Conservative
1886 Thomas Sexton Irish Parliamentary
1890 Irish National Federation
1892 H. O. Arnold-Forster Liberal Unionist
1906 Joseph Devlin Irish Parliamentary
1918 constituency abolished: see Belfast Falls, Belfast Woodvale & Belfast St. Anne's
1922 constituency recreated
1922 Robert Lynn Ulster Unionist
1929 W. E. D. Allen Ulster Unionist
1931 New Party
1931 Alexander Browne Ulster Unionist
1943 by-election Jack Beattie Labour (NI)
1943 Independent Labour
1945 Federation of Labour
1949 Irish Labour
1950 James Godfrey MacManaway Ulster Unionist
1950 by-election Thomas Teevan Ulster Unionist
1951 Jack Beattie Irish Labour
1955 Patricia McLaughlin Ulster Unionist
1964 James Kilfedder Ulster Unionist
1966 Gerry Fitt Republican Labour
1970 Social Democratic and Labour
1979 Independent
1983 Gerry Adams Sinn Féin
1992 Joe Hendron Social Democratic and Labour
1997 Gerry Adams Sinn Féin
2011 by-election Paul Maskey Sinn Féin

Election results[edit]

Elections in the 2010s[edit]

Belfast West by-election, 2011[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Sinn Féin Paul Maskey 16,211 70.6 −0.5
SDLP Alex Attwood 3,088 13.5 −2.9
People Before Profit Gerry Carroll 1,751 7.6 N/A
DUP Brian Kingston 1,393 6.1 −1.5
UUP Bill Manwaring 386 1.7 −1.4
Alliance Aaron McIntyre 122 0.5 −1.4
Majority 13,123 57.1 +2.4
Turnout 22,951 37.5 −16.5
Sinn Féin hold Swing +1.2
General Election 2010: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Sinn Féin Gerry Adams 22,840 71.1 +2.5
SDLP Alex Attwood 5,261 16.4 +0.3
DUP William Humphrey 2,436 7.6 −3.3
UCU-NF Bill Manwaring 1,000 3.1 +0.6
Alliance Maíre Hendron 596 1.9 +1.8
Majority 17,579 54.7 −1.2
Turnout 32,133 54.0 −13.5
Sinn Féin hold Swing +1.1

Elections in the 2000s[edit]

General Election 2005: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Sinn Féin Gerry Adams 24,348 70.5 +4.4
SDLP Alex Attwood 5,033 14.6 −4.3
DUP Diane Dodds 3,652 10.6 +4.2
UUP Chris McGimpsey 779 2.3 −3.9
Workers' Party John Lowry 432 1.3 −0.5
Rainbow Dream Ticket Lynda Gilby 154 0.4 +0.2
Independent Liam Kennedy 147 0.4 +0.4
Majority 19,315 55.9 +8.7
Turnout 34,545 64.2 −4.5
Sinn Féin hold Swing +4.4
General Election 2001: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Sinn Féin Gerry Adams 27,096 66.1 +10.2
SDLP Alex Attwood 7,754 18.9 −19.8
DUP Eric Smyth 2,641 6.4 N/A
UUP Chris McGimpsey 2,541 6.2 +2.8
Workers' Party John Lowry 736 1.8 +0.2
Third Way David Kerr 116 0.3 N/A
Rainbow Dream Ticket Rainbow George Weiss 98 0.2 N/A
Majority 19,342 47.2
Turnout 40,982 68.7 −5.5
Sinn Féin hold Swing

Elections in the 1990s[edit]

General Election 1997: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Sinn Féin Gerry Adams 25,662 55.9 +13.9
SDLP Joe Hendron 17,753 38.7 −5.5
UUP Fred Parkinson 1,556 3.4 −8.2
Workers' Party John Lowry 721 1.6 N/A
Human Rights Liam Kennedy 102 0.2 N/A
Natural Law Mary Daly 91 0.2 N/A
Majority 7,909 17.2
Turnout 45,885 74.3
Sinn Féin gain from SDLP Swing

1997 Changes are compared to the 1992 notional results shown below.[9]

Notional 1992 UK General Election Result : Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
SDLP N/A 20,045 44.2 N/A
Sinn Féin N/A 19,027 42.0 N/A
UUP N/A 5,275 11.6 N/A
Others N/A 975 2.2 N/A
Majority 1,018 2.3 N/A
General Election 1992: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
SDLP Joe Hendron 17,415 43.6 +7.9
Sinn Féin Gerry Adams 16,826 42.1 +1.0
UUP Fred Cobain 4,766 11.9 −6.8
Workers' Party John Lowry 750 1.9 −2.5
Natural Law Michael F. Kennedy 213 0.5 N/A
Majority 589 1.7 −3.7
Turnout 34,545 73.2 +4.1
SDLP gain from Sinn Féin Swing

Elections in the 1980s[edit]

General Election 1987: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Sinn Féin Gerry Adams 16,862 41.1 +2.1
SDLP Joe Hendron 14,641 35.7 +9.4
UUP Frank Millar 7,646 18.7 +12.9
Workers' Party Mary McMahon 1,819 4.4 −0.1
Majority 2,221 5.4 −7.6
Turnout 40,968 69.1 −1.1
Sinn Féin hold Swing
General Election 1983: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Sinn Féin Gerry Adams 16,379 36.9 N/A
SDLP Joe Hendron 10,934 24.6 −14.4
Independent Socialist Gerry Fitt 10,326 23.3 N/A
UUP Thomas Passmore 2,435 5.5 −19.0
DUP George Albert Haffey 2,399 5.4 −5.8
Workers' Party Mary McMahon 1,893 4.3 −2.4
Majority 5,445 12.3 −11.7
Turnout 44,366 74.3 +13.7
Sinn Féin gain from SDLP Swing

Following the 1979 election, Fitt became increasingly at odds with the SDLP and left it, continuing to sit as an independent socialist.

Elections in the 1970s[edit]

General Election 1979: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
SDLP Gerry Fitt 16,480 49.5 +0.5
UUP Thomas Passmore 8,245 24.8 N/A
DUP Billy Dickson 3,716 11.2 −25.3
Republican Clubs Brian Brennan 2,284 6.9 −1.1
Alliance John Cousins 2,024 6.1 N/A
Labour (NI) Derek Peters 540 1.6 N/A
Majority 8,235 24.7 +12.2
Turnout 33,289 56.5 −10.7
SDLP hold Swing
General Election October 1974: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
SDLP Gerry Fitt 21,821 49.0 +8.0
DUP John McQuade 16,265 36.5 0.0
Republican Clubs Kitty O'Kane 3,547 8.0 + 1.5
Volunteer Political Party Ken Gibson 2,690 6.0 N/A
Marxist-Leninist (Ireland) Peter Kerins 203 0.5 N/A
Majority 5,556 12.5 + 8.3
Turnout 67.2 – 4.3
SDLP hold Swing
General Election February 1974: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
SDLP Gerry Fitt 19,554 41.0 N/A
DUP John McQuade 17,374 36.5
Independent Republican Albert Price 5,662 11.9 N/A
Republican Clubs John Brady 3,088 6.5 N/A
Labour (NI) Billy Boyd 1,989 4.2 N/A
Majority 2,180 4.6 – 0.9
Turnout 71.5 – 13.0
SDLP gain from Republican Labour Swing

After the 1970 election Fitt left the Republican Labour Party to cofound the Social Democratic & Labour Party. The remains of Republican Labour had disintegrated by 1974.

General Election 1970: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Labour Gerry Fitt 30,649 52.8 + 0.8
UUP Brian McRoberts 27,451 47.3 – 0.7
Majority 3,198 5.5 + 1.4
Turnout 84.5 + 9.7
Republican Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1960s[edit]

General Election 1966: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Labour Gerry Fitt 26,292 52.0 + 23.7
UUP James Kilfedder 24,281 48.0 + 6.8
Majority 2,011 4.1 – 8.7
Turnout 74.8 + 0.1
Republican Labour gain from UUP Swing
General Election 1964: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
UUP James Kilfedder 21,337 41.2 – 12.9
Republican Labour Harry Diamond 14,678 28.3 N/A
Labour (NI) Billy Boyd 12,579 24.3 N/A
Independent Republican Billy McMillen 3,256 6.3 N/A
Majority 6,659 12.8 – 3.8
Turnout 74.7 + 2.0
UUP hold Swing

Elections in the 1950s[edit]

General Election 1959: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
UUP Patricia McLaughlin 28,898 54.1 – 4.2
Ind. Labour Group John Joseph Brennan 20,062 37.6 N/A
Sinn Féin Thomas Heenan 4,416 8.3 – 6.1
Majority 8,836 16.6 – 14.3
Turnout 72.7 – 2.0
UUP hold Swing
General Election 1955: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
UUP Patricia McLaughlin 34,191 58.3 + 8.3
Irish Labour Jack Beattie 20,062 27.4 – 22.6
Sinn Féin Eamonn Boyce 8,447 14.4 N/A
Majority 18,141 30.9 + 30.9
Turnout 74.7 – 9.4
UUP gain from Irish Labour Swing
General Election 1951: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Irish Labour Jack Beattie 33,174 50.0 + 3.7
UUP Thomas Teevan 33,149 50.0 – 1.5
Majority 25 0.0 – 5.2
Turnout 84.1 + 0.5
Irish Labour gain from UUP Swing
Belfast West by-election, 1950
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
UUP Thomas Teevan 31,796 50.8 – 0.7
Irish Labour Jack Beattie 30,833 49.2 + 2.9
Majority 913 1.5 – 4.0
Turnout 62,629
UUP hold Swing
General Election 1950: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
UUP James Godfrey MacManaway 33,917 51.5 + 5.0
Irish Labour Jack Beattie 30,539 46.3 – 7.2
Sinn Féin Jimmy Steele 1,482 2.2 N/A
Majority 3,378 5.2 – 1.8
Turnout 83.6 + 10.5
UUP gain from Independent Swing

Elections in the 1940s[edit]

General Election 1945: Belfast West

Electorate 80,641

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Independent Labour Jack Beattie 30,787 53.5 N/A
UUP Knox Cunningham 26,729 46.5 – 16.1
Majority 4,058 7.0 – 18.2
Turnout 57,516 73.1 + 5.1
Independent Labour gain from UUP Swing
Belfast West by-election, 1943
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour (NI) Jack Beattie 19,936 46.2 N/A
UUP Knox Cunningham 14,426 33.4 – 29.2
Ind. Unionist Association William McConnell Wilton 7,551 17.5 N/A
Independent Republican H. C. Corvin 1,250 2.9 – 34.5
Majority 5,510 12.8 – 12.4
Turnout 54.8 – 13.2
Labour (NI) gain from UUP Swing

Elections in the 1930s[edit]

General Election 1935: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
UUP Alexander Browne 34,060 62.6 + 4.0
Independent Republican Charles Leddy 20,313 37.4 – 4.0
Majority 13,747 25.2 + 8.0
Turnout 68.0 – 0.1
UUP hold Swing
General Election 1931: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
UUP Alexander Browne 31,113 58.6 + 0.7
Nationalist Thomas Joseph Campbell 22,006 41.4 – 0.7
Majority 9,107 17.2 + 1.4
Turnout 68.1 – 5.8
UUP hold Swing

Note: The sitting MP, W.E.D. Allen, had joined the New Party earlier in 1931 but did not contest the seat at the general election.

Elections in the 1920s[edit]

General Election 1929: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
UUP W. E. D. Allen 33,274 57.9 + 3.4
Independent Republican Frank MacDermot 24,177 42.1 N/A
Majority 9,097 15.8 + 1.7
Turnout 73.9 – 5.2
UUP hold Swing
General Election 1924: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
UUP Robert Lynn 28,435 54.5 + 1.6
Labour (NI) Harry Midgley 21,122 40.4 – 3.7
Sinn Féin Patrick Nash 2,688 5.1 N/A
Majority 7,313 14.1 + 8.3
Turnout 79.1 + 8.8
UUP hold Swing
General Election 1923: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
UUP Robert Lynn 24,975 52.9 N/A
Belfast Labour Harry Midgley 22,255 47.1 N/A
Majority 2,720 5.8 N/A
Turnout 70.3 N/A
UUP hold Swing
General Election 1922: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
UUP Robert Lynn Unopposed N/A N/A
UUP hold Swing N/A

Elections in the 1910s[edit]

General Election December 1910: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Irish Parliamentary Joseph Devlin 4,543 52.7 -0.2
Liberal Unionist John Boyd Carpenter 4,080 47.3 +1.1
Majority 463 5.4 -1.3
Turnout 8,623 93.4 -1.8
Irish Parliamentary hold Swing
General Election January 1910: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Irish Parliamentary Joseph Devlin 4,651 52.9 +3.7
Liberal Unionist John Boyd Carpenter 4,064 46.2 -2.8
Independent Nationalist Patrick J. Magee 75 0.9 N/A
Majority 587 6.7 +6.5
Turnout 8,790 95.2 +0.6
Irish Parliamentary hold Swing

Elections in the 1900s[edit]

General Election 1906: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Irish Parliamentary Joseph Devlin 4,138 49.2 N/A
Liberal Unionist J. R. Smiley 4,122 49.0 N/A
Ind. Liberal Unionist Alexander Carlisle 153 1.8 N/A
Majority 16 0.2 N/A
Turnout 8,413 94.6 N/A
Irish Parliamentary gain from Liberal Unionist Swing
Belfast West by-election, 1903: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Unionist H. O. Arnold-Forster Unopposed N/A N/A
Liberal Unionist hold Swing N/A
General Election 1900: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Unionist H. O. Arnold-Forster Unopposed N/A N/A
Liberal Unionist hold Swing N/A

Elections in the 1890s[edit]

General Election 1895: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Unionist H. O. Arnold-Forster Unopposed N/A N/A
Liberal Unionist hold Swing N/A
General Election 1892: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Unionist H. O. Arnold-Forster 4,266 55.5 N/A
Irish National Federation Thomas Sexton 3,427 44.5 -6.2
Majority 839 10.9 +9.6
Turnout 7,693
Liberal Unionist gain from Irish Parliamentary Swing

Elections in the 1880s[edit]

General Election 1886: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Irish Parliamentary Thomas Sexton 3,832 50.7 +0.9
Conservative James Horner Haslett 3,729 49.3 -0.9
Majority 103 1.3 +0.8
Turnout 7,561
Irish Parliamentary gain from Conservative Swing
General Election 1885: Belfast West
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative James Horner Haslett 3,778 50.2 N/A
Irish Parliamentary Thomas Sexton 3,743 49.8 N/A
Majority 35 0.5 N/A
Turnout 7,521 N/A
Conservative hold Swing

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Almanac of British Politics 3rd ed, Robert Waller
  2. ^ http://www.ark.ac.uk/elections/bwb.htm
  3. ^ http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2008/draft/ukdsi_9780110813172_en_1
  4. ^ "Beaten at the Ballot Box". The Economist. 18 April 1992. p. 62. 
  5. ^ "McCrory v Hendron" [1993] NI QBD 177.
  6. ^ "'Sacred' constitution 'may force Adams to stay as MP". bbc.co.uk (BBC). 25 January 2011. Archived from the original on 25 January 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2011. 
  7. ^ "Manor of Northstead". HM Treasury. 26 January 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  8. ^ Sinn Fein's Paul Maskey wins West Belfast by-election, BBC News, 10 June 2011
  9. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/election97/constituencies/45.htm

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]