The term bogan (//) is Australian and New Zealand slang, usually pejorative or self-deprecating, for a person with an unsophisticated background, or whose speech, clothing, attitude and behaviour exemplify a lack of manners and education. Localised names exist that describe the same or very similar groups of people.
The origin of the term bogan as a pejorative is unclear; both the Macquarie Dictionary and the Australian Oxford Dictionary cite the origin as unknown. According to anecdote, the term emerged in Melbourne's outer-Western and outer-Eastern suburbs in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Later, the label spread to New Zealand, especially within working-class West Auckland, as a term of self-description amongst equivalent social strata.
The term became widely known in the late 1980s when the teenage character Kylie Mole (played by Mary-Anne Fahey) in sketch comedy television series The Comedy Company frequently used the term to disparage anyone she disliked. The same programme included a sketch about a magazine called "Bogue" (a parody of Vogue), which featured traditional bogans. Merrick and Rosso (from Melbourne) also used the term on their Triple-J national radio show.
The Australian National Dictionary Centre (ANDC) included the word in its Australian dictionary project in 1991 and said the earliest use they found was in the September 1985 issue of surfing magazine Tracks: "So what if I have a mohawk and wear Dr Martens [Doc Martens] (boots for all you uninformed bogans)?"
There are places in western New South Wales that contain bogan in their name — for example Bogan Shire, the Bogan River and the rural village of Bogan Gate — but they are not regarded as the source of the term. Residents of streets such as Bogan Place and Bogan Road have been moved to action by the negative connotations of their street names and lobbied to rename them. The 1902 poem "City of Dreadful Thirst" by Australian poet Banjo Paterson makes reference to a "Bogan shower" as a term meaning "three raindrops and some dust", although this is likely a reference to the dry area around the Bogan River. Makeshift gates in a rural fence in north west NSW were known as bogan gates at least as early as the 1960s.
In 1995, long-standing West Auckland punk band The Warners released their last album entitled Bogans' Heroes on Wildside Records. Australian ska-punk band Area-7 achieved one of their biggest hits with the song "Nobody Likes A Bogan", released in 2002.
In 2007, Microsoft deemed bogan to be one of twenty colloquialisms most relevant to Australian users, when the word was added to the dictionary of Microsoft Office 2007. The word bogan entered the Oxford English Dictionary in June 2012.
Mel Campbell argued in a 2006 article in the Sydney Morning Herald that bogan (including "cashed-up bogan") is a nebulous, personal concept that is frequently used in a process by which "we use the idea of the bogan to quarantine ideas of Australianness that alarm or discomfort us. It's a way of erecting imaginary cultural barriers between "us" and "them"." Campbell argues that though many people believe they know exactly what a bogan is and what their characteristics might be, there is no defined set of characteristics of a bogan: the speaker imagines the denoted person to be different from, and less cultured than, themselves. Campbell considered "cashed-up bogan" to be a "stupid term". A similar argument is made by David Nichols, author of The Bogan Delusion (2011), who says that people have "created this creature that is a lesser human being to express their interclass hatred". The popular website (and 2010 bestselling book) Things Bogans Like contains 250 articles on various things that bogans are claimed to like, and suggests that a "bogan today defies income, class, race, creed, gender and logic".
Certain types of clothing are stereotypically associated with bogans, including flannelette shirts, monkey hoodies, Stubbies shorts, ugg boots, jeans and black leggings. Victorian Bogans typically wore "acid wash" jeans, ugg boots, and band t-shirts; had "mullet" style haircuts; and lived in the suburbs. In the mid 1990s, New Zealand Bogans were stereotypically clothed in all black. Super-taper black jeans were fairly standard and black woollen jersey. Long fringe or long hair in general was usual also.
The term bogan has been employed favourably to indicate being proudly un-fashionable or "rough around the edges". Radio station Triple J held a "National Bogan Day" on 28 June 2002, which they commemorated by playing music by bands such as Cold Chisel, Midnight Oil, Rose Tattoo and AC/DC.
Use in marketing
"CUB" or "cashed up bogan," was used by one marketing researcher in 2006 to describe people of a blue-collar background now earning a high salary and spending their earnings on expensive consumer items as a matter of conspicuous consumption. The media adduced tennis player Lleyton Hewitt and his actress wife, Bec Cartwright, as examples. Subsequently, the Kaesler Winery, in the Barossa Valley, released a Shiraz wine under the name Bogan.
Regional equivalent terms
Although the term "bogan" is understood across Australia and New Zealand, certain regions have their own slang terms for the same group of people. These terms include:
- "Chigger" (also "chigga" or "chig") in Hobart, Tasmania. This appears to be a reference to the Hobart suburb of Chigwell. Another usage is that of Gagey, Referring to Gagebrook
- "Bevan" or "Bev" in Queensland
- "Scozza" in Geelong, Victoria, Australia.
- "Lexie" in St Kilda, Victoria, Australia.
The term "westie" or "westy" is not synonymous with bogan, although westies are often stereotyped as being bogans. "Westie" seems to predate bogan by some years, and originated in Sydney in the 1970s, to refer to people from that city's western suburbs. As Sydney's western suburbs are predominantly working class blue collar areas, the term connotes a predominantly working class blue collar person – someone with little education, little intelligence, little taste, and very limited horizons. "Westie" is now in wide use in many cities and towns across both Australia and New Zealand, where it especially refers to the denizens of West Auckland.
Other stereotypes and subcultures
- Villero or Negro Villero (Argentina)
- Baraki (Belgium)
- Favelado, Maloqueiro ou Pé-Rapado (Brazil)
- Hoser (Canada)
- Flaite (Chile)
- Guajiro (Cuba)
- Ñero (Colombia)
- Polo (Costa Rica)
- Brian (male) and Conny (female) (Denmark)
- Juntti (Finland)
- Beauf (France)
- Prolet (Germany, page in German)
- Mprahamiotes (Greece)
- Asi (Germany)
- Alay (Indonesia)
- Javad (Iran)
- Bogger (Ireland)
- Scanger (Ireland)
- Ars or ערס (Israel)
- Tamarro (Italy)
- Inakamono (Japan)
- Runkelis (Lithuania)
- Naco (Mexico)
- Tokkie (Netherlands)
- Spide (Northern Ireland)
- Jejemon (Philippines)
- Dres (Poland)
- Bydlo (Russia)
- Ned (Scotland)
- Ah Beng (Singapore/Malaysia)
- Zef (South Africa)
- Hortera/Pokero/Cani (Spain)
- Raggare (Sweden)
- Shawie or شاوي (Syria)
- Chav (UK)
- Pikey (UK)
- Scallie (UK and Ireland)
- Hoopie (United States)
- Redneck (United States and Canada)
- Skid (United States and Canada)
- Skeet (Newfoundland) (Newfoundland, Canada)
- White Trash (United States and Canada)
- Plancha/Baraja/Terraja (Uruguay)
- Lauder, Simon (12 April 2008). "Bogan Pl residents lobby for name change". ABC. Retrieved 2008-04-12.
- Moore, Bruce: Of Boondies, Belgium Sausages and Boguns, Ozwords (Australian National University), November 1998.
- Australian National University: Australian National Dictionary Centre
- "Meanings and origins of Australian words and idioms". Australian National Dictionary Centre. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
- "Not the place for bogans". Daily Telegraph. 14 April 2008. Retrieved 2009-12-28.
- Press release: Strewth! Microsoft Office 2007 will recognise more dinky-di words, Microsoft Corporation, 15 May 2006.
- Campbell, Mel (8 June 2006). "Perhaps there's a little bogan in everyone". Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax. Retrieved 2008-09-05.
- Chris Johnston, Class war festers in hated bogan zeroes, The Age, 4 June 2011. See also The Bogan Delusion, Affirm Press
- Bogans Like, Things (October 2010). "What is a Bogan Today?". Things Bogans Like. Hachette Australia. Retrieved 2012-08-08.
- Katz, Danny (27 September 2006). "The uggly side of life". The Age. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- Demasi, Laura (5 October 2006). "Anatomy of a trend - leggings". The Age. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- "Definition". BOGAN.com.au. Retrieved 2009-12-28.
- Griffin, Michelle: Bogansville: meet the new in-crowd, The Age, 16 July 2002.
- "Snobbery alert: the 'Cub' is busy turning Melbourne into Boganville". Age. Fairfax. 20 May 2006.
- Smitz, Paul (2004). Lonely Planet Australia. Lonely Planet. p. 1064. ISBN 978-1-74059-447-9.