Buckingham's rebellion

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Buckingham's rebellion was a failed but significant uprising, or collection of uprisings, of late 1483 in England and parts of Wales against Richard III of England. To the extent that these local risings had a central coordination, the plot revolved around Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, who had become disaffected from Richard, and had backing from the exiled Henry of Richmond (the future king Henry VII). Buckingham's precise motivation has been called "obscure"; he had been treated well by Richard.[1] The traditional naming of the rebellion after him has been labelled a misnomer, with John Morton and Reginald Bray more plausible leaders.[2]

Horrox has commented that where modern accounts of the chronology are based on the four Acts of attainder of early 1484, they should be treated with caution.[3] Rebels took arms against the king, who had assumed power from Edward V in June of that year. They included many loyalists of Edward V, and others who had been Yorkist supporters of his father Edward IV.

Preparations, however, did not live up to the broad base of the rebellion: Richard in the field defeated the rising in a few weeks in autumn 1483. In those military terms it was a complete failure. It also, however, polarized opinion about Richard as king, and its effect over the next two years was to drive a number of leading figures into Richmond’s camp.

Rebels[edit]

Name Area Position Part in rebellion Aftermath
Sir Robert Willoughby Brooke in Westbury, Wiltshire High Sheriff of Devon and High Sheriff of Cornwall under Edward IV Openly supported Henry of Richmond Joined Richmond in Brittany. Fought at Bosworth, became Lord Steward and created Robert Willoughby, 1st Baron Willoughby de Broke
Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset Westminster Abbey in sanctuary as Richard took the throne, Yorkshire, Exeter[4] Constable of the Tower of London for Edward V Openly supported Henry of Richmond in Exeter.[4] Joined Richmond in Brittany.[4]
Edward Courtenay South-west England Commission of the peace in Cornwall He went Brittany, and was attainted in 1484. He took part in the battle of Bosworth, and was created Earl of Devon by Henry VII. (ODNB)
Giles Daubeny
Richard Guildford
John Fogge
Amias Paulet Somerset, south-west England Landowner[5] Attainted after the rebellion; restored in 1485.[5]
John Cheyne Rebel leader in Salisbury.[6]
Richard Hill Diocese of Salisbury, southern England Cleric Probable support of local rebels.[7] Suffered loss of income; may have become a supporter of Richmond at this point.[7]
Walter Hungerford of Farleigh Wiltshire Rebel leader[8] Pardoned, confined briefly to the Tower of London.[8]
John Morton In Buckingham's custody in Brecon Castle Bishop of Ely, conspirator Planning[9] Attainted, escaped to Flanders, pardoned December 1484 but went to Rome.[9]
Thomas Nandyke Astrologer At Brecon with Buckingham and Morton.[10] He took part in a later revolt against Richard around Colchester, and was outlawed.[10]
Reginald Bray Conspirator and go-between North-west England and Wales Liaison between Morton and Margaret Beaufort. Recruited Daubeny, Cheyne, Richard Guildford.[11] Pardoned January 1484.[11]

Loyalists[edit]

Name Position Part in rebellion Aftermath
Ralph de Ashton Vice-constable of England.[12] Rewarded with land in Kent.[12]
John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk Military commander Defended London for the king.[13] Killed at the Battle of Bosworth on the king's side.

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Christine Carpenter (13 November 1997). The Wars of the Roses: Politics and the Constitution in England, C.1437-1509. Cambridge University Press. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-521-31874-7. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  2. ^ Ronald H. Fritze; William Baxter Robison (2002). Historical dictionary of late medieval England, 1272-1485. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-313-29124-1. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  3. ^ Rosemary Horrox (1991). Richard III: A study in service. Cambridge University Press. p. 154. ISBN 0 521 40726 5. 
  4. ^ a b c  Stephen, Leslie; Lee, Sidney, eds. (1890). "Grey, Thomas (1451-1501)". Dictionary of National Biography 23. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 
  5. ^ a b  Lee, Sidney, ed. (1895). "Paulet, Amias (d.1538)". Dictionary of National Biography 44. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 
  6. ^ Ford, David Nash (2010). "John Cheney (c.1442-1499)". Royal Berkshire History. Nash Ford Publishing. Retrieved 29 November 2010. 
  7. ^ a b Hayes, Rosemary C. E. "Hill, Richard". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/47267.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  8. ^ a b Hicks, Michael. "Hungerford, Sir Walter". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/14182.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  9. ^ a b Harper-Bill, Christopher. "Morton, John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19363.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  10. ^ a b Douglas L. Biggs; Sharon D. Michalove; Albert Compton Reeves; Richard III Society. American Branch (2004). Reputation and Representation in Fifteenth Century Europe. BRILL. p. 281. ISBN 978-90-04-13613-7. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  11. ^ a b Condon, M. M. "Bray, Reginald". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/3295.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  12. ^ a b Horrox, Rosemary. "Ashton, Sir Ralph". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/776.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  13. ^ Crawford, Anne. "Howard, John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/13921.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)