Carol Schwartz

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Carol Schwartz
Carolschwartz.jpg
Personal details
Born (1944-01-20) January 20, 1944 (age 70)
Greenville, Mississippi, U.S.
Political party Independent
Alma mater University of Texas, Austin

Carol Schwartz (born January 20, 1944, in Greenville, Mississippi[1]) is a politician from Washington, D.C., who served as a Republican at-large member on the Council of the District of Columbia from 1985 to 1989 and again from 1997 to 2009. She was also a four-time candidate for mayor, and is the only Republican nominee since the restoration of home rule to garner more than 30 percent of the vote. She announced her fifth campaign for Mayor of the District of Columbia on June 9, 2014. [2]

Early life[edit]

After being born in Greenville, Mississippi,[1] her family lived for brief periods in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma,[3] before settling down in Midland, Texas, where she spent nearly all of her childhood.[1] Growing up in Midland, Schwartz experienced anti-Semitism as a child, where she was one of very few Jewish people in the city.[3] Schwartz graduated from the University of Texas at Austin in 1965 with a degree in elementary and special education.[1][4] After graduation, she worked as a special education teacher in Austin, but she quit and moved to the District in 1966 after visiting the city.[3][5]

Political career[edit]

1974–1988[edit]

Schwartz entered D.C. politics in 1974 as a member of the Board of Education representing Ward 3. Reelected four years later, she unsuccessfully ran for president of the Board of Education in 1980.

In 1984 she ran for the City Council as an at-large member.[5] She ran against Jerry A. Moore, Jr., who had held the seat for ten years and who was also a Republican.[5] After Schwartz defeated Moore in the Republican primary, Moore decided to run a write-in campaign in the general election, but Schwartz won the general election as well.[5]

In 1986, Schwartz ran for mayor against two-term incumbent Marion Barry. She campaigned primarily on providing better basic services, arguing that "there is no Republican or Democratic way to pick up the trash."[5] She lost, tallying 33 percent of the vote.[5] In an interview in 1994, Schwartz said the results exceeded her expectations; she had only expected to receive 10 percent of the vote running against Barry.[6] Indeed, before Schwartz' bid, no Republican mayoral candidate had crossed the 30 percent mark. She decided not to run for reelection to the Council after the 1988 suicide of her husband, real estate lawyer David H. Schwartz, which occurred on her birthday.[5]

1994–1998[edit]

Schwartz reentered politics in 1994, running again for mayor.[5] Marion Barry also reentered politics that year, successfully defeating incumbent mayor Sharon Pratt Kelly in the Democratic primary election. Although Schwartz lost to Barry, she did tally 42 percent of the vote--easily the strongest showing by a Republican mayoral candidate since the restoration of home rule in 1974.[7]

In 1996, Schwartz ran for an at-large seat in the Council.[8] The only Republican on the ballot, she won the race and rejoined the Council.[8][9][10]

In 1998, Schwartz ran for mayor for the third time, campaigning for "safe streets, good schools, a clean environment."[11] She lost to Democrat Anthony A. Williams, tallying 30 percent of the vote.[12] She successfully ran for reelection to the Council in 2000.[13]

2002–2005[edit]

In 2002, Schwartz decided not to run officially in the Republican primary for mayor, but said she would consider running in general election if she won the write-in vote in the primary election.[14][15] Schwartz attacked Williams' record as mayor, saying that his "stewardship has been marred by ethical lapses, questionable judgment and a cold lack of compassion for our poorest and most helpless citizens."[15] With no individual's name on the ballot for mayor in the Republican primary, Republican voters could only write-in a candidate's name for mayor. Williams was forced into a write-in campaign in the Democratic primary after many of his petitions to run on the Democratic ballot were found to be invalid.[16] Williams ended up winning not only the Democratic primary as a write-in candidate, but he also won the Republican primary as a write-in candidate, receiving 1,707 votes compared to Schwartz's 999.[16][17] The District of Columbia Board of Elections and Ethics declared Williams the winner of the Democratic primary, but it also declared that there was no winner in the Republican primary.[16] The Board allowed the Republican committee to choose a Republican nominee for mayor in the general election, and the committee chose Schwartz.[18] Schwartz accepted the Republican nomination, officially entering the election for mayor for the fourth time.[18] Schwartz received 34% of the vote in the general election while Williams received 61%.[19]

In 2004, Schwartz successfully ran for reelection to the Council.[20]

In 2005, to mock supporters of the proposed smoking ban in D.C. bars, she introduced legislation to "ban the sale of alcohol in all bars, restaurants and nightclubs", arguing that alcohol, like cigarettes, is unhealthy.[21][22] Schwartz, a 40-year smoker who kicked the habit in 2001, explained her position by telling The Washington Post: "I like freedom of choice about abortion and nude dancing – consenting adults should have choices."[23] Instead of prohibiting smoking in all restaurants and bars, Schwartz favored giving tax credits to those establishments that voluntarily prohibit smoking on their premises.[24]

2007–2008[edit]

Carol Schwartz speaks at a voting rights rally in Georgetown, on December 16, 2007, the anniversary of the Boston Tea Party.

In 2007 and 2008, Schwartz shepherded the Accrued Sick and Safe Leave Act through the Council. The law, which was adopted in March 2008, requires District employers to give their workers paid time off to address their health needs or those of a family member.[25] The bill faced significant opposition from the District's business community, as well as from several of Schwartz's colleagues on the Council.[26] The law made the District the second jurisdiction in the U.S. to create a mandated sick leave requirement, following San Francisco. The D.C. law represents the first time a paid sick days requirement was adopted by a city- or state-level legislative body in the U.S.; the San Francisco law was adopted as a ballot initiative.[25] The D.C. law also represents the first law to require employers to offer time paid time off to victims of stalking, sexual assault, or domestic violence who need time off to seek medical care, shelter, counseling, a court order, or other services related to the domestic violence. The San Francisco law does not require paid leave for this purpose.[27]

2008 reelection campaign[edit]

Schwartz ran for reelection to the Council in 2008.[28] Patrick Mara, a government relations consultant, ran against her in the Republican primary election.[29][30]

Mara depicted Schwartz as "not representative of core urban Republican values."[4] He did not consider her a fiscal conservative, saying that Schwartz "did nothing to halt a 51 percent increase in the D.C. budget in four years."[31] In response, Schwartz noted another council member who voted for the budget increases was David Catania, whom Mara has said he admires.[32] Mara disagreed with the idea that Schwartz is an outsider battling the system because she is part of the system.[31] Schwartz questioned the source of Mara's campaign money, saying that 85 percent of Mara's contributions were given by special interests and sources outside the District.[32] At the time, Schwartz said it was unlikely she would run as an independent in the general election if she were to lose the Republican primary.[33]

The D.C. Republican Party endorsed Schwartz in the primary, pointing out her "record advocating for DC taxpayers"; in response, Mara predicted that the party would ultimately "regret" that decision.[34] The Service Employees International Union Local 722 also endorsed Schwartz due to her support of the sick leave bill.[4] The Washington Post endorsed Mara.[35][36] The business community strongly supported Mara, largely because of Schwartz's bill requiring businesses to allow paid sick leave for employees, a bill of which Schwartz was particularly proud.[37] The Greater Washington Board of Trade and the D.C. Chamber of Commerce PAC both endorsed Mara and raised money for his campaign.[38][39]

According to unofficial results released on September 10, Mara had received 60 percent of votes, while Schwartz received 40 percent.[40] At around 9:15 pm on the day of the primary, Schwartz seemed to admit defeat, saying that "We've just got to deal with reality here."[40] Schwartz said she would not endorse Mara in the general election because of the "guttural nature of the campaign."[41] Schwartz also said she would "never wage a write-in campaign" in the general election.[41]

On September 15, Schwartz announced that she would run as a write-in candidate in the general election.[42] Schwartz said that a "huge outpouring of support" had urged her to either run as an independent candidate, which she would not do, or a write-in candidate.[43][44] Schwartz noted that while Mara won the 2008 Republican primary with 2,234 votes and 12.6 percent of Republicans voting, she had won the 2004 general election with 93,743 votes.[43][45] She said that the "few voters" who had decided the outcome of the Republican primary should not decide the general election "for the rest of us".[44] Schwartz said she was also motivated to run due to Mara's "extremely nasty, dishonest and unfair efforts to undermine my record", as well as his efforts in convincing local college students "with no real vested interest in the District" to register as Republicans in the District.[44][46]

In response, Mara said that his campaign materials were based on Schwartz's votes and actions, that he had visited thousands of Republican voters' homes, and that he had only convinced 15 college students to register as Republicans in the District.[46] Mara considered Schwartz's decision unsurprising and "pretty neutral" to his general election campaign.[46][47] Mara said he would "welcome any and all challengers in the general election."[46]

Endorsements in the general election were varied. The D.C. Republican party,[11] Log Cabin Republicans of D.C.,[48] and the Greater Washington Board of Trade[49] all support Mara. The editorial board of The Washington Post published an endorsement of both Mara and incumbent Democrat Kwame Brown.[50] The Fraternal Order of Police has endorsed Schwartz.[51] Service Employees International Union Local 722,[51] the political action committee of the Hotel Association of Washington,[52] and the news editor of The Georgetown Voice[53] supports Michael Brown. Among current council members, Jim Graham, Muriel Bowser, and Phil Mendelson endorsed Schwartz.[54] Vincent Gray, Harry Thomas, Jr., David Catania, and Marion Barry endorsed Michael Brown.[54]

In the general election, Mara was on the ballot with four other individuals. Democrat Kwame Brown is seeking reelection. David Schwartzman won the primary of the D.C. Statehood Green Party.[29] Three candidates, all formerly registered as Democrats, were listed as independents on the ballot: lobbyist Michael Brown, ANC commissioner Dee Hunter, and Mark H. Long.[55][56][57][58]

Kwame Brown received 48 percent of votes, earning him reelection to the council, and Michael Brown received 20 percent, giving him the seat formerly occupied by Schwartz.[59][60] In third place, write-in votes, including votes for Schwartz, comprised 11 percent.[59][61]

Ideology[edit]

Schwartz is a moderate Republican; fiscally conservative and socially liberal. She opposes redirecting public money toward private and religious school through school vouchers and supports allowing smoking and nude dancing in bars. A fiscal conservative, she supports reducing taxes and smaller government budgets.[5] She has blocked legislation requiring large retailers to pay a higher minimum wage to their employees.[31][3][8]

Schwartz supports abortion rights,[5] is popular among the gay community in Washington,[62] and has been supportive of gay rights causes.[8] Schwartz favors domestic partnerships,[63] but she opposed instituting same-sex marriage in Washington.[64] She said her opposition stems not from her opposition to same-sex marriage, but her belief that it would engender a backlash from Congress.[62][64] Schwartz believed that Congress would quickly repeal the law and seek to overturn pro-gay legislation in the District, such as the domestic partnership registry and gay adoption law.[62][64] She said she probably would have voted in favor of a bill to establish same-sex marriage in the District if she were certain Congress would allow it.[65] Schwartz has voted for legislation prohibiting insurance companies from discriminating against people with AIDS.[5] Schwartz is opposed to including former criminals as protected classes in the District's human rights law, saying that jewelry stores should have the right not to hire convicted jewel thieves.[31]

Schwartz also opposed the extension of the District's youth curfew in 2007.[66] Schwartz voted in favor of the Accrued Sick and Safe Leave Act, which requires District employers to give their employees paid sick leave.[25] Schwartz is in favor of instituting capital punishment.[11]

While Schwartz supports giving the District full representation in Congress[67] and full control over its own affairs,[68] she does not favor statehood for the District, saying, "Statehood would be cutting off our nose to spite our face. We shouldn't give up our unique status as the national capital."[68]

Personal Life[edit]

Schwartz's son is singer-songwriter Doug Levitt[69]

Election history[edit]


1986 Mayor of the District of Columbia, General Election[70]

Marion Barry Jr. (D) 61%
Carol Schwartz (R) 33%
other 6%

1994 Mayor of the District of Columbia, Republican Primary Election[71]

Carol Schwartz (R) 75%
Brian Patrick Moore (R) 13%
Write-in 12%

1994 Mayor of the District of Columbia, General Election[7]

Marion Barry Jr. (D) 56%
Carol Schwartz (R) 42%
Curtis Pree (I) 0%
Jodean M. Marks (STG) 0%
Jesse Battle, Jr. (I) 0%
Faith (I) 0%
Aaron Ruby (I) 0%
Write-in 1%

1996 Council of the District of Columbia, At Large, Republican Primary Election[9]

Carol Schwartz (R) 96%
Write-in 4%

1996 Council of the District of Columbia, At Large, General Election[10]

Harold Brazil (D) 43%
Carol Schwartz (R) 29%
Sam Jordan (STG) 7%
Mark Thompson (Umoja) 6%
Valencia Mohammed (I) 6%
James Baxter (I) 5%
Robert Hamilton Jr. (I) 1%
Ernest (Ernie) Brooks (I) 1%
Don Folden Sr. (I) 1%
Write-in 0%

1998 Mayor of the District of Columbia, Republican Primary Election[72]

Carol Schwartz (R) 89%
Write-in 12%

1998 Mayor of the District of Columbia, General Election[12]

Anthony "Tony" Williams (D) 66%
Carol Schwartz (R) 30%
John Gloster (STG) 2%
Alpha Brown (I) 0%
Brian P. Moore (I) 0%
Faith (I) 0%
Sam Manuel (SWP) 0%
Albert Ceccone (I) 0%
Write-in 0%

2000 Council of the District of Columbia, At Large, Republican Primary Election[73]

Carol Schwartz (R) 97%
Write-in 3%

2000 Council of the District of Columbia, At Large, General Election[13]

Harold Brazil (D) 51%
Carol Schwartz (R) 29%
Arturo Griffiths (STG) 11%
Daphne M. McBryde (I) 4%
Chris Ray (I) 2%
Matthew G. Mercurio (LIB) 2%
Write-in 0%

2002 Mayor of the District of Columbia, General Election[19]

Anthony "Tony" Williams (D) 61%
Carol Schwartz (R) 34%
Steve Donkin (STG) 2%
Tricia Kinch (I) 1%
Sam Manuel (SWP) 1%
Write-in 1%

2004 Council of the District of Columbia, At Large, Republican Primary Election[74]

Carol Schwartz (R) 83%
Robert Pittman (R) 11%
Don Folden, Sr. (R) 3%
Write-in 3%

2004 Council of the District of Columbia, At Large, General Election[20]

Kwame R. Brown (D) 55%
Carol Schwartz (R) 31%
Laurent Ross (STG) 8%
A.D. "Tony" Dominguez (I) 5%
Write-in 1%

2008 Council of the District of Columbia, At Large, Republican Primary Election[75]

Patrick Mara (R) 59%
Carol Schwartz (R) 41%
Write-in <1%

2008 Council of the District of Columbia, At Large, General Election Certified Results[59]

Kwame R. Brown (D) 48%
Michael A. Brown (D) 20%
Write-in, including Carol Schwartz (R) 11%
Patrick Mara (R) 10%
David Schwartzman (STG) 5%
Mark H. Long (I) 4%
Dee Hunter (I) 2%

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Councilmember Carol Schwartz - Biography". Office of Councilmember Carol Schwartz. Retrieved 2008-03-18. 
  2. ^ Debonis, Mike (June 9, 2014). "Carol Schwartz, former D.C. Council member, launches independent mayoral campaign". The Washington Post. 
  3. ^ a b c d Sherwood, Tom. "Schwartz's Life a Tale of Drive and Prejudice". The Washington Post. P. A01. October 20, 1986.
  4. ^ a b c Stewart, Nikita. "Primary Pits Schwartz In a GOP Showdown". The Washington Post. September 2, 2008. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Slacum, Greene, Marcia. "Schwartz Touts a Lack of Political Baggage". The Washington Post. p. D01. October 26, 1998.
  6. ^ Melton, R.H. (October 17, 1984). "Why Schwartz Runs: 'I Have No Choice'". The Washington Post. p. B01. 
  7. ^ a b "Final and Complete Election Results". District of Columbia Board of Elections and Ethics. 1994-11-18. 
  8. ^ a b c d Janofsky, Michael (1994-10-14). "The 1994 Campaign: In the Capital; Republican Strives Against Brutal Odds in Her Quest Against Marion Barry". The New York Times. 
  9. ^ a b "Final and Complete Election Results". District of Columbia Board of Elections and Ethics. 1996-09-10. 
  10. ^ a b "Final and Complete Election Results". District of Columbia Board of Elections and Ethics. 1996-11-05. 
  11. ^ a b c Powell, Michael (1998-06-18). "Schwartz Launches Third Bid for Mayor". The Washington Post. p. D01. 
  12. ^ a b "Final and Complete Election Results". District of Columbia Board of Elections and Ethics. 1998-11-13. 
  13. ^ a b "Final and Complete Election Results". District of Columbia Board of Elections and Ethics. 2000-11-17. 
  14. ^ Timberg, Craig; Becker, Jo. "Write-Ins, Shoo-Ins: Primary Has It All". The Washington Post. p. B01. September 10, 2002.
  15. ^ a b Timberg, Craig. "Williams's Record at Core of Mayoral Rematch". The Washington Post. p.DZ03. October 31, 2002.
  16. ^ a b c Silverman, Elissa. "What the Hell". Washington City Paper]. October 10, 2002.
  17. ^ Nakamura, David. "Write-ins Push Schwartz To Ponder Mayoral Run". The Washington Post. p. A18. September 13, 2002.
  18. ^ a b Timberg, Craig. "Schwartz Enters Race, Hits Williams on Ethics". The Washington Post. p. A01. September 27, 2002.
  19. ^ a b "Certification Results". District of Columbia Board of Elections and Ethics. 2002-11-21. 
  20. ^ a b "Certified Summary Results" (PDF). District of Columbia Board of Elections and Ethics. 2004-11-18. 
  21. ^ "Schwartz Statement on Alcohol Ban" (Press release). Office of Councilmember Carol Schwartz. 2005-06-21. 
  22. ^ Weiss, Eric M. (2005-06-22). "In D.C., a Round of Satire; Smoking Bill Foe Mockingly Proposes Ban on Booze". The Washington Post. p. B01. 
  23. ^ Fisher, Marc (2005-06-09). "D.C. Should Keep the Freedom In Smoke-Free". The Washington Post. p. B01. 
  24. ^ Chibbaro, Jr., Lou (2004-04-09). "Clinic criticized for 'silence' on smoking ban". The Washington Blade. 
  25. ^ a b c Stewart, Nikita (2008-03-05). "Council Approves Sick Leave In District". The Washington Post. p. B01. 
  26. ^ O'Connell, Jonathan (2008-02-06). "Paid Leave Bill Wins First D.C. Council Vote". The Washington Business Journal. 
  27. ^ Jobs with Justice (2008-03-14). "DC Passes Historic Paid Sick Leave Legislation". PoliticalAffairs.Net. 
  28. ^ DeBonis, Mike. Finally! Schwartz Announces Re-Election Bid. Washington City Paper. 2008-06-09.
  29. ^ a b District of Columbia Board of Elections and Ethics (2008-08-01). "List of Candidates in Ballot Order for the September 9, 2008 Congressional and Council Primary Election". Retrieved 2008-08-12. 
  30. ^ Nakamura, David A. Board of Trade Endorses Mara Over Schwartz. The Washington Post. 2008-07-21. Retrieved 2008-07-29.
  31. ^ a b c d Fisher, Marc. "D.C. Benefits From Schwartz's Fight Against Corruption". The Washington Post. September 4, 2008. Retrieved September 6, 2008.
  32. ^ a b DeBonis, Mike. "Schwartz and Mara Get Catty". Washington City Paper. August 21, 2008. Retrieved September 10, 2008.
  33. ^ Fisher, Marc. "Asking The Tough Questions: D.C.'s Carol Schwartz". The Washington Post. September 4, 2008. Retrieved September 10, 2008.
  34. ^ Davis, Marcia. "GOP Committee Hands Schwartz Unanimous Endorsement". The Washington Post. June 26, 2008. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
  35. ^ "Local Elections Heat Up in D.C." WTTG. Fox Television Stations, Inc. September 3, 2008. Retrieved September 6, 2008.
  36. ^ "The D.C. Council Primary". The Washington Post. September 3, 2008. Retrieved September 6, 2008.
  37. ^ Mike DeBonis, "Loose Lips: LL's Endorsement Spectacular!" Washington City Paper, Sep. 3, 2008.
  38. ^ DeBonis, Mike. "Mara Wins Chamber Endorsement". Washington City Paper. September 16, 2008.
  39. ^ Plumb, Tierney. "Carol Schwartz not ready to throw in the towel". Washington Business Journal. September 16, 2008. Retrieved September 16, 2008.
  40. ^ a b Stewart, Nikita; Harris, Hamil R.; Silverman, Elissa. "Elections Officials Stand by D.C. Primary Results". The Washington Post. September 10, 2008. Retrieved September 10, 2008.
  41. ^ a b Wemple, Erik. "Carol Concedes!" Washington City Paper. September 9, 2008. Retrieved September 10, 2008.
  42. ^ Davis, Marcia. "Schwartz to Run as Write-In". The Washington Post. September 15, 2008. Retrieved September 15, 2008.
  43. ^ a b "Schwartz Launches Write-In Campaign". WJLA. WJLA/NewsChannel 8. September 15, 2008. Retrieved September 15, 2008.
  44. ^ a b c DeBonis, Mike. "Carol: 'Reports of my Death Are Greatly Exaggerated'". Washington City Paper. September 15, 2008. Retrieved September 15, 2008.
  45. ^ "Schwartz to Run Write-in Campaign for At-Large Council Seat". WRC. NBC Universal, Inc. September 15, 2008. Retrieved September 15, 2008.
  46. ^ a b c d DeBonis, Mike. "Mara on Carol: 'A Pretty Neutral Move'". Washington City Paper. September 15, 2008. Retrieved September 15, 2008.
  47. ^ Lipscomb, David C. "Defeated Schwartz to run again as write-in". Washington Times. September 16, 2008. Retrieved September 16, 2008.
  48. ^ Chibbaro, Jr., Lou. "Gay vote could be decisive in at-large Council race". Washington Blade. October 17, 2008. Retrieved October 21, 2008.
  49. ^ Harris, Hamil R. "Mara Picks Up More Business Support". The Washington Post. October 8, 2008. Retrieved October 23, 2008.
  50. ^ "For D.C. Council". The Washington Post. Page A18. October 22, 2008. Retrieved October 23, 2008.
  51. ^ a b Stewart, Nikita R. "FOP Still Likes Carol". The Washington Post. October 16, 2008. Retrieved October 23, 2008.
  52. ^ Stewart, Nikita R. "H.O.T.E.L. For M.I.K.E." The Washington Post. October 9, 2008. Retrieved October 27, 2008.
  53. ^ Brint, Juliana. "Michael Brown for D.C. Council". The Georgetown Voice. October 16, 2008. Retrieved October 23, 2008.
  54. ^ a b Davis, Marcia. "Council Members Endorse Schwartz". The Washington Post. October 30, 2008.
  55. ^ Chibbaro Jr., Lou. Clampitt withdraws from Council race, endorses Brown. Washington Blade. 2008-07-18. Retrieved 2008-07-29.
  56. ^ District of Columbia Board of Elections and Ethics (2008-08-29). "List of Candidates in the November 4, 2008 Presidential General Election". Retrieved 2008-08-29. 
  57. ^ Stewart, Nikita. "D.C.'s Schwartz Decides to Fight". The Washington Post. September 16, 2008. Retrieved September 16, 2008.
  58. ^ Birnbaum, Michael. "More Choices for Voters in November". The Washington Post. September 4, 2008. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
  59. ^ a b c "General Election 2008 Certified Results". District of Columbia Board of Elections and Ethics. November 17, 2008.
  60. ^ Stewart, Nikita. "Schwartz Concedes To Michael Brown". The Washington Post. November 5, 2008.
  61. ^ O'Connell, Jonathan. "Carol Schwartz, Patrick Mara lose D.C. Council race". Washington Business Journal. November 5, 2008.
  62. ^ a b c Crea, Joe (2004-10-01). "Schwartz won't budge on gay marriage". The Washington Blade. 
  63. ^ Chibbaro, Jr., Lou (2004-03-19). "D.C. GOP'ers split on marriage". The Washington Blade. 
  64. ^ a b c Schwartz, Carol. Still fighting for a better tomorrow. Washington City Paper. 2008-05-30.
  65. ^ Chibbaro, Jr., Lou. "D.C. Council may take up gay marriage bill in ‘09". Washington Blade. September 19, 2008. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
  66. ^ Clark, Ashlee (2007-06-22). "D.C. Council Rejects Earlier Youth Curfew". The Washington Post. p. B04. 
  67. ^ Schwartz, Carol (2007-03-22). "D.C. Voting: A GOP Issue". The Washington Post. p. A21. 
  68. ^ a b May, Clifford D. (1989-01-11). "Washington Talk: Home Rule; Rumblings Rise Anew On Status Of Capital". The New York Times. 
  69. ^ Austermuhle, Martin (Feb 28, 2012). "DCist Interview: The Greyhound Diaries' Doug Levitt". DCist. 
  70. ^ "Barry Elected to Third Term As Mayor of Nation's Capital". Associated Press (The New York Times). 1986-11-07. 
  71. ^ "Final and Complete Election Results". District of Columbia Board of Elections and Ethics. 1994-09-23. 
  72. ^ "Final and Complete Election Results". District of Columbia Board of Elections and Ethics. 1998-09-25. 
  73. ^ "Final and Complete Election Results". District of Columbia Board of Elections and Ethics. 2000-09-22. 
  74. ^ "Certified Results". District of Columbia Board of Elections and Ethics. 2004-09-14. 
  75. ^ "Certified Results, Primary Election, 2008". District of Columbia Board of Elections and Ethics. 2008-09-26. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 

External links[edit]

Council of the District of Columbia
Preceded by
Jerry Moore
Member of the Council of the District of Columbia
At-large

1985–1989
Succeeded by
William Lightfoot
Preceded by
William Lightfoot
Member of the Council of the District of Columbia
At-large

1997–2009
Succeeded by
Michael Brown
Party political offices
Preceded by
Brooke Lee
Republican nominee for Mayor of the District of Columbia
1986
Succeeded by
Maurice Turner
Preceded by
Maurice Turner
Republican nominee for Mayor of the District of Columbia
1994, 1998, 2002
Succeeded by
David Kranich