Lord Chancellor of France

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In France, under the Old Regime, the Great Officer of State responsible for the judiciary was the Lord Chancellor of France. The Lord Chancellor was responsible for seeing that royal decrees were enrolled and registered by the sundry Parlements of the Realm. However, since the Lord Chancellor was appointed for life, and might fall from favour, or be too ill to carry out his duties, his duties would occasionally fall to his deputy, the Lord Keeper of the Seals of France. The last Chancellor died in 1790, by which time the French Revolution was well underway, and the position was left vacant. Instead, in 1791, the Chancellor's portfolio and responsibilities were assigned to the Keeper of the Seals who was accordingly given the additional title of Minister of Justice under the Revolutionary government. The modern Minister of Justice is ceremonially known by both titles.

Lord Chancellors of France until 1699[edit]

Chancellors of France[edit]

Chancellor Began Ended
Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain 5 September 1699 1 July 1714
Daniel Voysin de La Noiraye 2 July 1714 2 February 1717
Henri François d'Aguesseau 3 February 1717 27 October 1750
Guillaume de Lamoignon de Blancmesnil 10 December 1750 14 September 1768
René Nicolas de Maupeou 16 September 1768 1 July 1790

Keepers of the Seals, 1699–1790[edit]

Keeper of the Seals Began Ended
Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain 5 September 1699 1 July 1714
Daniel Voysin de La Noiraye 2 July 1714 2 February 1717
Henri François d'Aguesseau 3 February 1717 28 January 1718
Marc René de Voyer de Paulmy, marquis d'Argenson 28 January 1718 7 June 1720
Henri François d'Aguesseau 8 June 1720 28 February 1722
Joseph Jean Baptiste Fleuriau d'Armenonville 28 February 1722 17 August 1727
Germain Louis Chauvelin 23 August 1727 20 February 1737
Henri François d'Aguesseau 20 February 1737 27 November 1750
Jean-Baptiste de Machault d'Arnouville 27 November 1750 1 February 1757
vacant 1 February 1757 13 October 1761
Nicolas René Berryer 13 October 1761 15 September 1762
Paul Esprit Feydeau de Brou 27 September 1762 3 October 1763
René Charles de Maupeou 3 October 1763 18 September 1768
René Nicolas de Maupeou 18 September 1768 24 August 1774
Armand Thomas Hue de Miromesnil 24 August 1774 8 April 1787
Chrétien François de Lamoignon de Basville 8 April 1787 14 September 1788
Charles Louis François de Paule de Barentin 17 September 1788 3 August 1789
Jérôme Champion de Cicé 4 August 1789 21 November 1790

Ministers of Justice, 1790–1944[edit]

Minister Began Ended
Marguerite-Louis-François Duport-Dutertre 21 November 1790 23 March 1792
Jean-Marie Roland de la Platière 23 March 1792 14 April 1792
Antoine Duranthon 14 April 1792 4 July 1792
Étienne Louis Hector Dejoly 4 July 1792 10 August 1792
Georges Danton 10 August 1792 9 October 1792
Dominique Joseph Garat 9 October 1792 20 March 1793
Louis Jérôme Gohier 20 March 1793 20 April 1794
none 20 April 1794 3 November 1795
Philippe Antoine Merlin de Douai 3 November 1795 5 January 1796
Jean Joseph Victor Génissieu 5 January 1796 4 April 1796
Philippe Antoine Merlin de Douai 4 April 1796 24 September 1797
Charles Joseph Mathieu Lambrechts 24 September 1797 20 July 1799
Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès 20 July 1799 25 December 1799
André Joseph Abrial 25 December 1799 14 September 1802
Claude Régnier, duc de Massa 14 September 1802 20 November 1813
Louis-Mathieu Molé 20 November 1813 1 April 1814
Pierre Paul Nicolas, baron Henrion de Pansey 3 April 1814 13 May 1814
Charles, chevalier Dambray 13 May 1814 20 March 1815
Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès, duc de Parme 20 March 1815 22 June 1815
Antoine, comte Boulay de la Meurthe 22 June 1815 7 July 1815
Étienne Denis, baron Pasquier 9 July 1815 26 September 1815
François, comte de Barbé-Marbois 26 September 1815 7 May 1816
Charles, chevalier Dambray 7 May 1816 19 January 1817
Étienne Denis, baron Pasquier 19 January 1817 29 December 1818
Pierre François Hercule, comte de Serre 29 December 1818 14 December 1821
Charles Ignace, comte de Peyronnet 14 December 1821 4 January 1828
Joseph Marie, comte Portalis 4 January 1828 14 May 1829
Pierre Alpinien Bertrand Bourdeau 14 May 1829 8 August 1829
Jean Joseph Antoine de Courvoisier 8 August 1829 19 May 1830
Jean de Chantelauze 19 May 1830 31 July 1830
Jacques Charles Dupont de l'Eure 31 July 1830 27 December 1830
Joseph Mérilhou 27 December 1830 13 March 1831
Félix Barthe 13 March 1831 4 April 1834
Jean Persil 4 April 1834 22 February 1836
Paul Sauzet 22 February 1836 6 September 1836
Jean Persil 6 September 1836 15 April 1837
Félix Barthe 15 April 1837 31 March 1839
Louis Gaspard Amédée, baron Girod de l'Ain 31 March 1839 12 May 1839
Jean-Baptiste Teste 12 May 1839 1 March 1840
Alexandre François Vivien 1 March 1840 29 October 1840
Nicolas Martin du Nord 29 October 1840 12 March 1847
Michel Pierre Alexis Hébert 14 March 1847 24 February 1848
Adolphe Crémieux 24 February 1848 7 June 1848
Eugène Bethmont 7 June 1848 17 July 1848
Alexandre Marie 17 July 1848 20 December 1848
Eugène Rouher 20 December 1848 26 October 1851
Joseph Corbin 26 October 1851 1 November 1851
Alfred Daviel 1 November 1851 3 December 1851
Eugène Rouher 3 December 1851 22 January 1852
Jacques Abbatucci 22 January 1852 11 November 1857
Paul de Royer 11 November 1857 5 May 1859
Claude Alphonse Delangle 5 May 1859 23 June 1863
Jules Baroche 23 June 1863 17 July 1869
Jean-Baptiste Duvergier 17 July 1869 2 January 1870
Émile Ollivier 2 January 1870 10 August 1870
Michel Grandperret 10 August 1870 4 September 1870
Adolphe Crémieux 4 September 1870 19 February 1871
Jules Dufaure 19 February 1871 25 May 1873
Jean Ernoul 25 May 1873 26 November 1873
Octave Depeyre 26 November 1873 22 May 1874
Adrien Tailhand 22 May 1874 10 March 1875
Jules Dufaure 10 March 1875 12 December 1876
Louis Martel 12 December 1876 17 May 1877
Albert, duc de Broglie 17 May 1877 23 November 1877
François Le Pelletier 23 November 1877 13 December 1877
Jules Dufaure 13 December 1877 4 February 1879
Philippe Le Royer 4 February 1879 28 December 1879
Jules Cazot 28 December 1879 30 January 1882
Gustave Humbert 30 January 1882 7 August 1882
Paul Devès 7 August 1882 21 February 1883
Félix Martin-Feuillée 21 February 1883 6 April 1885
Henri Brisson 6 April 1885 7 January 1886
Charles Demôle 7 January 1886 11 December 1886
Ferdinand Sarrien 11 December 1886 30 May 1887
Charles Mazeau 30 May 1887 30 November 1887
Armand Fallières 30 November 1887 3 April 1888
Jean-Baptiste Ferrouillat 3 April 1888 5 February 1889
Edmond Guyot-Dessaigne 5 February 1889 22 February 1889
François Thévenet 22 February 1889 17 March 1890
Armand Fallières 17 March 1890 27 February 1892
Louis Ricard 27 February 1892 6 December 1892
Léon Bourgeois 6 December 1892 12 March 1893
Jules Develle 12 March 1893 13 March 1893
Léon Bourgeois 13 March 1893 4 April 1893
Eugène Guérin 4 April 1893 3 December 1893
Antonin Dubost 3 December 1893 30 May 1894
Eugène Guérin 30 May 1894 26 January 1895
Ludovic Trarieux 26 January 1895 1 November 1895
Louis Ricard 1 November 1895 29 April 1896
Jean-Baptiste Darlan 29 April 1896 2 December 1897
Victor Milliard 2 December 1897 28 June 1898
Ferdinand Sarrien 28 June 1898 1 November 1898
Georges Lebret 1 November 1898 22 June 1899
Ernest Monis 22 June 1899 7 June 1902
Ernest Vallé 7 June 1902 24 January 1905
Joseph Chaumié 24 January 1905 14 March 1906
Ferdinand Sarrien 14 March 1906 25 October 1906
Edmond Guyot-Dessaigne 25 October 1906 31 December 1907
Aristide Briand 4 January 1908 24 July 1909
Louis Barthou 24 July 1909 3 November 1910
Théodore Girard 3 November 1910 2 March 1911
Antoine Perrier 2 March 1911 27 June 1911
Jean Cruppi 27 June 1911 14 January 1912
Aristide Briand 14 January 1912 21 January 1913
Louis Barthou 21 January 1913 22 March 1913
Antony Ratier 22 March 1913 9 December 1913
Jean-Baptiste Bienvenu-Martin 9 December 1913 9 June 1914
Alexandre Ribot 9 June 1914 13 June 1914
Jean-Baptiste Bienvenu-Martin 13 June 1914 26 August 1914
Aristide Briand 26 August 1914 29 October 1915
René Viviani 29 October 1915 12 September 1917
Raoul Péret 12 September 1917 16 November 1917
Louis Nail 16 November 1917 20 January 1920
Gustave L'Hopiteau 20 January 1920 16 January 1921
Laurent Bonnevay 16 January 1921 15 January 1922
Louis Barthou 15 January 1922 5 October 1922
Maurice Colrat 5 October 1922 29 March 1924
Edmond Lefebvre du Prey 29 March 1924 9 June 1924
Antony Ratier 9 June 1924 14 June 1924
René Renoult 14 June 1924 17 April 1925
Théodore Steeg 17 April 1925 11 October 1925
Anatole de Monzie 11 October 1925 29 October 1925
Camille Chautemps 29 October 1925 28 November 1925
René Renoult 28 November 1925 9 March 1926
Pierre Laval 9 March 1926 19 July 1926
Maurice Colrat 19 July 1926 23 July 1926
Louis Barthou 23 July 1926 3 November 1929
Lucien Hubert 3 November 1929 21 February 1930
Théodore Steeg 21 February 1930 2 March 1930
Raoul Péret 2 March 1930 17 November 1930
Henry Chéron 17 November 1930 27 January 1931
Léon Bérard 27 January 1931 20 February 1932
Paul Reynaud 20 February 1932 3 June 1932
René Renoult 3 June 1932 18 December 1932
Abel Gardey 18 December 1932 31 January 1933
Eugène Penancier 31 January 1933 26 October 1933
Albert Dalimier 26 October 1933 26 November 1933
Eugène Raynaldy 26 November 1933 27 January 1934
Eugène Penancier 27 January 1934 9 February 1934
Henry Chéron 9 February 1934 15 October 1934
Henry Lémery 15 October 1934 8 November 1934
Georges Pernot 8 November 1934 7 June 1935
Léon Bérard 7 June 1935 4 June 1936
Marc Rucart 4 June 1936 22 June 1937
Vincent Auriol 22 June 1937 18 January 1938
César Campinchi 18 January 1938 13 March 1938
Marc Rucart 13 March 1938 10 April 1938
Paul Reynaud 10 April 1938 1 November 1938
Paul Marchandeau 1 November 1938 13 September 1939
Georges Bonnet 13 September 1939 21 March 1940
Albert Sérol 21 March 1940 16 June 1940
Charles Frémicourt 16 June 1940 12 July 1940
Raphaël Alibert 12 July 1940 27 January 1941
Joseph Barthélemy 27 January 1941 26 March 1943
Maurice Gabolde 26 March 1943 19 August 1944

Free French Commissioners for Justice, 1941–1944[edit]

Commissioner Began Ended
René Cassin 24 September 1941 7 June 1943
Jules Abadie 7 June 1943 4 September 1943
François de Menthon 4 September 1943 10 September 1944

Ministers of Justice, 1944–present[edit]

Minister Began Ended
François de Menthon 10 September 1944 30 May 1945
Pierre-Henri Teitgen 30 May 1945 18 December 1946
Paul Ramadier 18 December 1946 22 January 1947
André Marie 22 January 1947 26 July 1948
Robert Lecourt 26 July 1948 11 September 1948
André Marie 11 September 1948 13 February 1949
Robert Lecourt 13 February 1949 28 October 1949
René Mayer 28 October 1949 11 August 1951
Edgar Faure 11 August 1951 20 January 1952
Léon Martinaud-Deplat 20 January 1952 28 June 1953
Paul Ribeyre 28 June 1953 19 June 1954
Émile Hugues 19 June 1954 3 September 1954
Jean-Michel Guérin de Beaumont 3 September 1954 20 January 1955
Emmanuel Temple 20 January 1955 23 February 1955
Robert Schuman 23 February 1955 1 February 1956
François Mitterrand 1 February 1956 13 June 1957
Édouard Corniglion-Molinier 13 June 1957 6 November 1957
Robert Lecourt 6 November 1957 1 June 1958
Michel Debré 1 June 1958 8 January 1959
Edmond Michelet 8 January 1959 24 August 1961
Bernard Chenot 24 August 1961 15 April 1962
Jean Foyer 15 April 1962 6 April 1967
Louis Joxe 6 April 1967 30 May 1968
René Capitant 30 May 1968 28 April 1969
Jean-Marcel Jeanneney 28 April 1969 22 June 1969
René Pleven 22 June 1969 16 March 1973
Pierre Messmer 16 March 1973 6 April 1973
Jean Taittinger 6 April 1973 28 May 1974
Jean Lecanuet 28 May 1974 27 August 1976
Olivier Guichard 27 August 1976 30 March 1977
Alain Peyrefitte 30 March 1977 22 May 1981
Maurice Faure 22 May 1981 23 June 1981
Robert Badinter 23 June 1981 19 February 1986
Michel Crépeau 19 February 1986 20 March 1986
Albin Chalandon 20 March 1986 12 May 1988
Pierre Arpaillange 12 May 1988 2 October 1990
Henri Nallet 2 October 1990 2 April 1992
Michel Vauzelle 2 April 1992 29 March 1993
Pierre Méhaignerie 29 March 1993 18 May 1995
Jacques Toubon 18 May 1995 4 June 1997
Elisabeth Guigou 4 June 1997 18 October 2000
Marylise Lebranchu 18 October 2000 7 May 2002
Dominique Perben 7 May 2002 2 June 2005
Pascal Clément 2 June 2005 18 May 2007
Rachida Dati 18 May 2007 23 June 2009
Michèle Alliot-Marie 23 June 2009 14 November 2010
Michel Mercier 14 November 2010 16 May 2012
Christiane Taubira 16 May 2012 present

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The only chancellor to have been elected by an assembly gathered by Charles V.