Beauvais

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For other uses, see Beauvais (disambiguation).
Beauvais
Beauvais Mairie
Beauvais Mairie
Coat of arms of Beauvais
Coat of arms
Beauvais is located in France
Beauvais
Beauvais
Coordinates: 49°25′49″N 2°05′43″E / 49.4303°N 02.09520°E / 49.4303; 02.09520Coordinates: 49°25′49″N 2°05′43″E / 49.4303°N 02.09520°E / 49.4303; 02.09520
Country France
Region Picardy
Department Oise
Arrondissement Beauvais
Intercommunality Beauvaisis
Government
 • Mayor (2001–2014) Caroline Cayeux
Area
 • Land1 33.31 km2 (12.86 sq mi)
Population (2009)
 • Population2 54,461
 • Population2 density 1,600/km2 (4,200/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 60057 / 60000
Elevation 57–170 m (187–558 ft)
(avg. 67 m or 220 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Beauvais (French pronunciation: ​[bovɛ]) is a historic cathedral city in the northern French region of Picardy.

Beauvais Cathedral is the seat of the Bishop of Beauvais.

History[edit]

Beauvais was known to the Romans by the Gallo-Roman name of Caesaromagus (magos is Common Celtic for "field".) . The post-Renaissance Latin rendering is Bellovacum from the Belgic tribe the Bellovaci, whose capital it was. In the ninth century it became a countship, which about 1013 passed to the bishops of Beauvais, who became peers of France from the twelfth century.[1] At the coronations of kings the Bishop of Beauvais wore the royal mantle and went, with the Bishop of Langres, to raise the king from his throne to present him to the people.

De Bello Gallico II 13 reports that as Julius Caesar was approaching a fortified town called Bratuspantium in the land of the Bellovaci, its inhabitants surrendered to him when he was about 5 Roman miles away. Its name is Gaulish for "place where judgements are made", from *bratu-spantion. Some say that Bratuspantium is Beauvais. Others theorize that it is Vendeuil-Caply or Bailleul sur Thérain.[2][3]

From 1004 to 1037, the Count of Beauvais was Odo II, Count of Blois.

In a charter dated 1056/1060, Eudo of Brittany granted land "in pago Belvacensi" (Beauvais, Picardy) to the Abbey of Angers Saint-Aubin (see Albinus of Angers).

In 1346 the town had to defend itself against the English, who again besieged it in 1433. The siege which it endured in 1472 at the hands of the Duke of Burgundy, was rendered famous by the heroism of the town's women, under the leadership of Jeanne Hachette, whose memory is still celebrated by a procession on 14 October (the feast of Sainte Angadrême), during which women take precedence over men.[1]

An interesting hoard of coins from the High Middle Ages became known as the Beauvais Hoard, because some of the British and European coins found with the lot were from the French abbey located in Beauvais. The hoard, which contained a variety of rare and extremely rare Anglo-Norman pennies, English and foreign coins, was reputed to have been found in or near Paris.[4][5]

Beauvais was extensively damaged during World War I and again in World War II, during the German advance on Paris in June 1940. Much of the older part of the city was all but destroyed, and the cathedral badly damaged before being liberated by British forces on 30 August 1944.[6]

Geography[edit]

Beauvais lies at the foot of wooded hills on the left bank of the Thérain at its confluence with the Avelon. Its ancient ramparts have been destroyed, and it is now surrounded by boulevards, outside of which run branches of the Thérain. In addition, there are spacious promenades in the north-east of the town.[1]

Population[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop.   ±%  
1793 12,449 —    
1800 12,392 −0.5%
1806 13,183 +6.4%
1821 12,798 −2.9%
1831 12,867 +0.5%
1836 13,082 +1.7%
1841 13,925 +6.4%
1846 14,527 +4.3%
1851 14,216 −2.1%
1856 14,286 +0.5%
1861 15,364 +7.5%
1866 13,609 −11.4%
1872 13,541 −0.5%
1876 16,600 +22.6%
1881 17,525 +5.6%
1886 18,441 +5.2%
1891 19,382 +5.1%
1896 19,906 +2.7%
1901 20,300 +2.0%
1906 20,248 −0.3%
1911 19,841 −2.0%
1921 19,270 −2.9%
1926 19,387 +0.6%
1931 18,738 −3.3%
1936 18,869 +0.7%
1946 23,156 +22.7%
1954 26,756 +15.5%
1962 34,055 +27.3%
1968 46,859 +37.6%
1975 54,089 +15.4%
1982 52,365 −3.2%
1990 54,190 +3.5%
1999 55,371 +2.2%
2006 55,481 +0.2%
2009 54,461 −1.8%

Sights[edit]

Cathedral[edit]

Main article: Beauvais Cathedral

The city's cathedral, dedicated to Saint Peter (Cathédrale Saint-Pierre de Beauvais), in some respects the most daring achievement of Gothic architecture, consists only of a transept and quire with apse and seven apse-chapels. The vaulting in the interior exceeds 46  m in height.[1] The cathedral underwent a major repair and restoration process in 2008.

The small Romanesque church of the 10th century known as the Basse Oeuvre occupies the site destined for the nave; much of its east end was demolished to make room for the new cathedral.

Begun in 1247, under Bishop William of Grès (Guillaume de Grès, Guillaume de Grez), an extra 5 m were added to the height, to make it the tallest cathedral in Europe: the work was interrupted in 1284 by the collapse of the vaulting of the choir, a disaster that produced a temporary failure of nerve among the masons working in Gothic style. The transept was built from 1500 to 1548. In 1573 the fall of a too-ambitious central tower stopped work again, after which little addition was made.[1]

Its façades, especially that on the south, exhibit all the richness of the late Gothic style. The carved wooden doors of both the north and the south portals are masterpieces respectively of Gothic and Renaissance workmanship. The church possesses an elaborate astronomical clock (1866) and tapestries of the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries; but its chief artistic treasures are stained glass windows of the thirteenth, fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, the most beautiful of them from the hand of the Renaissance artist, Engrand Le Prince, a native of Beauvais. To him also is due some of the stained glass in St. Etienne, the second church of the town, and an interesting example of the transition stage between the Romanesque and Gothic styles.[1]

During the Middle Ages, on 14 January, the Feast of Asses was celebrated in the Beauvais Cathedral, in commemoration of the Flight into Egypt.

Other notable sites[edit]

In the Place de l'Hôtel de Ville and in the old streets near the cathedral there are several houses dating from the 12th to the 16th centuries. The Hôtel de ville, close to which stands the statue of Jeanne Hachette, was built in 1752.

The episcopal palace, now used as a court-house, was built in the 16th century, partly upon the Gallo-Roman fortifications.[1] The church of Saint-Étienne is a Romanesque-Gothic building (early 12th-late 16th centuries), including, in one of its transept's portals, a sculpture of "Wheel of Life"

Transportation[edit]

Rail transport[edit]

The train station, Gare de Beauvais, opened since 1857 is currently served by several TER lines:

Air transport[edit]

Beauvais-Tillé Airport, dating from 1930s, lies in north of the city, in Tillé. It is used as a gateway to Paris by several low-cost carriers. Traffic growth is significant: in 1997, 200,000 passengers used it annually, but by 2006, it was more than 1.8 million. Airport usage increased by 40% a year on average between 2001 and 2005. The airport is mainly used for passenger traffic (only 2 to 3 flights involve freight each month) and serves 48 destinations.

Public transport[edit]

Main article: Corolis

Public transport in Beauvais is provided by Corolis (formerly The Urban Transport network of Beauvaisis French: Transports Urbains du Beauvaisis or TUB). The transit bus (commuter bus) network consists of 25 regular lines which serve Beauvais and its suburbs, including:

  • 12 day lines
    • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 13 14
  • 3 Sunday lines.
    • 11A 11B 11C
  • 3 summer lines.
    • 10 (divided into 3 sub lines)
  • 7 Demand responsive transport lines
    • T1 T2 T3 T5 T6 T7 T8
  • 3 shuttles
    • Navette Aéroport (Airport Shuttle) Navette Parking (Parking Shuttle) Navette LaSalle (Polytechnic Institute of LaSalle Shuttle)

Environmentally friendly transportation[edit]

In an effort to promote cleaner urban transportation and protect the environment, the city began to develop a "Green Plan" (Plan vert). Ultimately, the goal is to have a network of 20 km (12 mi) bicycle paths.

Personalities[edit]

Economy[edit]

The industry of Beauvais comprises, besides the state manufacture of tapestry, which dates from 1664, the manufacture of various kinds of cotton and woollen goods, brushes, toys, boots and shoes, and bricks and tiles. Market-gardening flourishes in the vicinity and an extensive trade is carried on in grain and wine.

The town is the seat of a bishop, a prefect and a Court of Assizes; it has Tribunals of First Instance and of commerce, together with a Chamber of Commerce, a branch of the Bank of France, a higher ecclesiastical seminary, a lycée and training colleges.[1]

Amongst the major companies operating in the town are Nestle and Agco (Massey Ferguson). Also present since 1986 is RS Components, founded by Jerry Vaughan, and now operating from a purpose built distribution centre to the east of the town

Beauvais also has a small airport, Beauvais Tillé, which is used by several low-cost carrier and charter airlines such as Ryanair as a terminal for nearby Paris, to which frequent shuttle buses run.

Sport[edit]

Beauvais is home to AS Beauvais Oise, a soccer club playing in the Championnat National (as of 2006), which is supported by a fine percussion band.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Beauvais is twinned with:

Partnerships[edit]

There are also partnerships with:

  • Romania Dej, Romania, since 2003
  • Poland Tczew, Poland, since 2003

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Beauvais". Encyclopædia Britannica 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 599.  This cites V. Lhuillier, Choses du vieux Beauvais et du Beauvaisis (1896).
  2. ^ (French) http://encyclopedie.arbre-celtique.com/bratuspantium-3216.htm Encyclopédie de l'Arbre Celtique
  3. ^ Xavier Delamarre, Noms de lieux celtiques de l'Europe Ancienne (Errance, 2012) p.86
  4. ^ Coin Hoard Article[dead link]
  5. ^ Marshall Faintich. The "Beauvais" Hoard, SymbolicMessengers.com website, 2002. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
  6. ^ Hoemberg, Elisabeth, Thy People, My People, J. M. Dent & Sons, London, 1950, p. 63
  7. ^ "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District". Twins2010.com. 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009. [dead link]

External links[edit]