Hitchens speaking at the Riviera Hotel in January 2007.
|Born||Christopher Eric Hitchens
13 April 1949
Portsmouth, England, UK
|Died||15 December 2011
Houston, Texas, US
|Alma mater||The Leys School
Balliol College, Oxford
|Subjects||Politics, religion, history, biography, literature|
(m. 1981–1989; divorced)
(m. 1991–2011; his death)
|Relative(s)||Peter Hitchens (brother)|
Christopher Eric Hitchens (13 April 1949 – 15 December 2011) was a British-American author, polemicist, debater, and journalist. Hitchens contributed to New Statesman, The Nation, The Atlantic, The London Review of Books, The Times Literary Supplement and Vanity Fair. He was the author of twelve books and five collections of essays, and concentrated on a range of subjects, including politics, literature and religion. A staple of talk shows and lecture circuits, his confrontational style of debate made him both a lauded and controversial figure. Known for his contrarian stance on a number of issues, he excoriated such public figures as Mother Teresa, Bill Clinton, Henry Kissinger, Lady Diana, and Pope Benedict XVI. He was the older brother of author Peter Hitchens.
Long describing himself as a socialist, Hitchens began his break from the established political left after what he called the "tepid reaction" of the Western left to the Rushdie Affair, followed by the left's embrace of Bill Clinton, and the "anti-war" movement's opposition to intervention in Bosnia-Herzegovina—though Hitchens did not leave his position writing for The Nation until, post-9/11, he felt the magazine had arrived at a position "that John Ashcroft is a greater menace than Osama bin Laden." The September 11 attacks "exhilarated" him, bringing into focus "a battle between everything I love and everything I hate," and strengthening his embrace of an interventionist foreign policy which challenged "fascism with an Islamic face". His numerous editorials in support of the Iraq War caused some to label him a neoconservative, although Hitchens insisted he was not "a conservative of any kind", and his friend Ian McEwan described him as representing the anti-totalitarian left. Indeed, in a 2010 BBC interview, he stated that he was 'still a Marxist'.
A noted critic of religion and an antitheist, he said that a person "could be an atheist and wish that belief in god were correct", but that "an antitheist, a term I'm trying to get into circulation, is someone who is relieved that there's no evidence for such an assertion." According to Hitchens, the concept of a god or a supreme being is a totalitarian belief that destroys individual freedom, and that free expression and scientific discovery should replace religion as a means of teaching ethics and defining human civilisation. His anti-religion polemic, New York Times Bestseller, God is not Great - How Religion Poisons Everything, sold over 500,000 copies.
Hitchens died on 15 December 2011, from complications arising from oesophageal cancer, a disease that he acknowledged was more than likely due to his lifelong predilection for heavy smoking and drinking.
- 1 Life and career
- 2 Political views
- 3 Critiques of specific individuals
- 4 Views on religion
- 5 Personal life
- 6 Final illness and death
- 7 Film and television appearances
- 8 Books
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Life and career
Early life and education
His parents, Eric Ernest and Yvonne Jean (Hickman) Hitchens, met in Scotland when both were serving in the Royal Navy during World War II. His mother was a "Wren" (a member of the Women's Royal Naval Service), and his father an officer aboard the cruiser HMS Jamaica, which helped sink Nazi Germany's battleship Scharnhorst in the Battle of the North Cape. His father's naval career required the family to move a number of times from base to base throughout Britain and its dependencies, including in Malta, where Christopher's brother Peter was born in Sliema in 1951.
Hitchens’s mother, arguing "if there is going to be an upper class in this country, then Christopher is going to be in it", sent him to Mount House School in Tavistock in Devon at the age of eight, followed by the independent Leys School in Cambridge, and finally Balliol College, Oxford, where he was tutored by Steven Lukes and read philosophy, politics, and economics. Hitchens was "bowled over" in his adolescence by Richard Llewellyn's How Green Was My Valley, Arthur Koestler's Darkness at Noon, Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment, R. H. Tawney's critique on Religion and the Rise of Capitalism, and the works of George Orwell. In 1968, he took part in the TV quiz show University Challenge.
In the 1960s, Hitchens joined the political left, drawn by his anger over the Vietnam War, nuclear weapons, racism, and oligarchy, including that of "the unaccountable corporation". He expressed affinity with the politically charged countercultural and protest movements of the 1960s and 1970s. He deplored the recreational drug use of the time, which he described as hedonistic.
He joined the Labour Party in 1965, but along with the majority of the Labour students' organisation was expelled in 1967, because of what Hitchens called "Prime Minister Harold Wilson's contemptible support for the war in Vietnam".[clarification needed] Under the influence of Peter Sedgwick, who translated the writings of Russian revolutionary and Soviet dissident Victor Serge, Hitchens forged an ideological interest in Trotskyist and anti-Stalinist socialism. Shortly after he joined "a small but growing post-Trotskyist Luxemburgist sect".
Journalistic career (1970–1981)
Hitchens began working as a correspondent for the magazine International Socialism, published by the International Socialists, the forerunners of today's British Socialist Workers Party. This group was broadly Trotskyist, but differed from more orthodox Trotskyist groups in its refusal to defend communist states as "workers' states". Their slogan was "Neither Washington nor Moscow but International Socialism".
Hitchens left Oxford with a third class degree. In 1971 he went to work at the Times Higher Education Supplement where he served as a social science correspondent. Hitchens admitted that he hated the position, and was later fired: he recalled, "I sometimes think if I'd been any good at that job, I might still be doing it." Next he was a researcher for ITV's Weekend World. In 1973 he went to work for the New Statesman, where he became friends with the authors Martin Amis and Ian McEwan, among others. At the New Statesman he acquired a reputation as a fierce left-winger, aggressively attacking targets such as Henry Kissinger, the Vietnam War, and the Roman Catholic Church.
In November 1973, Hitchens’s mother committed suicide in Athens in a suicide pact with her lover, a former clergyman named Timothy Bryan. They overdosed on sleeping pills in adjoining hotel rooms, and Bryan slashed his wrists in the bathtub. Hitchens flew alone to Athens to recover his mother's body. Hitchens said he thought his mother was pressured into suicide by fear that her husband would learn of her infidelity, as their marriage had been strained and unhappy. Both her children were then independent adults. While in Greece, Hitchens reported on the constitutional crisis of the military junta. It became his first leading article for the New Statesman.
American career (1981–2011)
Hitchens went to the United States in 1981, as part of an editor exchange program between The New Statesman and The Nation. After joining The Nation, he penned vociferous critiques of Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush and American foreign policy in South and Central America. He became a contributing editor of Vanity Fair in 1992, writing ten columns a year. He left The Nation in 2002 after profoundly disagreeing with other contributors over the Iraq War. There is speculation that Hitchens was the inspiration for Tom Wolfe's character Peter Fallow in the 1987 novel The Bonfire of the Vanities, but others—including Hitchens (or he indicated as such while alive)—believe it to be Spy Magazine's "Ironman Nightlife Decathlete" Anthony Haden-Guest. In 1987, his father died from cancer of the esophagus; the same disease that would later claim his own life. In April 2007, Hitchens became a U.S. citizen. He became a media fellow at the Hoover Institution in September 2008.
Hitchens spent part of his early career in journalism as a foreign correspondent in Cyprus. Through his work there he met his first wife Eleni Meleagrou, a Greek Cypriot, with whom he had two children, Alexander and Sophia. His son, Alexander Meleagrou-Hitchens, born in 1984, has worked as a policy researcher in London. Hitchens continued writing essay-style correspondence pieces from a variety of locales, including Chad, Uganda and the Darfur region of Sudan. His work took him to over 60 countries. In 1991 he received a Lannan Literary Award for Nonfiction.
Hitchens met Carol Blue for the first time at the Los Angeles airport in 1989, and would marry her in 1991. Hitchens called it love at first sight. In 1999, as harsh critics of Clinton, Hitchens and Carol Blue submitted an affidavit to the trial managers of the Republican Party in the impeachment of Bill Clinton. Therein they swore that their then-friend, Sidney Blumenthal, had described Monica Lewinsky as a stalker. This allegation contradicted Blumenthal's own sworn deposition in the trial, and it resulted in a hostile exchange of opinion in the public sphere between Hitchens and Blumenthal. Following the publication of Blumenthal's The Clinton Wars, Hitchens wrote several pieces in which he accused Blumenthal of manipulating the facts. The incident ended their friendship and sparked a "personal crisis" for Hitchens who was stridently criticised by friends for a cynical and ultimately politically futile act.
Before Hitchens’s political shift, the American author and polemicist Gore Vidal was apt to speak of Hitchens as his "Dauphin" or "heir". In 2010, Hitchens attacked Vidal in a Vanity Fair piece headlined "Vidal Loco", calling him a "crackpot" for his adoption of 9/11 conspiracy theories. Also, on the back of his book Hitch-22, among the praise from notable figures, Vidal's endorsement of Hitchens as his successor is crossed out in red and an annotated "NO, C.H." His strong advocacy of the war in Iraq had gained Hitchens a wider readership, and in September 2005 he was named one of the "Top 100 Public Intellectuals" by Foreign Policy and Prospect magazines. An online poll ranked the 100 intellectuals, but the magazines noted that the rankings of Hitchens (5), Noam Chomsky (1), and Abdolkarim Soroush (15) were partly due to supporters publicising the vote.
In 2007 Hitchens’s work for Vanity Fair won him the National Magazine Award in the category "Columns and Commentary". He was a finalist once more in the same category in 2008 for some of his columns in Slate but lost out to Matt Taibbi of Rolling Stone. He won the National Magazine Award for Columns about Cancer in 2011. Hitchens also served on the Advisory Board of Secular Coalition for America and offered advice to Coalition on the acceptance and inclusion of nontheism in American life. In December 2011, prior to his death, Asteroid 57901 Hitchens was named after him.
Hitchens wrote a monthly essay on books in The Atlantic and contributed occasionally to other literary journals. One of his books, Unacknowledged Legislation: Writers in the Public Sphere, is a collection of such works, and Love, Poverty and War contains a section devoted to literary essays. In Why Orwell Matters, he defends Orwell's writings against modern critics as relevant today and progressive for his time. In the 2008 book Christopher Hitchens and His Critics: Terror, Iraq, and the Left, many literary critiques are included of essays and other books of writers, such as David Horowitz and Edward Said.
|My own opinion is enough for me, and I claim the right to have it defended against any consensus, any majority, anywhere, anyplace, anytime. And anyone who disagrees with this can pick a number, get in line and kiss my ass.|
|– Christopher Hitchens|
The San Francisco Chronicle referred to Hitchens as a "gadfly with gusto". In 2009, Hitchens was listed by Forbes magazine as one of the "25 most influential liberals in the U.S. media". The same article noted that he would "likely be aghast to find himself on this list", since it reduces his self-styled radicalism to mere liberalism. Hitchens's political perspective appears in his wide ranging writings, which include many of the political dialogues he published.
In 2010, Theodore Dalrymple wrote, "Christopher made an early commitment to Trotskyism, but it is difficult to take him very seriously as a revolutionary because he always has been too much of a hedonist. Indeed, he appears to me to have had roughly the same relationship to proletarians as Marie Antoinette had to sheep: They have walk-on parts in his personal drama. There is not much evidence of his having thought deeply, or even at all, about the fate, under a social system he vociferously advocated, of the pleasures he so clearly values, the liking for which I don’t in the least blame him; nor is there evidence of any real reflection on what the world would have been like had his demands been met. Not permanent revolution but permanent adolescence has been his goal, and I think he has achieved it."
Hitchens became a socialist "largely [as] the outcome of a study of history, taking sides ... in the battles over industrialism and war and empire." In 2001, he told Rhys Southan of Reason magazine that he could no longer say "I am a socialist". Socialists, he claimed, had ceased to offer a positive alternative to the capitalist system. Capitalism had become the more revolutionary economic system, and he welcomed globalisation as "innovative and internationalist", but added, "I don't think that the contradictions, as we used to say, of the system, are by any means all resolved." He stated that he had a renewed interest in the freedom of the individual from the state, but that he still considered libertarianism "ahistorical" both on the world stage and in the work of creating a stable and functional society, adding that libertarians are "more worried about the over-mighty state than the unaccountable corporation" whereas "the present state of affairs ... combines the worst of bureaucracy with the worst of the insurance companies."
In 2006, in a town hall meeting in Pennsylvania debating the Jewish Tradition with Martin Amis, Hitchens commented on his political philosophy by stating, "I am no longer a socialist, but I still am a Marxist". In a June 2010 interview with The New York Times, he stated that "I still think like a Marxist in many ways. I think the materialist conception of history is valid. I consider myself a very conservative Marxist". In 2009, in an article for The Atlantic entitled "The Revenge of Karl Marx", Hitchens frames the late-2000s recession in terms of Marx's economic analysis and notes how much Marx admired the capitalist system that he called for the end of, but says that Marx ultimately failed to grasp how revolutionary capitalist innovation was. Hitchens was an admirer of Che Guevara, yet in an essay written in 1997, he distanced himself from Che, and referred to the mythos surrounding him as a "cult". In 2004 he resumed his positive view of Che, commenting that "[Che's] death meant a lot to me and countless like me at the time. He was a role model, albeit an impossible one for us bourgeois romantics insofar as he went and did what revolutionaries were meant to do—fought and died for his beliefs."
He continued to regard Leon Trotsky and Vladmir Lenin as a great men, and the October Revolution as a necessary event in the modernisation of Russia. In 2005, Hitchens praised Lenin's creation of "secular Russia" and his discrediting of the Russian Orthodox Church, describing it as "an absolute warren of backwardness and evil and superstition".
Iraq War and the war on terror
In the years after the fatwa issued against Salman Rushdie in response to his novel The Satanic Verses, Hitchens became increasingly critical of what he called "excuse making" on the left. At the same time, he was attracted to the foreign policy ideas of some on the Republican-right that promoted pro-liberalism intervention, especially the neoconservative group that included Paul Wolfowitz. Around this time, he befriended the Iraqi dissident and businessman Ahmed Chalabi. In 2004, Hitchens stated that neoconservative support for US intervention in Iraq convinced him that he was "on the same side as the neo-conservatives" when it came to contemporary foreign policy issues. Hitchens had also been known to refer to his association with "temporary neocon allies".
Following the 11 September attacks, Hitchens and Noam Chomsky debated the nature of radical Islam and the proper response to it. In October 2001, Hitchens wrote criticisms of Chomsky in The Nation. Chomsky responded and Hitchens issued a rebuttal to Chomsky to which Chomsky again responded. Approximately a year after the 11 September attacks and his exchanges with Chomsky, Hitchens left The Nation, claiming that its editors, readers and contributors considered John Ashcroft a bigger threat than Osama bin Laden, and that they were making excuses on behalf of Islamist terrorism; in the following months he wrote articles increasingly at odds with his colleagues.
Christopher Hitchens argued the case for the Iraq War in a 2003 collection of essays entitled A Long Short War: The Postponed Liberation of Iraq, and he held numerous public debates on the topic with George Galloway and Scott Ritter.
Criticism of George W. Bush
Prior to 11 September 2001, and the invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan, Hitchens was highly critical of President George W. Bush's "non-interventionist" foreign policy. He also criticised Bush's support of intelligent design and capital punishment.
Although Hitchens defended Bush's post-11 September foreign policy, he criticised the actions of US troops in Abu Ghraib and Haditha, and the US government's use of waterboarding, which he unhesitatingly deemed as torture after he was invited by Vanity Fair to voluntarily undergo it. In January 2006, Hitchens joined with four other individuals and four organisations, including the American Civil Liberties Union and Greenpeace, as plaintiffs in a lawsuit, ACLU v. NSA, challenging Bush's warrantless domestic spying program; the lawsuit was filed by the ACLU.
Hitchens would elaborate on his political views and ideological shift in a discussion with Eric Alterman on Bloggingheads.tv. In this discussion Hitchens revealed himself to be a supporter of Ralph Nader in the 2000 US presidential election, who was disenchanted with the candidacy of both George W. Bush and Al Gore.
Hitchens made a brief return to The Nation just before the 2004 US presidential election and wrote that he was "slightly" for Bush; shortly afterwards, Slate polled its staff on their positions on the candidates and mistakenly printed Hitchens’s vote as pro-John Kerry. Hitchens shifted his opinion to "neutral", saying: "It's absurd for liberals to talk as if Kristallnacht is impending with Bush, and it's unwise and indecent for Republicans to equate Kerry with capitulation. There's no one to whom he can surrender, is there? I think that the nature of the jihadist enemy will decide things in the end".
In the 2008 presidential election, Hitchens in an article for Slate stated, "I used to call myself a single-issue voter on the essential question of defending civilisation against its terrorist enemies and their totalitarian protectors, and on that 'issue' I hope I can continue to expose and oppose any ambiguity." He was critical of both main party candidates, Barack Obama and John McCain, but wrote that Obama would be the better choice. Hitchens went on to call McCain "senile", and his choice of running mate Sarah Palin "absurd", calling Palin a "pathological liar" and a "national disgrace". Hitchens also wrote that "Obama is greatly overrated" and that the Obama-Biden ticket "show[s] some signs of being able and willing to profit from experience".
A review of his autobiography Hitch-22 in the Jewish Daily Forward refers to Hitchens "at the time [that he had learned that his grandparents were Jews, he had been] a prominent anti-Zionist" and says that he viewed Zionism "as an injustice against the Palestinians". Others have commented on his anti-Zionism as well suggesting that his memoir was "marred by the occasional eruption of [his] anti-Zionism". At other times for example speaking at 2nd annual Memorial for Daniel Pearl, and in print in an article for The Atlantic he had made comments against the terrorism against Jews in the Middle East. Hitchens stated "But the Jews of the Arab lands were expelled again in revenge for the defeat of Palestinian nationalistic aspirations, in 1947–48, and now the absolute most evil and discredited fabrication of Jew-baiting Christian Europe—The Protocols of the Elders of Zion—is eagerly promulgated in the Hamas charter and on the group’s Web site and recycled through a whole nexus of outlets that includes schools as well as state-run television stations".
In Slate magazine, Hitchens pondered the notion that, instead of curing antisemitism through the creation of a Jewish state, "Zionism has only replaced and repositioned" it, saying: "there are three groups of 6 million Jews. The first 6 million live in what the Zionist movement used to call Palestine. The second 6 million live in the United States. The third 6 million are distributed mainly among Russia, France, Britain, and Argentina. Only the first group lives daily in range of missiles that can be (and are) launched by people who hate Jews." Hitchens argued that instead of supporting Zionism, Jews should help "secularise and reform their own societies", believing that unless one is religious, "what the hell are you doing in the greater Jerusalem area in the first place?" Indeed, Hitchens goes so far as to claim that the only justification for Zionism given by Jews is a religious one.
In his 2006 debate with Martin Amis, Hitchens stated that "one must not insult or degrade or humiliate people" and that he "would be opposed to this maltreatment of the Palestinians if it took place on a remote island with no geopolitical implications". Hitchens described Zionism as "an ethno-nationalist quasi-religious ideology" and stated his desire that if possible, he would "re-wind the tape [to] stop Hertzl from telling the initial demagogic lie (actually two lies) that a land without a people needs a people without a land".
He continued to say that Zionism "... nonetheless has founded a sort of democratic state which isn't any worse in its practice than many others with equally dubious origins." He stated that settlement in order to achieve security for Israel is "doomed to fail in the worst possible way", and the cessation of this "appallingly racist and messianic delusion" would "confront the internal clerical and chauvinist forces which want to instate a theocracy for Jews". Hitchens contended that the "solution of withdrawal would not satisfy the jihadists" and wondered "What did they imagine would be the response of the followers of the Prophet [Muhammad]?" Hitchens bemoaned the transference into religious terrorism of Arab secularism as a means of democratisation: "the most depressing and wretched spectacle of the past decade, for all those who care about democracy and secularism, has been the degeneration of Palestinian Arab nationalism into the theocratic and thanatocratic hell of Hamas and Islamic Jihad". He maintained that the Israel-Palestine conflict is a "trivial squabble" that has become "so dangerous to all of us" because of "the faith-based element."
Hitchens collaborated on this issue with prominent Palestinian advocate Edward Said, in 1988 publishing Blaming the Victims: Spurious Scholarship and the Palestinian Question.
Hitchens actively supported drug policy reform and called for the abolition of the "War on Drugs" which he described as an "authoritarian war" during a debate with William F. Buckley. He supported the legalisation of cannabis for both medical and recreational purposes, citing it as a cure for glaucoma and as treatment for numerous side-effects induced by chemotherapy, including severe nausea, describing the prohibition of the drug as "sadistic".
Other issues on which Hitchens wrote included his support for the reunification of Ireland, abolition of the British monarchy, the establishment of a self-governing state for the Kurdish people and his condemnation of the war crimes of Slobodan Milošević in the Yugoslav Wars, and criticised Franjo Tuđman for colluding with Milošević on a partition of Bosnia and empowering Croatian war criminals.
Critiques of specific individuals
Hitchens was known for his scathing critiques of public figures. Three figures—Bill Clinton, Henry Kissinger, and Mother Teresa—were the targets of three separate full length texts, No One Left to Lie To: The Triangulations of William Jefferson Clinton, The Trial of Henry Kissinger, and The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice. Hitchens also wrote book-length biographical essays about Thomas Jefferson (Thomas Jefferson: Author of America), George Orwell (Why Orwell Matters), and Thomas Paine (Thomas Paine's "Rights of Man": A Biography).
The majority of Hitchens’s critiques took the form of short opinion pieces, including critiques of: Jerry Falwell, George Galloway, Mel Gibson, Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, Michael Moore, Daniel Pipes, Ronald Reagan, Jesse Helms, and Cindy Sheehan. When comedian Bob Hope died in 2003, Hitchens wrote an attack piece on him, calling Hope "a fool and nearly a clown, but he was never even remotely a comedian" and "Quick, then—what is your favorite Bob Hope gag? It wouldn't take you long if I challenged you on Milton Berle, or Woody Allen, or John Cleese, or even Lenny Bruce or Mort Sahl. By this time tomorrow, I bet you haven't come up with a real joke for which Hope could take credit." Critics argued that Hitchens focused solely on Hope's declining years and ignored his heyday in the 1940s.
Views on religion
Hitchens often spoke out against the Abrahamic religions, or what he called "the three great monotheisms" (Islam, Christianity and Judaism). When asked by readers of The Independent (London) what he considered to be the "axis of evil", Hitchens replied "Christianity, Judaism, Islam – the three leading monotheisms." In his book, God Is Not Great, Hitchens expanded his criticism to include all religions, including those rarely criticised by Western secularists such as Buddhism and neo-paganism. His book had mixed reactions, from praise in The New York Times for his "logical flourishes and conundrums" to accusations of "intellectual and moral shabbiness" in the Financial Times. God Is Not Great was nominated for a National Book Award on 10 October 2007.
Hitchens contended that organised religion is "the main source of hatred in the world", "[v]iolent, irrational, intolerant, allied to racism, tribalism, and bigotry, invested in ignorance and hostile to free inquiry, contemptuous of women and coercive toward children", and that accordingly it "ought to have a great deal on its conscience". He often spoke about his efforts to champion the word 'antitheist' as he expressed his position that it was a relief that there is no evidence for a 'celestial North Korea'. Atheism was a word not strong enough to encompass his feelings about the immoral conundrum that the existence of a deity would necessarily imply. In God Is Not Great, Hitchens contends that:
[A]bove all, we are in need of a renewed Enlightenment, which will base itself on the proposition that the proper study of mankind is man and woman [referencing Alexander Pope]. This Enlightenment will not need to depend, like its predecessors, on the heroic breakthroughs of a few gifted and exceptionally courageous people. It is within the compass of the average person. The study of literature and poetry, both for its own sake and for the eternal ethical questions with which it deals, can now easily depose the scrutiny of sacred texts that have been found to be corrupt and confected. The pursuit of unfettered scientific inquiry, and the availability of new findings to masses of people by electronic means, will revolutionise our concepts of research and development. Very importantly, the divorce between the sexual life and fear, and the sexual life and disease, and the sexual life and tyranny, can now at last be attempted, on the sole condition that we banish all religions from the discourse. And all this and more is, for the first time in our history, within the reach if not the grasp of everyone.
His book rendered him one of the major advocates of the "New Atheism" movement, and he also was made an Honorary Associate of the National Secular Society. Hitchens said he would accept an invitation from any religious leader who wished to debate with him. He also served on the advisory board of the Secular Coalition for America, a lobbying group for atheists and humanists in Washington, DC. In 2007, Hitchens began a series of written debates on the question "Is Christianity Good for the World?" with Christian theologian and pastor, Douglas Wilson, published in Christianity Today magazine. This exchange eventually became a book by the same title in 2008. During their book tour to promote the book, film producer Darren Doane sent a film crew to accompany them. Doane produced the film Collision: Is Christianity GOOD for the World?, which was released on 27 October 2009. On 4 April 2009 Hitchens debated William Lane Craig on the existence of God at Biola University.
On 26 November 2010, Hitchens appeared in Toronto, Canada at the Munk Debates, where he debated religion with former British Prime Minister Tony Blair, a convert to Roman Catholicism. Blair argued religion is a force for good, while Hitchens was against it. Preliminary results on the Munk website said 56 per cent of the votes backed the proposition (Hitchens’s position) before hearing the debate, with 22 per cent against (Blair's position), and 21 per cent undecided, with the undecided voters leaning toward Hitchens, giving him a 68 per cent to 32 per cent victory over Blair, after the debate.
Hitchens was accused by William A. Donohue of the Catholic League for Religious and Civil Liberties of being particularly anti-Catholic. Hitchens responded "when religion is attacked in this country ... the Catholic Church comes in for a little more than its fair share". Hitchens had also been accused of anti-Catholic bigotry by others, including Brent Bozell, Tom Piatak in The American Conservative, and UCLA Law Professor Stephen Bainbridge. In an interview with Radar in 2007, Hitchens said that if the Christian right's agenda were implemented in the United States "It wouldn't last very long and would, I hope, lead to civil war, which they will lose, but for which it would be a great pleasure to take part." When Joe Scarborough on 12 March 2004 asked Hitchens whether he was "consumed with hatred for conservative Catholics", Hitchens responded that he was not and that he just thinks that "all religious belief is sinister and infantile". Piatak claimed that "A straightforward description of all Hitchens’s anti-Catholic outbursts would fill every page in this magazine", noting particularly Hitchens’s assertion that US Supreme Court Justice John Roberts should not be confirmed because of his faith.
Hitchens was raised nominally Christian, and went to Christian boarding schools but from an early age declined to participate in communal prayers. Later in life, Hitchens discovered that he was of Jewish descent on his mother's side. According to Hitchens, when his brother Peter took his fiancée to meet their maternal grandmother, who was then in her 90s, she said of his fiancée, "She's Jewish, isn't she?" and then announced: "Well, I've got something to tell you. So are you." Hitchens found out that his maternal grandmother, Dorothy née Levin, was Jewish (Dorothy's father and maternal grandfather had both been born Jewish, and Dorothy's maternal grandmother—Hitchens’s matrilineal great-great-grandmother—was a convert to Judaism). Hitchens’s maternal grandfather converted to Judaism before marrying Dorothy Levin. Hitchens’s Jewish-born ancestors were immigrants from Eastern Europe (including Poland). In an article in The Guardian on 14 April 2002, Hitchens stated that he could be considered Jewish because Jewish descent is traditionally traced matrilineally. In a 2010 interview at New York Public Library, Hitchens stated that he was against circumcision, a Jewish tradition, and that he believed "if anyone wants to saw off bits of their genitalia they should do it when they're grown up and have made the decision for themselves".
Marriages and children
|This section requires expansion. (December 2011)|
Hitchens was married twice, first to Eleni Meleagrou, a Greek Cypriot, in a Greek Orthodox church in 1981; the couple had a son, Alexander, and a daughter, Sophia. They divorced in 1989. From February 1990, Hitchens’s girlfriend was reported as being Carol Blue, a Californian screenwriter. In 1991 Hitchens married Blue in a ceremony held at the apartment of Victor Navasky, editor of The Nation. They had a daughter, Antonia.
Hitchens’s father, Eric Hitchens, was a Commander in the British Royal Navy. Hitchens often referred to his father as simply the 'Commander'. On 26 December 1943, Hitchens’s father was deployed onboard HMS Jamaica when it sank the German warship, the Scharnhorst. Christopher Hitchens would refer to his father's contribution to the war: 'Sending a Nazi convoy raider to the bottom is a better day's work than any I have ever done.' He also stated that 'the remark that most summed him [his father] up was the flat statement that the war of 1939 to 1945 had been "the only time when I really felt I knew what I was doing."'
Hitchens’s mother, Yvonne, died in Athens in 1973 when, despite first reports in The Times that she had been murdered, it was later concluded that her death had been the result of an apparent suicide pact with her boyfriend, Reverend Timothy Bryan. Hitchens travelled to Athens to identify his mother's body. On the subject Hitchens later said: 'She probably thought things were getting sordid—he [Bryan] wasn't able to hold a job down, she couldn't go back, she was probably about the age I am now and perhaps there was that—she'd been very pretty—and things were never going to get any better, so why go through with it? She might not have been that hard to persuade, but I know that she did try to save herself because I have the photographs still. So that was sort of the end of family life really.'
In reference to writing about his mother in his memoir, Hitch-22, he said, 'It was painful to write about my mother, but not very because long ago I internally managed all that. 'I even went back to Greece and I went to the graveyard while I was writing the book and decided not to write about it. I thought that would be sentimental.'
Relationship with his younger brother
Hitchens’s younger brother by one-and-a-half years, Peter Hitchens, is a Christian and socially conservative journalist in London, although, like his brother, he had been a Trotskyist in the 1970s. The brothers had a protracted falling-out after Peter wrote that Christopher had once joked that he "didn't care if the Red Army watered its horses at Hendon" (a suburb of London). Christopher denied having said this and broke off contact with his brother. He then referred to his brother as "an idiot" in a letter to Commentary, and the dispute spilled into other publications as well. Christopher eventually expressed a willingness to reconcile and to meet his new nephew (born in 1999); shortly thereafter the brothers gave several interviews together in which they said that their personal disagreements had been resolved. They appeared together on 21 June 2007 edition of the BBC current affairs discussion show Question Time. The pair engaged in a formal televised debate for the first time on 3 April 2008, at Grand Valley State University, and at the Pew Forum on 12 October 2010.
Smoking and drinking
The Sunday Times described Hitchens as "Usually armed with a glass of Scotch and an untipped Rothmans cigarette." In late 2007 he briefly gave up smoking, although resumed during the writing of his memoir and continued until his cancer diagnosis. Hitchens admitted to drinking heavily; in 2003 he wrote that his daily intake of alcohol was enough "to kill or stun the average mule", arguing that many great writers "did some of their finest work when blotto, smashed, polluted, shitfaced, squiffy, whiffled, and three sheets to the wind."
George Galloway notably accused Hitchens of being a "drink-sodden ex-Trotskyist popinjay", to which Hitchens replied, "only some of which is true." Hitchens later elaborated: "He says that I am an ex-Trotskyist (true), a 'popinjay' (true enough, since the word's original Webster's definition is a target for arrows and shots), and that I cannot hold a drink (here I must protest)." Hitchens’s wife Carol Blue described him as "obviously an alcoholic, he functions at a really high level and he doesn't act like a drunk, so the only reason it's a bad thing is it's taking out his liver, presumably. It would be a drag for Henry Kissinger to live to a hundred and Christopher to keel over next year." His profile in The New Yorker described him as drinking "like a Hemingway character: continually and to no apparent effect."
Oliver Burkeman writes, "Since the parting of ways on Iraq ... Hitchens claims to have detected a new, personalised nastiness in the attacks on him, especially over his fabled consumption of alcohol. He welcomes being attacked as a drinker 'because I always think it's a sign of victory when they move on to the ad hominem.' He drank, he said, 'because it makes other people less boring. I have a great terror of being bored. But I can work with or without it. It takes quite a lot to get me to slur.'"
In his 2010 memoir Hitch-22, Hitchens wrote: "There was a time when I could reckon to outperform all but the most hardened imbibers, but I now drink relatively carefully." He described his then-current drinking routine on working-days as follows: "At about half past midday, a decent slug of Mr. Walker's amber restorative, cut with Perrier water (an ideal delivery system) and no ice. At luncheon, perhaps half a bottle of red wine: not always more but never less. Then back to the desk, and ready to repeat the treatment at the evening meal. No 'after dinner drinks'—most especially nothing sweet and never, ever any brandy. 'Nightcaps' depend on how well the day went, but always the mixture as before. No mixing: no messing around with a gin here and a vodka there."
Reflecting on the lifestyle that supported his career as a writer he said:
I always knew there was a risk in the bohemian lifestyle ... I decided to take it because it helped my concentration, it stopped me being bored—it stopped other people being boring. It would make me want to prolong the conversation and enhance the moment. If you ask: would I do it again? I would probably say yes. But I would have quit earlier hoping to get away with the whole thing. I decided all of life is a wager and I'm going to wager on this bit ... In a strange way I don't regret it. It's just impossible for me to picture life without wine, and other things, fueling the company, keeping me reading, energising me. It worked for me. It really did.
Final illness and death
In June 2010, Hitchens was on tour in New York promoting his memoirs Hitch-22 when he was taken into emergency care suffering from a severe pericardial effusion and then announced he was postponing his tour to undergo treatment for esophageal cancer. He announced that he was undergoing treatment in a Vanity Fair piece entitled "Topic of Cancer". Hitchens said that he recognised the long-term prognosis was far from positive, and that he would be a "very lucky person to live another five years". In November 2010, Hitchens cancelled a scheduled appearance in New York, where he was to debate writers David Hazony and Stephen Prothero on the subject of the Ten Commandments. Earlier that year, he published a piece in Vanity Fair on the subject, and was working on a book about the Ten Commandments as well.
In April 2011, Hitchens was forced to cancel an appearance at the American Atheist Convention, and instead sent a letter that stated, "Nothing would have kept me from joining you except the loss of my voice (at least my speaking voice) which in turn is due to a long argument I am currently having with the specter of death." He closed with "And don't keep the faith." The letter also dismissed the notion of a possible deathbed conversion, in which he claimed that "redemption and supernatural deliverance appears even more hollow and artificial to me than it did before." In June 2011, he spoke to a University of Waterloo audience via a home video link.
In October 2011, Hitchens made a public appearance at the Texas Freethought Convention in Houston, TX. Atheist Alliance of America was also a participant in the joint convention.
In November 2011, George Eaton wrote in the New Statesman:
The tragedy of Hitchens’s illness is that it came at a time when he enjoyed a larger audience than ever. Of his tight circle of friends – Amis, Fenton, McEwan, Rushdie—Hitchens was the last to gain international renown, yet he is now read more widely than any of them."
Eaton revealed that Hitchens would like to be remembered as a man who fought totalitarianism in all its forms although many remember him as a "lefty who turned right", and his support of the Iraq War and not his support of the War in Bosnia on the side of the Muslims. Eaton concluded, "The great polemicist is certain to be remembered, but, as he is increasingly aware, perhaps not as he would like."
In accordance with his wishes, his body was donated to medical research.
Reactions to death
Former British Prime Minister Tony Blair said, "Christopher Hitchens was a complete one-off, an amazing mixture of writer, journalist, polemicist, and unique character. He was fearless in the pursuit of truth and any cause in which he believed. And there was no belief he held that he did not advocate with passion, commitment, and brilliance. He was an extraordinary, compelling and colourful human being whom it was a privilege to know."
Richard Dawkins, British evolutionary biologist at the University of Oxford and a friend of Hitchens, said, "I think he was one of the greatest orators of all time. He was a polymath, a wit, immensely knowledgeable, and a valiant fighter against all tyrants including imaginary supernatural ones."
Sam Harris, American writer and neuroscientist, wrote, "I have been privileged to witness the gratitude that so many people feel for Hitch's life and work—for, wherever I speak, I meet his fans. On my last book tour, those who attended my lectures could not contain their delight at the mere mention of his name—and many of them came up to get their books signed primarily to request that I pass along their best wishes to him. It was wonderful to see how much Hitch was loved and admired—and to be able to share this with him before the end. I will miss you, brother."
Francis Collins, director of the National Institutes of Health and former head of the Human Genome Project who helped treat Hitchens’s illness, wrote, "I will miss Christopher. I will miss the brilliant turn of phrase, the good-natured banter, the wry sideways smile when he was about to make a remark that would make me laugh out loud. No doubt he now knows the answer to the question of whether there is more to the spirit than just atoms and molecules. I hope he was surprised by the answer. I hope to hear him tell about it someday. He will tell it really well."
The American Catholic columnist Ross Douthat, noting the affection felt by intellectually minded Christians for Hitchens, observed that, "in the world of journalism, among his peers and competitors and sparring partners, it was nearly impossible to find a religious person who didn't have a soft spot for a man who famously accused faith of poisoning absolutely everything."
British columnist and author Peter Hitchens, who had a tumultuous relationship with his older brother Christopher, wrote that he and Christopher "got on surprisingly well in the past few months, better than for about 50 years as it happens", and praised his brother as "courageous".
Irish-American political journalist Alexander Cockburn, founder of the left-wing political magazine CounterPunch, wrote an obituary critical of Hitchens, criticising his support for the Iraq War, criticisms of Mother Teresa, and criticisms of their mutual friend Edward Said and concluded, "I found the Hitchens cult of recent years entirely mystifying. He endured his final ordeal with pluck, sustained indomitably by his wife Carol." Hitchens and Cockburn worked together at The Nation for many years, and had a friendly but often contentious relationship. In 1989, they had a public spat about Fidel Castro and Joseph Stalin in the pages of The Nation, and Hitchens accused Cockburn of ''ridiculous inconsistencies,'' arguing that ''there is no core of principle at stake in the positions he has found himself adopting.'' At least as late as 1993, Hitchens was still naming Alexander as one of his favorite writers of the radical left. Hitchens and Cockburn again disagreed in 1999 over Bill Clinton and Sydney Blumenthal, and later over the war on terror.
Tributes followed from the philosopher Daniel Dennett, the physicist Lawrence Krauss, the actor Stephen Fry, the actor Sean Penn, the writer Ian McEwan, the philosopher A. C. Grayling; the writer Salman Rushdie, and Vanity Fair, in which he was remembered as an "incomparable critic and masterful rhetorician".
Film and television appearances
|Year||Film, DVD, or TV Episode|
|1984||Opinions: "Greece to their Rome"|
|1993||Everything You Need to Know|
|1994||Tracking Down Maggie: The Unofficial Biography of Margaret Thatcher|
|1996||Where's Elvis This Week?|
|1996–2010||Charlie Rose (talk show) (13 episodes)|
|1998||Princess Diana: The Mourning After|
|1999–2001||Politically Incorrect with Bill Maher|
|1999–2002||Dennis Miller Live (TV show; 4 episodes)|
|2002||The Trials of Henry Kissinger|
|2003||Hidden in Plain Sight|
|2003–2009||Real Time with Bill Maher (TV show; 6 episodes)|
|2004||Mel Gibson: God's Lethal Weapon|
|2004–2006||Newsnight (TV show; 3 episodes)|
|2004–2010||The Daily Show (TV show; 4 episodes)|
|2005||Penn & Teller: Bullshit! (TV show; 1 episode, s03e05)|
|The Al Franken Show (Radio show; 1 episode)|
|Confronting Iraq: Conflict and Hope|
|Heaven on Earth: The Rise and Fall of Socialism|
|2005–2008||Hardball with Chris Matthews (TV show; 3 episodes)|
|Question Time (TV series) (1 episode)|
|Your Mommy Kills Animals|
|In Pot We Trust|
|2008||Can Atheism Save Europe? (DVD; 9 August 2005 debate with John Lennox at the Edinburgh International Festival)|
|Discussions with Richard Dawkins: Episode 1: "The Four Horsemen" (DVD; 30 September 2007)|
|Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed|
|2009||Holy Hell (Chap. 5 in 6 Part Web Film on iTunes)|
|God on Trial (DVD; September 2008 debate with Dinesh D'Souza)|
|Collision: "Is Christianity GOOD for the World?" (DVD; Fall 2008 debates with Douglas Wilson)|
|Does God Exist? (DVD; 4 April 2009 debate with William Lane Craig)|
|2010||Phil Ochs: There But For Fortune|
|The God Debates, Part I: A Spirited Discussion (DVD; debate with Shmuley Boteach; Host: Mark Derry; Commentary: Miles Redfield)|
|2011||Is God Great? (DVD; 3 March 2009 debate with John Lennox at Samford University)|
|92Y: Christopher Hitchens (DVD; 8 June 2010 dialogue with Salman Rushdie at 92nd Street Y)|
|ABC Lateline (TV show, 2 episodes)|
- 1984 Cyprus. Quartet. Revised editions as Hostage to History: Cyprus from the Ottomans to Kissinger, 1989 (Farrar, Straus & Giroux) and 1997 (Verso)
- 1988 Blaming the Victims: Spurious Scholarship and the Palestinian Question (contributor; co-editor with Edward Said) Verso, ISBN 0-86091-887-4 Reissued, 2001
- 1990 The Monarchy, Chatto & Windus Ltd
- 1990 Blood, Class and Nostalgia: Anglo-American Ironies, Farrar Straus & Giroux (T)(June 1990)
- 1993 "For The Sake Of Argument" Verso
- 1995 The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice, Verso
- 1997 The Parthenon Marbles: The Case for Reunification, Verso
- 1999 No One Left to Lie To: The Values of the Worst Family, Verso
- 2000 Unacknowledged Legislation: Writers in the Public Sphere, Verso
- 2001 The Trial of Henry Kissinger. Verso.
- 2001 Letters to a Young Contrarian, Basic Books
- 2002 Why Orwell Matters also Orwell's Victory, Basic Books, ISBN 0-465-03050-5
- 2004 Love, Poverty, and War: Journeys and Essays, Thunder's Mouth, Nation Books, ISBN 1-56025-580-3
- 2005 Thomas Jefferson: Author of America, Eminent Lives/Atlas Books/HarperCollins Publishers, ISBN 0-06-059896-4
- 2007 "Thomas Paine's Rights of Man: A Biography ", Atlantic Monthly Press, ISBN 0-87113-955-3
- 2007 The Portable Atheist: Essential Readings for the Non-Believer, [Editor] Perseus Publishing. ISBN 978-0-306-81608-6
- 2007 god is not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything, Twelve/Hachette Book Group USA/Warner Books, ISBN 0-446-57980-7 / Published in the UK as god is not Great: The Case Against Religion, Atlantic Books, ISBN 978-1-84354-586-6
- 2008 Christopher Hitchens and His Critics: Terror, Iraq and the Left (with Simon Cottee and Thomas Cushman), New York University Press
- 2008 Is Christianity Good for the World?—A Debate (co-author, with Douglas Wilson), Canon Press, ISBN 1-59128-053-2
- 2010 Hitch-22: A Memoir, Twelve, ISBN 978-0-446-54033-9 OCLC 464590644
- 2011 Arguably: Essays by Christopher Hitchens, Twelve. UK edition as Arguably: Selected Prose, Atlantic, ISBN 1-4555-0277-4 / ISBN 978-1-4555-0277-6
- 2012 Mortality, Twelve, ISBN 1-4555-0275-8 / ISBN 978-1-4555-0275-2. UK edition as Mortality, Atlantic Books, ISBN 1-84887-921-0 / ISBN 978-1-84887-921-8
- Woo, Elaine (15 December 2011). "Christopher Hitchens dies at 62; engaging, enraging author and essayist". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- Hitchens, C (2011). Hitch-22: A Memoir. Random House Digital. p. 228. ISBN 0-7710-4115-2.
- Hitchens, C (2011). Hitch-22: A Memoir. Random House Digital. p. 204. ISBN 0-7710-4115-2.
- 'Hitchens, Christopher Eric', Who's Who 2012, A & C Black, 2012; online edn, Oxford University Press, Dec 2012 ; online edn, Jan 2012 accessed 5 May 2012
- Reply to Hitchens’s Rejoinder The Nation, 15 October 2001
- Profiles: He Knew He Was Right : The New Yorker
- Eaton, George. The New Statesman Interview: Christopher Hitchens www.newstatesman.com, 12 July 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010. Hitchens recalls in his memoir having been "invited by Bernard-Henri Levy to write an essay on political reconsiderations for his magazine La Regle du Jeu. I gave it the partly ironic title: 'Can One Be a Neoconservative?' Impatient with this, some copy editor put it on the cover as 'How I Became a Neoconservative.' Perhaps this was an instance of the Cartesian principle as opposed to the English empiricist one: it was decided that I evidently was what I apparently only thought."
- "A discussion about Christopher Hitchens (52-minute video)". charlierose.com. 13 April 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- Paxman meets Hitchens full 30 minute interview with BBCs Jeremy Paxman RIP on YouTube
- Andre Mayer (14 May 2007). "Nothing sacred—Journalist and provocateur Christopher Hitchens picks a fight with God". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 16 May 2007. Retrieved 29 June 2008.
- Lucy Popescu (30 April 2012). "Mortality, by Christopher Hitchens". The Independent. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
- Yglesias, Matthew (20 October 2003). "The Commander: My Father, Eric Hitchens". Slate. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- Walsh, John. The Independent. "Hitch-22: A memoir by Christopher Hitchens" Retrieved 28 May 2010
- "Christopher Hitchens in Depth". 2 September 2007. Book TV. http://www.booktv.org/program.aspx?ID=8532&SN=In%20Depth.—List of writers can be seen @ 1:13:10
- Lynn Barber "Look who's talking", The Observer, 14 April 2002
- Blake Morrison I contain multitudes, The Guardian, 29 May 2010
- "YOU SAID YOU WANTED A REVOLUTION: 1968 and the Counter-Counterculture (Peter Robinson interview with William Buckley Jr and Christopher Hitchens)". web.archive.org. Hoover Institution. 15 September 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-09-15. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- Long Live Labor—Why I'm for Tony Blair Slate, 25 April 2005
- Heaven on Earth—Interview with Christopher Hitchens PBS, 2005
- International Socialism: Christopher Hitchens "Workers' Self Management in Algeria" (1st series), No.51, April–June 1972, p.33, Encyclopedia of Trotskyism, 25 October 2005
- Alexander Linklater (May 2008). "Christopher Hitchins". Prospect. Archived from the original on 30 April 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2009.
- "Christopher Hitchens Explains Why You Should Quit Your Job". YouTube. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- New Statesman – Christopher Hitchens: the New Statesman years
- Barber, Lynn (13 April 2002). "Look who's talking". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- Remembering Hitchens by Victor Navasky, The Nation, 21 December 2011
- For the Sake of Argument by Christopher Hitchens Interview with Brian Lamb for the show Booknotes, an author interview series on C-SPAN (some biographical information) 17 October 1993
- Meryl Gordon (19 April 1999). "The Boy Can't Help It (in-depth interview and profile)". New York. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- "Free Radical", interview in Reason by Rhys Southan, November 2001
- Christopher Hitchens The Atlantic, 2003
- Guy Raz, Christopher Hitchens, Literary Agent Provocateur, National Public Radio, 21 June 2006
- He Knew He Was Right The New Yorker, Profiles, 16 October 2006
- Christopher Hitchens Notable Interviews—video interview 2007
- Christopher Hitchens – Contributing Editor. Web.archive.org (28 February 2010). Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- Timothy Noah, Meritocracy's lab rat Slate, 9 January 2002
- Annabel's—the magazine Vogue UK, 15 July 2004
- Hitchens, Christopher. "Topic of Cancer". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- "Christopher Hitchens on Sarah Palin: 'A Disgraceful Opportunist and Moral Coward'". PoliticalArticles.NET. 18 December 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- At the Rom: Three New Commandments She Does The City, 30 April 2009
- "Childhood's End", Vanity Fair, September 2006
- "Realism in Sudan", Slate, 7 November 2005
- Christopher Hitchens[dead link] Twelve Publishers
- Detailed Biographical Information—Christopher Hitchens, Lannan Foundation. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "Salon Newsreal | Stalking Sidney Blumenthal". Salon.com. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- Christopher Hitchens (July–August 2003). "Thinking Like an Apparatchik". The Atlantic Monthly 292 (1): 129–42. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- Andrew Werth (January/February 2004). "Hitchens on Books". The Atlantic. Retrieved 17 February 2009.
- John Banville (3 March 2001). "Gore should be so lucky". The Irish Times. Retrieved 17 February 2009.
- Gore Vidal on Christopher Hitchens YouTube
- Christopher Hitchens (February 2010). "Vidal Loco". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
- Youde, Kate (7 February 2010). "Hitchens attacks Gore Vidal for being a 'crackpot'". The Independent (London). Retrieved 17 February 2009.
- Prospect/FP Top 100 Public Intellectuals Results Foreign Policy
- The Prospect/FP Top 100 Public Intellectuals Foreign Policy
- 2007 National Magazine Award Winners Announced Press release, Magazine Publishers of America, 1 May 2007
- National Magazine Awards Winners and Finalists Magazine Publishers of America
- "Christopher Hitchens Wins National Magazine Award for Columns About Cancer". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- "2011 National Magazine Awards Winners and Finalists". Magazine Publishers of America. 9 May 2011.
- "Secular Coalition for America Advisory Board Biography". Secular.org. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- Weiner, Juli (6 December 2011). "Asteroid Named for Christopher Hitchens". Vanity Fair.
- Authors—Christopher Hitchens The Atlantic
- "The Immortal Rejoinders of Christopher Hitchens". Vanity Fair (videotape) (Vanity Fair). 16 December 2011. 2:40 minutes in. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- FIVE QUESTIONS FOR: Christopher Hitchens SF Gate
- "The 25 Most Influential Liberals in the US Media". Forbes. 22 January 2009. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
- [Dalrymple, Theodore (June/July 2010). "The Brothers Grim". First Things. Retrieved 25 December 2013. ]
- Rhys Southan from the November 2001 issue. "Free Radical". Reason. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- Martin Amis Christopher Hitchens a conversation about Antisemitism and Saul bellow Part 3 YouTube
- Solomon, Deborah (2 June 2010). "The Contrarian". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
- Christopher Hitchens. "The Revenge of Karl Marx" The Atlantic, April 2009
- Hitchens, Christopher (1997), "Goodbye to All That", The New York Review of Books, 17 July 1997
- Just a Pretty Face? The Guardian, 11 July 2004
- Amis, Martin (2002). Koba the Dread. Miramax. p. 25. ISBN 0-7868-6876-7.
- "Great Lives—Leon Trotsky", BBC Radio 4, 8 August 2006
- "That Bleeding Heart Wolfowitz", Slate, 22 March 2005
- "Ahmad and Me", Slate, 27 May 2004
- Johann Hari, "In Enemy Territory: An Interview with Christopher Hitchens", The Independent, 23 September 2004.
- Christopher Hitchens, "The End of Fukuyama", Slate, 1 March 2006
- Of Sin, the Left & Islamic Fascism The Nation, 8 October 2001
- Blaming bin Laden First The Nation, 22 October 2001
- Chomsky Replies to Hitchens The Nation, 15 October 2001
- A Rejoinder to Noam Chomsky The Nation, 15 October 2001
- "A War To Be Proud Of" Weekly Standard, 5 September 2005
- "Believe Me, It's Torture", Vanity Fair, August 2008
- On the Waterboard Vanity Fair, 2 July 2008
- Lichtblau, Eric. "Two Groups Planning to Sue Over Federal Eavesdropping" The New York Times, 17 January 2006. Retrieved 5 November 2009
- "Statement—Christopher Hitchens, NSA Lawsuit Client". Aclu.org. 16 January 2006. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- Hitchens, Christopher (7 August 1999). "Gov. Death". Salon.com. Retrieved 10 May 2009.
- On Whether Christopher Hitchens Was Wrong Bloggingheads.tv, 14 October 2008
- My Endorsement and Osama's Video: The news in Bin Laden's comments had nothing to do with our election Slate, 1 November 2004
- Hitchens, Christopher "Vote for Obama" Slate, 13 October 2008. Retrieved 5 November 2009
- Hölbling, Walter; Rieser-Wohlfarter, Klaus (2004). What is American?: new identities in U.S. culture. LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 351–. ISBN 978-3-8258-7734-7. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
- Goldstein, Evan R. (June 2010). "Born Grumpy, with a Talent for It: Christopher Hitchens’s Memoir is Too Happy by Far". Jewish Daily Forward.
- Rodden, John (2006). Every intellectual's big brother: George Orwell's literary siblings. University of Texas Press. pp. 95–. ISBN 978-0-292-71308-6. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
- Richman, Rick (November 8, 2010). "Bellow, Hitchens, and COMMENTARY". Commentary Magazine.
- "Slate: Can Israel Survive for Another 60 Years?". Slate.com. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- Kerstein, Benjamin. "Christopher Hitchens’s Jewish Problem". Jewish Ideas Daily. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
- "Frontpage Interview: Christopher Hitchens Part II". FrontPage Magazine. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- Just a Pretty Face? by Sean O'Hagan, The Observer, 11 July 2004
- Galloway vs. Hitchens: The Transcript endusmilitarism, 16 September 2005
- These Men Are "Peacemakers"? Ian Paisley and Gerry Adams make me want to spew Slate, 2 April 2007
- Hitchens, Christopher (6 December 2000). "End of the line". The Guardian (UK).
- "Christopher Hitchens talks about the Kurdish people". Youtube. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
- "In Defense of WWII: Chapter 5 of 5". Youtube. Retrieved 7 September 2008.
- "Shed No Tears for Milosevic". FrontPage Magazine. 14 March 2006. Retrieved 7 September 2008.
- Video: Christopher Hitchens (15 May 2007) appearance on Anderson Cooper 360 YouTube
- Video: Christopher Hitchens (16 May 2007) appearance on Hannity & Colmes about Rev. Falwell's Death YouTube
- Unmitigated Galloway Weekly Standard, 30 May 2005
- Mel Gibson's Meltdown Slate, 31 July 2006
- His material highness Salon.com article by Christopher Hitchens
- Unfairenheit 9/11 Slate, 21 June 2004
- Christopher Hitchens "Daniel Pipes is not a man of peace", Slate, 11 August 2003
- "The stupidity of Ronald Reagan". Slate. Retrieved 9 May 2007.
- Christopher Hitchens (7 July 2008). "Farewell to a Provincial Redneck". Slate.
- Christopher Hitchens, Cindy Sheehan's Sinister Piffle, Slate, 15 August 2005
- Bob Hope wasn't funny. – Slate Magazine
- "You Ask the Questions; (such as: So, Christopher Hitchens , are You a Role Model for the Englishman Abroad? and what's Your Next Feud Going to be?)." The Independent (London): 7. Print. 6 March 2002.
- Michael Kinsley "In god, Distrust" The New York Times Book Review, 13 May 2007
- Here's the hitch by Michael Skapinker in The Financial Times
- Associated Press. Web.archive.org (13 October 2007). Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- Hardcover Nonfiction The New York Times Best Seller list, 3 June 2007
- Free Speech onegoodmove, March 2007
- Hitchens, Christopher (May 2007). God is not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything. New York: Twelve Books. p. 283.
- Honorary Associate: Christopher Hitchens National Secular Society
- Biography—Christopher Hitchens Secular Coalition for America Advisory Board
- "Is Christianity Good for the World?" Christianity Today, 8 May 2007
- "Hitchens vs. Caig: Round Two" Christianity Today, 6 April 2009
- "Hitchens apparent winner in religion debate. CBC News. Retrieved 27 November 2010". News.ca.msn.com. 27 November 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- "Munk Debates Website". Munkdebates.com. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- Pareene, Alex (4 February 2006). "Instant Team Party Crash: Legoland Uber Alles". Wonkette. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
- Look Who's Hammering Mel[dead link] 1 August 2006
- "Hood, John Hollowed Be Thy Name". Miami Sun Post Web.archive.org (21 May 2007). Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- Tom Piatak, The Purest Neocon: Christopher Hitchens, an unreconstructed Bolshevik, finds his natural home on the pro-war Right, The American Conservative, 10 October 2005
- "Godless Provocateur Christopher Hitchens Pledges Allegiance to America". Holidaydmitri.com. 1 May 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- Scarborough County Transcripts for 12 March 2004
- Look who's talking The Observer, 14 April 2002
- Hitch-22, page 352.
-  In the Torah itself, Jewishness is traced primarily patrilineally. Thus, Dorothy Levin would be considered a Patrilineal Jew and a Levit –that is, a Levite woman. But her children would be considered only gentiles of Jewish descent.
- Christopher Hitchens at NYPL w. Paul Holdengräber (4-Jun-10)(2–9)(THE INTERVIEW series). YouTube (18 September 2010). Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- "Honorary FFRF Board Announced". Archived from the original on 17 December 2010. Retrieved 20 August 2008.
- William Grimes (2011-12-16). "Christopher Hitchens, Polemicist Who Slashed All, Freely, Dies at 62". New York Times. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- Levy, Geoffery, "So Who Were the Two Tory Ministers Who Had Gay Flings with Christopher Hitchens at Oxford?", Daily Mail, 6 March 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2010
- The Washington Times 9 February 1990, Friday, Final Edition BYLINE: Charlotte Hays; THE WASHINGTON TIMES SECTION: Part E; LIFE; CHARLOTTE'S WEB; Pg. E1
- Hichens, Christopher (2 June 2010). "The Commander: My Father, Eric Hitchens". Slate.com. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
- Lynn Barber (13 April 2002). "Lynn Barber meets Christopher Hitchens". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
- "Hitch-22: A Memoir", Huffington Post
- Christopher Hitchens (16 May 2005). "O Brother, Why Art Thou?". Vanity Fair. Condé Nast Publications. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Hitchens v. Hitchens: Faith, Politics & War". Grand Valley State University. Retrieved 29 March 2008.
- "Can Civilization Survive Without God?".
- "[The Abolition of Britain] – C-SPAN Video Library". C-spanvideo.org. 14 October 1999. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- The Sunday Times (London) 18 December 2011 Sunday Edition 1; Northern Ireland Christopher Hitchens; OBITUARIES ; Polemicist who lived a life of dissolution and contrariness SECTION: NEWS REVIEW;FEATURES; OBITUARIES; Pg. 8
- Edward Luce, Lunch with the Financial Times, 11 January 2008
- Christopher Hitchens (March 2003). "Living Proof'". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
- Unmitigated Galloway , The Weekly Standard, 30 May 2005
- "There's only one popinjay here, George", Evening Standard, 19 May 2005
- George Galloway Is Gruesome, Not Gorgeous, Slate, 13 September 2005
- Ian Parker (16 October 2006). "He Knew He Was Right". The New Yorker.
- Oliver Burkeman, War of words, The Guardian, 28 October 2006
- A Short Footnote on the Grape and the Grain, Slate, 6 June 2010
- "Q & A". Q-and-a.org. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- "Hitchens has his voice back". furiouspurpose.me. 16 June 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- "Reliable Source – Christopher Hitchens diagnosed with cancer, cuts short his book tour". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 December 2011.[dead link]
- Goldberg, Jeffrey (6 August 2010). "Hitchens Talks to Goldblog About Cancer and God". The Atlantic. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
- "Hitchens cancels NYC Jewish Center Ten Commandments panel". Daily Hitchens. 4 November 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- Hitchens, Christopher (1 August 2011). "The New Commandments | Culture". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- Eaton, George. "Interview: Christopher Hitchens". New Statesman. UK. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- Neville, Simon (26 March 2011). "Atheist Christopher Hitchens turns to evangelical Christian doctor in his fight against cancer". Daily Mail (UK). Retrieved 16 December 2011. "Dr Francis Collins, the former director of the National Human Genome Research Project was one part of the team which developed techniques to map out the entire human DNA make-up is using Hitchens as a guinea pig for a new treatment. Hitchens, author of God is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything, has had his genome mapped out in its entirety by taking DNA from healthy tissue and from his cancerous tumour."
- "Atheist Hitchens Credits Evangelical Francis Collins for Cancer Hope". The Christian Post. Retrieved 16 December 2011. "In an interview with U.K. Telegraph Magazine, Hitchens said that Collins, who was formerly the director of the National Center for Human Genome Research and now serves as director of the National Institutes of Health, is partially responsible for developing a new cancer treatment that maps out the patient's entire genetic make-up and targets damaged DNA."
- Scienceblogs.com article: "Hitchens’s address to American Atheists."
- Liz Monteiro (6 June 2011). "Hitchens feted with standing ovation at UW video link debate". Waterloo Region Record.
- Charles McGrath (9 October 2011). "A Voice, Still Vibrant, Reflects on Mortality". The New York Times.
- George Eaton (24 November 2011). "Hitch's Rolls-Royce mind is still purring". New Statesman. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- Arnold, Laurence (16 December 2011). "Christopher Hitchens, Who Wrote of War, God, Cancer Battle, Dies Aged 62". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- Sullivan, Andrew (20 April 2012). "The Hitch Has Landed". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- "Memorial Gatherings". dailyhitchens.com. 24 December 2011.
- Mortality by Christopher Hitchens. Twelve Books. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- Christopher Hitchens (2012). Mortality. ISBN 978-0-7710-3922-5.
- Quotes on the death of pundit Christopher Hitchens. Associated Press. 16 December 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
- The Blog : Hitch. Sam Harris (18 December 2011). Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- Collins, Francis S.. (18 December 2011) In remembrance of my friend Hitch – Guest Voices. The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- Ross Douthat (17 December 2011). "The Believer's Atheist". The New York Times Sunday Review.
- Hitchens, Peter. (16 December 2011) In Memoriam, my courageous brother Christopher, 1949–2011. Daily Mail. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- Ralph Blumenthal (12 May 2006). "Army Acts to Curb Abuses of Injured Recruits". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- "The Devil You Know". new Republic.
- "Olbermann, Assange, and the Holocaust Denier When you want to believe, you'll believe anything.". Reason.
- Cockburn, Alexander. (16 December 2011) Farewell to CH. Counterpunch. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- "A Feud Between The Nation and The New Republic." December 14, 1989. Richard Bernstein. The New York Times.
- Book Discussion on For The Sake of Argument. September 1, 1993. C-SPAN. At 44 minutes 40 seconds.
- Dennett, Daniel C. (18 December 2011). "A lesson from Hitch: When rudeness is called for". Washington Post.
- Krauss, Lawrence (24 December 2011). "Remembering Christopher Hitchens". Richard Dawkins Foundation.
- Fry, Stephen (16 December 2011). "Christopher Hitchens Is Hailed by Stephen Fry as a Man of Style and Wit". The Daily Beast.
- McEwan, Ian (16 December 2011). "Christopher Hitchens: 'the consummate writer, the brilliant friend'". The Guardian.
- Grayling, A. C. (16 December 2011). "A.C. Grayling on Christopher Hitchens". Barnes and Noble Review.
- Rushdie, Salman (February 2012). "Christopher Hitchens, 1949–2011". Vanity Fair.
- Weiner, Juli (15 December 2011). "In Memoriam: Christopher Hitchens, 1949–2011". Vanity Fair.
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- "Christopher Hitchens". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 6 April 2010.
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- "Charlie Rose". Retrieved 17 August 2010.
- Cangialosi, Jason. "nterview with 'Holy Hell' Filmmaker Rafael Antonio Ruiz". Yahoo! Inc. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
- "ABC Lateline interview". Retrieved 10 August 2012.
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- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Christopher Hitchens at the Internet Movie Database
- Daily Hitchens, an archive of material on or by Hitchens; no longer active.
- Christopher Hitchens on National Public Radio in 2010
- Drexel Interview (One-hour video interview) with Paula Marantz Cohen, June 2010
- Works by or about Christopher Hitchens in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Christopher Hitchens collected news and commentary at The Guardian
- Christopher Hitchens collected news and commentary at The New York Times
- Christopher Hitchens collected news and commentary at The Boston Globe
- "Journalist Christopher Hitchens fully embraces the Bush war camp" from the World Socialist Website, October 2002
- "Christopher Hitchens feature stories", Prospect magazine, May 2008
- "Incendiary Author Spares No Targets" feature story in The New Zealand Herald, May 2008
- "Such, Such are His Joys" David Brooks assessment in The New York Times, 1 July 2010
- Hitchens on Dying with Cancer, video interview with The Atlantic, August 2010
- "Christopher Hitchens: 'You have to choose your future regrets'" The Guardian, 13 November 2010
- "Christopher Hitchens’s Jewish Problem" feature article on Jewish Ideas Daily, 13 December 2010
- A debate between Hitchens and Berlinski 2010
- Outspoken and outrageous: Christopher Hitchens a 60 Minutes profile aired 6 March 2011
- "Farewell to C.H." Alexander Cockburn CounterPunch Diary December 16–18, 2011
- Articles by Hitchens
- Contributor page at Vanity Fair
- Column archive at The Atlantic
- Article archive at The Guardian
- Hitchens articles at Slate
- Article archive at Journalisted