14 teams compete in the league, with the top 6 teams at the end of the regular season play qualifying for the playoffs to determine the league champion, known as the Česká pojišťovna play-off Tipsport extraligy. The teams that finish 7th through 10th play a play-in series (best-of-five) to determine who will join the top six into the playoff quarter-finals (best-of-seven). The four lowest ranked teams (11–14) after the regular season play in a play-out group (12 games, all regular-season matches are counted into the ranking). The two worst placed teams after the play-out group plays with the two semi-finalists of the First League in qualify group,they will play totally 12 matches,(twice home and twice away with every team in group), with the 1st and 2nd placed teams of that group being qualified to play in Extraliga the following season while the 3rd and 4th plays in the First League.
Since the 2006–07 season, 3 points have been awarded for a regulation win and 2 points for an overtime victory, while the defeated team in overtime gets 1 point. If necessary, penalty shots are used to decide games after overtime.
From the 2006–07 season through the 2007–08 season there was only one assist credited for each goal instead of the standard two that other leagues credit. This rule change affected league statistics in a negative manner, and so the rule was changed back to the standard two assists starting in the 2008–09 season.
During the 2011–12 season the association of Czech Extraliga managers attempted to close the league to prevent any relegations to or promoting from the second tier national league and also set a maximum salary cap similar to the NHL system. However, after some legal difficulties and strong opposition by the public the whole proposition was scratched.