Digital Living Network Alliance
|Headquarters||4000 Kruse Way Place, Bldg 2, Ste 250 Lake Oswego, Oregon USA|
The Digital Living Network Alliance (DLNA) is a non-profit collaborative trade organization established by Sony in June 2003, that is responsible for defining interoperability guidelines to enable sharing of digital media between multimedia devices. These guidelines are built upon existing public standards, but the guidelines themselves are private (available for a fee). These guidelines specify a set of restricted ways of using the standards to achieve interoperability.
DLNA uses Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) for media management, discovery and control. UPnP defines the type of device that DLNA supports ("server", "renderer", "controller") and the mechanisms for accessing media over a network. The DLNA guidelines then apply a layer of restrictions over the types of media file format, encodings and resolutions that a device must support.
As of February 2013, over 18,000 different device models have obtained "DLNA Certified" status, indicated by a logo on their packaging and confirming their interoperability with other devices. It is estimated that more than 440 million DLNA-certified devices, from digital cameras to game consoles and TVs, have been installed in users' homes.
Sony established the DLNA in June 2003 as the Digital Home Working Group, changing to its current name 12 months later, when the first set of guidelines for DLNA was published. Home Networked Device Interoperability Guidelines v1.5 was published in March 2006 and expanded in October of the same year; the changes included the addition of two new product categories — printers, and mobile devices — as well as an "increase of DLNA Device Classes from two to twelve" and an increase in supported user scenarios related to the new product categories.
The DLNA Certified Device Classes are separated as follows:
Home Network Devices 
- Digital Media Server (DMS): store content and make it available to networked digital media players (DMP) and digital media renderers (DMR). Examples include PCs and network-attached storage(NAS) devices.
- Digital Media Player (DMP): find content on digital media servers (DMS) and provide playback and rendering capabilities. Examples include TVs, stereos and home theaters, wireless monitors and game consoles.
- Digital Media Renderer (DMR): play content as instructed by a digital media controller (DMC), which will find content from a digital media server (DMS). Examples include TVs, audio/video receivers, video displays and remote speakers for music. It is possible for a single device (e.g. TV, A/V receiver, etc.) to function both as a DMR (receives "pushed" content from DMS) and DMP ("pulls" content from DMS)
- Digital Media Controller (DMC): find content on digital media servers (DMS) and instruct digital media renderers (DMR) to play the content. Content doesn't stream from or through the DMC. Examples include Internet tablets, Wi-Fi enabled digital cameras and smartphones.
- Digital Media Printer (DMPr): provide printing services to the DLNA home network. Generally, digital media players (DMP) and digital media controllers (DMC) with print capability can print to DMPr. Examples include networked photo printers and networked all-in-one printers
Mobile Handheld Devices 
- Mobile Digital Media Server (M-DMS): store content and make it available to wired/wireless networked mobile digital media players (M-DMP), digital media renderers (DMR) and digital media printers (DMPr). Examples include mobile phones and portable music players.
- Mobile Digital Media Player (M-DMP): find and play content on a digital media server (DMS) or mobile digital media server (M-DMS). Examples include mobile phones and mobile media tablets designed for viewing multimedia content.
- Mobile Digital Media Uploader (M-DMU): send (upload) content to a digital media server (DMS) or mobile digital media server (M-DMS). Examples include digital cameras and mobile phones.
- Mobile Digital Media Downloader (M-DMD): find and store (download) content from a digital media server (DMS) or mobile digital media server (M-DMS). Examples include portable music players and mobile phones.
- Mobile Digital Media Controller (M-DMC): find content on a digital media server (DMS) or mobile digital media server (M-DMS) and send it to digital media renderers (DMR). Examples include personal digital assistants (PDAs) and mobile phones.
Home Infrastructure Devices 
- Mobile Network Connectivity Function (M-NCF): provide a bridge between mobile handheld device network connectivity and home network connectivity.
- Media Interoperability Unit (MIU): provide content transformation between required media formats for home network and mobile handheld devices.
Member companies 
As of June 2011, there are 26 promoter members and 199 contributor members. The promoter members are:
ACCESS, AT&T Labs, Awox, Broadcom, CableLabs, Cisco Systems, Comcast, DIRECTV, Dolby Laboratories, DTS, Ericsson, Google, Hewlett-Packard, HTC, Huawei, Intel, LG Electronics, Microsoft, Nokia, Panasonic, Qualcomm, Samsung Electronics, Sony Electronics, Technicolor, and Verizon.
DLNA is run by a board of directors consisting of 9 members. There are 8 permanent representatives from the following companies: Broadcom, Intel, Microsoft, Nokia, Samsung Electronics, Sony Electronics, Technicolor and one elected by the promoter members, AwoX.
The board of directors oversees the activity of the four following committees:
- Ecosystem Committee, planning the future development of DLNA guidelines
- Compliance & Test Committee, overseeing the certification program and its evolutions
- Marketing Committee, actively promoting DLNA worldwide
- Technical Committee, writing the DLNA guidelines
Products supporting DLNA 
DLNA-certified devices 
There are over nine thousand products on the market that are DLNA Certified. This includes TVs, DVD and Blu-ray players, games consoles, digital media players, photo frames, cameras, NAS devices, PCs, mobile handsets, and more. “According to a study from ABI Research, nearly 200 million such products shipped in 2008; that number will rise to more than 300 million in 2012, and the growth curve accelerates even faster in the years that follow.” Consumers can see if their product is certified by looking for a DLNA logo on the device or by verifying certification through the DLNA Product Search.
Manufacturers can seek certification testing from a DLNA Accredited Independent Certification Vendor such as Digital TV Labs.
DLNA technology components 
As the past president of DLNA pointed out to the Register in March 2009:
The vendors of software are allowed to claim that their software is a DLNA Technology Component if the software has gone through certification testing on a device and the device has been granted DLNA Certification. DLNA Technology Components are not marketed to the consumer but only to industry.
DLNA Interoperability Guidelines allow manufacturers to participate in the growing marketplace of networked devices and are separated into the below sections of key technology components.
- Network and Connectivity
- Device and Service Discovery and Control
- Media Format and Transport Model
- Media Management, Distribution and Control
- Digital Rights Management and Content Protection
DLNA-certified software 
In 2005, DLNA began a Software Certification program in order to make it easier for consumers to share their digital media across a broader range of products. DLNA is certifying software that is sold directly to consumers through retailers, websites and mobile application stores. With DLNA Certified software, consumers can upgrade products from within their home networks that may not be DLNA Certified and bring them into their personal DLNA ecosystems. This helps in bringing content such as videos, photos and music stored on DLNA Certified devices to a larger selection of consumer electronics, mobile and PC products.
DLNA-certified products 
- AwoX mediaCTRL is a commercial server. It is based on AwoX DLNA Technology component software development kits.
- CyberLink SoftDMA 2. Appears to be just a DMP.
- Nokia N9 shares multimedia including music, pictures or videos.
- Samsung Galaxy S II shares multimedia including music, pictures or videos.
- Samsung Galaxy S III mini shares multimedia including music, pictures or videos.
- Nero MediaHome 4 a commercial media server for Windows with realtime transcoding and live TV streaming functionality. Free trial version is available.
- MS Xbox 360 is a DLNA Certified DMR.
||It has been suggested that this article be merged with Comparison of UPnP AV MediaServers. (Discuss) Proposed since July 2011.|
- Asset UPnP/DLNA, Audio specific UPnP/DLNA server for Windows & Windows Home Server. Features album art, audio WAVE/LPCM transcoding from a huge range of audio codecs, ReplayGain support for streamed audio. Customizable browse tree.
- CyberLink Media Server 2. Appears to be just a DMS.
- Jamcast, a DLNA compliant media server for MS Windows that is capable of streaming any audio playing on the PC to DLNA devices.
- Mezzmo is a feature-packed UPnP/DLNA media server with on-the-fly transcoding and media organizing features.
- PlayOn from MediaMall. Appears to be a DMS, also capable of serving streamed internet media such as Netflix, Hulu, Google YouTube, CNN, ESPN.
- PS3 Media Server. An open source (GPLv2) DLNA compliant UPnP Media Server for the Sony PS3, written in Java, with the purpose of streaming or transcoding any kind of media files, with minimum configuration.
- Serviio is a DLNA media server and works with any DLNA compliant device with the purpose of streaming or transcoding any kind of media files (TV, Sony PlayStation 3, etc.) and some other (MS Xbox 360). Frequently updated, has a good support community.
- TwonkyMedia server runs on PC, Apple Mac, GNU/Linux and Android and enables media sharing of local and online media among a large variety of devices.
- TVMOBiLi  – A shareware DLNA/UPnP Media Server for MS Windows, Apple Mac OS X and GNU/Linux. Appears to be just a DMS.
- TVersity, a UPnP MediaServer with strong device support and on-the-fly transcoding. Appears to be just a DMS.
- Wild Media Server (UPnP, DLNA, HTTP), a media server for MS Windows, Wine (GNU/Linux), Wineskin (Apple Mac OS), individual device settings, transcoding, external and internal subtitles, restricted device access to folders, uploading files, Internet-Radio, Internet-Television, Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), DMR-control and "Play To", Music (Visualization), Photo (Slideshow), support for 3D-subtitles, support for music fingerprints.
- Coherence is a framework written in Python to enable applications access to digital living network resources. As a stand alone application it can act as a UPnP/DLNA media server, in combination with a supported client as a media renderer.
- AllShare (UPnP, DLNA), a media server for MS Windows. Clients are also available for mobile Android devices. Works well with Samsung TVs.
- KooRaRoo Media (UPnP, DLNA, HTTP), a multimedia organizer and a media server for Windows. On-the-fly transcoding, supports multiple video/audio streams in files, includes a DMS (server) and a DMC (controller) with "play to" functionality. Works with all DLNA-compatible devices.
- Pixel Media Server is a DLNA compliant Digital Media Server on Android platform. It makes your android Phone/Tablet to DLNA Media Server and publish your media contents (Image/Song/Video) from your Tablet/Phone to the DLNA home network.
Media formats and transport model 
The DLNA media format model is intended to achieve a baseline for network interoperability while encouraging continued innovation in media codec technology. Improvements in media codec technology result in better network bandwidth utilization and media quality for a given bit rate. DLNA requirements on media format support apply to media content that passes over the home network from a DMS or M-DMS device to a DMP or M-DMP device. The DLNA media format model defines a set of required media formats and a set of optional media formats for both device categories and for each of the three classes of media: image, audio, and video with audio (AV). Table 1 and Table 2 show the current set of required formats as defined in the DLNA guidelines. The network interoperability model for media formats is as follows:
All DMS, DMP, DMR, DMC, and DMPr devices, and their counterpart MHD devices, must support all formats designated in Table 1 and Table 2 as required for any of the media classes and device categories they support. In addition, all DMS/M-DMS and DMP/M-DMP/M-DMD devices may support any additional formats designated as optional for any of the media classes they support.
DLNA Media formats for Home Devices
|Media Formats||Required Formats Set||Optional Formats Set|
|Imaging||JPEG||GIF, TIFF, PNG|
|Audio||LPCM (2 channel)||MP3, WMA9, AC-3, AAC, ATRAC3plus|
|Video||MPEG2||MPEG1, MPEG4, WMV9|
Any DMP, M-DMP, DMR, M-DMD and DMPr device must be able to receive content from any DMS or M-DMS device. A DMS or M-DMS device may stream content in its native format if the receiving device supports such native format. Otherwise, that DMS or M-DMS device should transcode the native format to one of the applicable required formats or to a format understood by the rendering device.
DLNA Media formats for Mobile/Handheld Devices
|Media Formats||Required Formats Set||Optional Formats Set|
|Imaging||JPEG||GIF, TIFF, PNG|
|Audio||MP3 and MPEG4 AAC LC||MPEG4 (HE AAC, AAC LTP, BSAC), AMR, ATRAC3plus, G.726, WMA, LPCM|
|Video||MPEG4 AVC (AAC LC Assoc Audio)||VC1, H.263, MPEG4 part 2, MPEG2, MPEG4 AVC (BSAC or other for Assoc. Audio)|
DLNA is in the process of updating the required media formats to provide commonality across the HND and MHD device categories.
See also 
- UPnP (Universal Plug and Play) AV standards
- Consumer Electronics Control (CEC) (lets audio/video equipment cooperate through HDMI connections.)
- Devices Profile for Web Services
- Digital Rights Management
- Digital Transmission Content Protection
- List of UPnP AV media servers and clients
- Comparison of UPnP AV media servers
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