Egyptian Expeditionary Force

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Egyptian Expeditionary Force
Active 1916–1919
Country  British Empire
 France
 Italy
Engagements

First World War

Commanders
Notable
commanders
General Archibald Murray 1916–1917
General Edmund Allenby 1917–1919

The Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) a British Army formation, formed on 10 March 1916 under the command of General Archibald Murray from the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force, and the Force in Egypt (1914–1915) at the beginning of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War. Formed in the British protectorate of the Sultanate of Egypt, the initially small force was raised to guard the Suez Canal and Egypt. After the withdrawal from the Gallipoli Campaign the force grew into a large reserve force designed to provide reinforcements for the Western Front, while the Western Frontier Force fought in the Senussi Campaign from 1915 to 1917, and the Eastern Frontier Force defended the canal at the Battle of Romani in August 1916.[1][2][3][4] Following the victory at Romani part of Eastern Force pursued the Ottoman Empire invading force back to Palestine after the victories at the Battle of Magdhaba in December 1916 and the Battle of Rafa in January 1917, by which time Desert Column had been formed within Eastern Force. These victories which resulted in the recapture of substantial Egyptian territory were followed in March and April, by two EEF defeats on Ottoman Turkish Empire territory, at the First and Second Battles of Gaza in southern Palestine.[5]

During the Stalemate in Southern Palestine from April to October 1917, Murray consolidated the EEF's position and in June General Edmund Allenby took command and began preparations to take the offensive, employing maneuver warfare He reorganised the force into the XX Corps, XXI Corps and Desert Mounted Corps formerly Desert Column.[6] On 31 October two corps captured Beersheba defended by the Turkish III Corps (which had fought at Gallipoli), which weakened their defences stretching almost continually from Gaza to Beersheba. Subsequently the Battle of Tel el Khuweilfe, the Third Battle of Gaza and the Battle of Hareira and Sheria forced the withdrawal from Gaza on the night of 6/7 November at the beginning of the pursuit to Jerusalem. During the subsequent operations, about fifty miles (80 km) of formerly Turkish territory, was captured as a result of the EEF victories at the Battle of Mughar Ridge, fought between 10 and 14 November, and the Battle of Jerusalem fought between 17 November and 30 December. Serious losses on the Western Front in March 1918 during the German Spring Offensive, forced the British Empire to send reinforcements from the EEF. During this time, two unsuccessful attacks were made to capture Amman and to capture Es Salt in March and April 1918, before Allenby's force resumed the offensive, again employing manoeuvre warfare at the Battle of Megiddo. The successful infantry battles at the Battle of Tulkarm and the Battle of Tabsor, created gaps in the Ottoman front line, enabling the pursuit by the Desert Mounted Corps to encircle the infantry fighting in the Judean Hills when fighting occurred during the Battle of Nazareth, the Afulah, Beisan, the Jenin, the Battle of Samakh, and the capture of Tiberias. In the process the EEF destroyed three Turkish Armies during the Battle of Sharon, the Battle of Nablus and the Third Transjordan attack, capturing thousands of prisoners and large quantities of equipment. Subsequently the EEF pursued the surviving German and Turkish forces to Damascus, and Aleppo, before the Ottoman Turkish Empire agreed to the Armistice of Mudros on 30 October 1918, ending the Sinai and Palestine Campaign. The British Mandate of Palestine, and the French Mandate for Syria and Lebanon were created to administer the captured territories.[7]

1916[edit]

Canal Defences (General Murray)

No.1 Section, Headquarters SuezIX Corps (January to March)

No.2 Section, Headquarters IsmailiaI Anzac Corps (January to March)

Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade
Jodhpur Lancers
Mysore Lancers
Hyderabad Lancers
11th Light Horse Regiment
12th Light Horse Regiment

(incomplete)

No.3 Section, Headquarters Port Said – (Major General H.A. Lawrence)

42nd (East Lancashire) Division
125th (Lancashire Fusiliers) Brigade
126th (East Lancashire) Brigade
127th (Manchester) Brigade
52nd (Lowland) Division (Major General W.E.B. Smith)
155th (South Scottish) Brigade
156th (Scottish Rifles) Brigade
157th (Highland Light Infantry) Brigade[Note 1]
Australian and New Zealand Mounted Division (Anzac Mounted Division) (Major General Sir H.G. Chauvel)
1st Australian Light Horse Brigade
1st Light Horse Regiment
2nd Light Horse Regiment
3rd Light Horse Regiment
Leicestershire Royal Horse Artillery
2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade
5th Light Horse Regiment
6th Light Horse Regiment
7th Light Horse Regiment
Ayrshire Royal Horse Artillery
3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade
8th Light Horse Regiment
9th Light Horse Regiment
10th Light Horse Regiment
Inverness-shire Royal Horse Artillery
New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade (Brigadier General E. W. C. Chaytor)
Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel C. E. R. Mackesy
Canterbury Mounted Rifles Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel J. Findlay)
Wellington Mounted Rifles Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel W. Meldrum)
Somerset Royal Horse Artillery[8][9][10][11][12]
5th Mounted Brigade (Brigadier General E.A. Wiggin)
Royal Gloucestershire Hussars
Warwickshire Yeomanry
Worcestershire Yeomanry
Imperial Camel Corps Brigade (Brigadier General C.L. Smith VC)
1st (Australian) Battalion
2nd (British) Battalion
3rd (Australian) Battalion
4th (ANZAC) Battalion[8][9][10][11][13][14]
No. 1 Squadron, Australian Flying Corps (Lieutenant Colonel E. H. Reynold)
A Flight (Captain W. Sheldon – four machines later expanded to six)
B Flight (Lieutenant Manwell – four machines later expanded to six)
C Flight (Captain Williams – four machines later expanded to six)

Until almost the end of 1917, No. l Squadron, A.F.C., and No. 14 Squadron, R.F.C., were the sole flying units east of the Suez Canal.[15]

General organisation in April 1916[edit]

General Headquarters

General Headquarters Troops
No. 1 Section (IX Corps)
No. 2 Section (II ANZAC)
No. 3 Section (Anzac Mounted Division
Western Frontier Force
Northwestern Section
Southwestern Section
L. of C. Defence Troops
Inspector-General of Communications
Alexandria District
Cyprus Garrison
Lines of Communication Units[16]

Order of battle April[edit]

General Headquarters

  • Commander in Chief – Lieutenant General (temp. General) A. J. Murray
  • Chief of General Staff – Major General A. L. Lynden-Bell

Headquarters of Administrative services and departments Army Signals, Work, Supplies and Transport, Railways, Ordnance, Remounts, Veterinary Services, Medical Services, Army Postal Services, Paymaster Inspector General of Communication and Levant Base

Anzac Mounted Division GOC Colonel (temp. Major General) H.G. Chauvel
1st Light Horse Brigade (Western Force) GOC Lieutenant Colonel C. F. Cox (acting)
1st Light Horse Regiment
2nd Light Horse Regiment
3rd Light Horse Regiment
4th Light Horse Regiment (attached)
2nd Light Horse Brigade GOC Colonel (temp. Brigadier General G. de L. Ryrie
5th Light Horse Regiment
6th Light Horse Regiment
7th Light Horse Regiment
12th Light Horse Regiment (attached)
3rd Light Horse Brigade GOC Brevet Lieutenant Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) J. M Antill
8th Light Horse Regiment
9th Light Horse Regiment
10th Light Horse Regiment
11th Light Horse Regiment (attached)
New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade GOC Brigadier General E. W. C. Chaytor)
Auckland Mounted Rifle Regiment
Canterbury Mounted Rifle Regiment
Wellington Mounted Rifle Regiment
Otago Mounted Rifles Regiment (attached)

Divisional Troops

Artillery
III Brigade, Royal Horse Artillery (T.F.) Leicestershire and Somerset Batteries
IV Brigade, Royal Horse Artillery (T.F.) Inverness-shire and Ayrshire Batteries
Engineers
1st Australian Field Squadron
Signal Service
1st Anzac Signal Squadron
Army Service Corps (ASC)
HQ, Light Horse Divisional ASC
Light Horse Supply Column (M.T.)
Medical Units
1st, 2nd and 3rd Light Horse Field Ambulances
NZ Mounted Brigade Ambulance

IX Corps GOC Major General (temp. Lieutenant General) F. J. Davies

Corps Troops
Mounted Troops
8th Mounted Brigade
1/1st City of London Yeomanry
1/1st County of London Yeomanry
1/3rd County of London Yeomanry
1/1st London Signal Troop
"B" Battery, H.A.C.
No. 9 Field Troop
1/1st London Mounted Brigade Field Ambulance
Signal Service
HH and KK Cable Section
London Pack Wireless Section
Northern Wagon Wireless Section

42nd (East Lancashire) Division GOC Major General W. Douglas

125th Infantry Brigade GOC Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) H. C. Frith
1/5th Lancashire Fusiliers
1/6th Lancashire Fusiliers
1/7th Lancashire Fusiliers
1/8th Lancashire Fusiliers
125th Brigade Machine Gun Company
126th Infantry Brigade GOC Major (temp. Brigadier General) A. W. Tufnell
1/4th East Lancashire Regiment
1/5th East Lancashire Regiment
1/9th Manchester Regiment
1/10th Manchester Regiment
126th Brigade Machine Gun Company
127th Infantry Brigade GOC Lieutenant Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) V. A. Ormsby
1/5th Manchester Regiment
1/6th Manchester Regiment
1/7th Manchester Regiment
1/8th Manchester Regiment
127th Brigade Machine Gun Company

Divisional Troops

Mounted Troops
1 Squadron Duke of Lancaster's Yeomanry
13th Cyclist Company
Artillery
1/1st East Lancashire Brigade RFA
1/2nd East Lancashire Brigade RFA
1/3rd East Lancashire Brigade RFA
1/4th East Lancashire (Howitzer) Brigade RFA
42nd Divisional Ammunition Column
Engineers
1/1st East Lancashire Field Company RE
1/2nd East Lancashire Field Company RE
1/2nd West Lancashire Field Company RE
Signal Service
42nd Divisional Signal Company
ASC
42nd Divisional Train
Medical Units
1/1st, 1/2nd and 1/3rd East Lancashire Field Ambulances

3rd Dismounted Brigade (attached) GOC Lieutenant Colonel Lord Kensington (Acting)

1/1st Royal East Kent Yeomanry
1/1st West Kent Yeomanry
1/1st Sussex Yeomanry
1/1st Welsh Horse
1/1st Norfolk Yeomanry
1/1st Suffolk Yeomanry
Machine Gun Company
3rd Dismounted Brigade Signal Troop
1/1st Eastern and 1/1st South Eastern Mounted Brigade Field Ambulances

54th (East Anglian) Division GOC Colonel (temp. Major General) S. W. Hare

161st Infantry Brigade
1/4th Essex Regiment
1/5th Essex Regiment
1/6th Essex Regiment
1/7th Essex Regiment
161st Machine Gun Company
162nd Infantry Brigade
1/5th Bedfordshire Regiment
1/4th Northamptonshire Regiment
1/10th London Regiment
1/11th London Regiment
162nd Machine Gun Company
163rd Infantry Brigade
1/4th Norfolk Regiment
1/5th Norfolk Regiment
1/8th Hampshire Regiment
163rd Machine Gun Company

Divisional Troops

Mounted Troops
1 Squadron 1/1st Hertfordshire Yeomanry (with HQ and Machine Gun Section)
Artillery
1/1st East Anglian Brigade RFA
1/2nd East Anglian Brigade RFA
1/3rd East Anglian Brigade RFA
1/4th East Anglian Brigade RFA
54th Divisional Ammunition Column (one officer and 35 other ranks)
Engineers
2/1st East Anglian Field Company RE
1/2nd East Anglian Field Company RE
1/1st Kent Field Company RE
Signal Service
54th Divisional Signal Company
ASC
54th Divisional Train (Supply details only)
Medical Units
2/1st, 1/2nd and 1/3rd East Anglian Field Ambulances

20th (Indian) Infantry Brigade (attached) GOC Brigadier General H. D. Watson

2/3rd Gurkhas
58th Rifles
Alwar Infantry
Gwalior Infantry

29th Indian Infantry Brigade GOC Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) P. C. Palin

23rd Pioneers
57th Rifles
Patiala Infantry
No. 10 Co. King's Own Sappers and Miners
110, 121, 135 Indian Field Ambulances
7th and 26th Mule Corps

II Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (II ANZAC) GOC Major General (temp. LIeutenant General) A. J. Godley

Corps Troops
Signal Service
No. 24 Airline Section
FF and NN Cable Sections
1st Australian Ammunition Park
1st Australian Supply Column
Royal Australian Navy Bridging Train
14th Fortress Company RE

4th Australian Division GOC Major General H. V. Cox

4th Australian Infantry Brigade

GOC Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) J. Monash

13th Battalion
14th Battalion
15th Battalion
16th Battalion
4th Machine Gun Company
12th Australian Infantry Brigade
45th Battalion
46th Battalion
47th Battalion
48th Battalion
12th Machine Gun Company
13th Australian Infantry Brigade
49th Battalion
50th Battalion
51st Battalion
52nd Battalion
13th Machine Gun Company

Divisional Troops

Mounted Troops
"B" Squadron 13th Light Horse Regiment
4th Divisional Cyclist Company
Artillery
X Field Artillery Brigade
XI Field Artillery Brigade
XII Field Artillery Brigade
XXIV Howitzer Brigade
4th Divisional Ammunition Column
Engineers
4th Field Company
12th Field Company
13th Field Company
Signal Service
4th Divisional Signal Company
Pioneers
4th Pioneer Battalion
ASC
7th, 14th, 26th and 27th Coys, AASC
Medical Units
4th, 12th, 13th Field Ambulances

5th Australian Division GOC Colonel (temp Major General) J. W. McCay

8th Australian Infantry Brigade
29th Battalion
30th Battalion
31st Battalion
32nd Battalion
8th Machine Gun Company
14th Australian Infantry Brigade
53rd Battalion
54th Battalion
55th Battalion
56th Battalion
14th Machine Gun Company
15th Australian Infantry Brigade
57th Battalion
58th Battalion
59th Battalion
60th Battalion
15th Machine Gun Company

Divisional Troops

Mounted Troops
"C" Squadron 13th Light Horse Regiment
5th Divisional Cyclist Company
Artillery
XIII Field Artillery Brigade
XIV Field Artillery Brigade
XV Field Artillery Brigade
XXV Howitzer Brigade
5th Divisional Ammunition Column
Engineers
8th Field Company
14th Field Company
15th Field Company
Signal Service
5th Divisional Signal Company
Pioneers
5th Pioneer Battalion
ASC
10th, 18th, 28th and 29th Coys, AASC
Medical Units
8th, 14th, 15th Field Ambulances

11th (Northern) Division GOC Major General E. A. Fanshawe

32nd Infantry Brigade
9th West Yorkshire Regiment
6th Yorkshire Regiment
8th West Riding Regiment
6th York and Lancaster Regiment
32nd Brigade Machine Gun Company
33rd Infantry Brigade
6th Lincolnshire Regiment
6th Border Regiment
7th South Staffordshire Regiment
9th Sherwood Foresters
33rd Brigade Machine Gun Company
34th Infantry Brigade
8th Northumberland Fusiliers
9th Lancashire Fusiliers
5th Dorsetshire Regiment
11th Manchester Regiment
34th Brigade Machine Gun Company

Divisional Troops

Mounted Troops
1 Squadron 1/1st Hertfordshire Yeomanry
11th Cyclist Company
Artillery
LVIII Brigade RFA
LIX Brigade RFA
LX Brigade RFA
CXXXIII Brigade RFA
Engineers
67th Field Company RE
68th Field Company RE
86th Field Company RE
Signal Service
11th Divisional Signal Company
Pioneers
6th East Yorkshire Regiment
ASC
11th Divisional Train (Supply details only)
Medical Units
33rd, 34th, 35th Field Ambulances

No. 3 Section Canal Defences GOC etc Headquarters 52nd Division

Corps Troops
Mounted Troops
5th Mounted Brigade
1/1st Warwick Yeomanry
1/1st Gloucester Yeomanry
1/1st Worcester Yeomanry
1/1st South Midland Signal Troop
"A" Battery, H.A.C.
No. 7 Field Troop
1/1st South Midland Mounted Brigade Field Ambulance
Engineers
220th Army Troops Company RE
Signal Service
No. 21 Airline Section
WW Cable Section

52nd (Lowland) Division GOC Major General H. A. Lawrence

155th Infantry Brigade
1/4th Royal Scots Fusiliers
1/5th Royal Scots Fusiliers
1/4th King's Own Scottish Borderers
1/5th King's Own Scottish Borderers
155th Brigade Machine Gun Company
156th Infantry Brigade
1/4th Royal Scots
1/7th Royal Scots
1/7th Scottish Rifles
1/8th Scottish Rifles
156th Brigade Machine Gun Company
157th Infantry Brigade
1/5th Highland Light Infantry
1/6th Highland Light Infantry
1/7th Highland Light Infantry
1/5th Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders
157th Brigade Machine Gun Company

Divisional Troops

Mounted Troops
HQ and "C" Squadron Royal Glasgow Yeomanry
52nd Cyclist Company
Artillery
1/2nd Lowland Brigade RFA
1/3rd Lowland Brigade RFA
1/4th Lowland Brigade RFA
1/5th Lowland Brigade RFA
52nd Divisional Ammunition Column (one officer and 35 other ranks)
Engineers
2/1st Lowland Field Company RE
2/2nd Lowland Field Company RE
1/2nd Lowland Field Company RE
Signal Service
52nd Divisional Signal Company
ASC
52nd Divisional Train
Medical Units
1/1st, 1/2nd and 1/3rd Lowland Field Ambulances

1st Dismounted Brigade (attached) GOC Temp Brigadier General Marquess of Tullibardine

1/1st Scottish Horse
1/2nd Scottish Horse
1/3rd Scottish Horse
1/1st Ayr Yeomanry
1/1st Lanark Yeomanry
Machine Gun Company
1st Dismounted Brigade Signal Troop
1/1st Scottish and 1/1st Lowland Mounted Brigade Field Ambulances

Western Frontier Force GOC Major General W. E. Peyton

Force Troops
Mounted Troops
6th Mounted Brigade
1/1st Buckinghamshire Yeomanry
1/1st Berkshire Yeomanry
1/1st Dorsetshire Yeomanry
1/2nd South Midland Field Troop Signal [sic]
No. 6 Field Troop
1/2nd South Midland Mounted Brigade Field Ambulance
1/2nd County of London Yeomanry (attached)
Royal Flying Corps
No. 17 Squadron
Artillery
1/1st Berkshire Battery RHA
1/1st Nottinghamshire Battery RHA
Infantry
1st Battalion British West Indies Regiment
2nd Battalion British West Indies Regiment
3rd Battalion British West Indies Regiment
Signal Service
2nd Mounted Divisional Signal Squadron
No. 42 Airline Section
UU Cable Section
No. 6 Pack Wireless Section

North Western Section GOC etc Headquarters 53rd Division

53rd (Welsh) Division GOC Colonel (temp. Major General) A. E. Dallas

158th Infantry Brigade
1/5th Royal Welch Fusiliers
1/6th Royal Welch Fusiliers
1/7th Royal Welch Fusiliers
1/1st Herefordshire Regiment
158th Brigade Machine Gun Company
159th Infantry Brigade
1/4th Cheshire Regiment
1/7th Cheshire Regiment
1/4th Welch Regiment
1/5th Welch Regiment
159th Brigade Machine Gun Company
160th Infantry Brigade
1/4th Royal Sussex Regiment
2/4th Royal West Surrey Regiment
2/4th Royal West Kent Regiment
2/10th Middlesex Regiment
160th Brigade Machine Gun Company

Divisional Troops

Mounted Troops
1 Squadron 1/1st Hertfordshire Yeomanry
53rd Divisional Cyclist Company
Artillery
1/1st Cheshire Brigade RFA
1/1st Welsh Brigade RFA
1/2nd Welsh Brigade RFA
1/4th Welsh Brigade RFA
53rd Divisional Ammunition Column (one officer and 35 other ranks)
Engineers
1/1st Welsh Field Company RE
2/1st Welsh Field Company RE
2/1st Cheshire Field Company RE
Signal Service
53rd Divisional Signal Company
ASC
53rd Divisional Train
Medical Units
1/1st, 1/2nd and 1/3rd Welsh Field Ambulances

4th Dismounted Brigade (attached) GOC Temp Brigadier General John Stewart-Murray, Marquess of Tullibardine

1/1st Shropshire Yeomanry
1/1st Denbighshire Yeomanry
1/1st Cheshire Yeomanry
1/1st Glamorgan Yeomanry
1/1st Montgomeryshire Yeomanry
1/1st Pembrokeshire Yeomanry
Machine Gun Company
4th Dismounted Brigade Signal Troop
1/1st Welsh Border and 1/1st South Wales Mounted Brigade Field Ambulances

22nd Mounted Brigade

1/1st Lincolnshire Yeomanry
1/1st Staffordshire Yeomanry
1/1st East Riding Yeomanry
Signal Troop
Mounted Brigade, ASC
Mounted Brigade Field Ambulance

Provisional Infantry Brigade (less Headquarters)

1/6th Royal Scots
2/5th Devonshire Regiment
2/7th Middlesex Regiment
2/8th Middlesex Regiment
2nd Garrison battalion, Liverpool Regiment
2 Naval 4-inch guns
1/2nd Kent Field Company RE

17th Motor Machine Gun Battery No. 1 Armoured Train

South Western Section GOC Colonel (temp Brigadier General) H. W. Hodgson

Mounted Troops
1st Australian Light Horse Brigade (see above)
1 squadron Egyptian Army Cavalry
Infantry
2nd Garrison Battalion Cheshire Regiment
1 Company and Machine Gun Section Egyptian Army
Signal Service
Detachment 2nd Mounted Divisional Signal Squadron
Emergency Squadron, Royal Naval Armoured Car Division
H.Q. and Nos. 1, 2, 3 Light Armoured Motor Batteries
No. 2 Armoured Train

General Headquarters Troops

Mounted Troops
Imperial Camel Corps
Birkanir Camel Corps
Royal Flying Corps
5th Wing Royal Flying Corps
No. 14 Squadron RFC
No. 17 Squadron RFC (with Western Force)
2 Kite Balloon Sections (Naval)

Artillery

Heavy Artillery
XX Brigade Royal Garrison Artillery (RGA)
10th, 15th 91st Heavy Batteries RGA
1 Heavy Battery and 1 Section Heavy Battery, Royal Marine Artillery
Stokes Gun Batteries
125th, 126th, 161st, 162nd Brigade Batteries
Anti-Aircraft Artillery
Nos. 30 and 38 Anti-Aircraft Sections
Mountain Artillery
4th Highland Mountain Battery RGA
Armoured Cars
Nos 11 and 12 Armoured Motor Batteries

Engineers

11th, 116, 276th Railway Companies RE

Signal Service

GHQ Signal Company
Nos 14 and 15 Airline Sections,
NA, NB and VV Cable Sections
Unallotted
Southern Motor, W/T Station
No. 5 Pack Wireless Section

ASC

338th, 493rd, 619th Mechanical Transport Companies ASC

Transport

Camel Transport Corps
59th, 62nd, 70th, 191st Camel Corps

Lines of Communication Defence Troops

Mounted Troops
Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade
Mysore Lancers
1st Hyderabad Lancers
Kathiwar Signal Troop
124th Indian Cavalry Field Ambulance
Infantry
1st Garrison Battalion, Essex Regiment
2nd Garrison Battalion, Royal Welch Fusiliers
1st Garrison Battalion, Devonshire Regiment
1st Garrison Battalion, Royal Scots (less two companies)
1st Garrison Battalion, Liverpool Regiment
1st Garrison Battalion, Royal Irish Regiment
19th Garrison Battalion, Rifle Brigade
20th Garrison Battalion, Rifle Brigade
21st Garrison Battalion, Rifle Brigade
22nd Garrison Battalion, Rifle Brigade
1st Garrison Battalion, Royal Warwickshire Regiment (Khartoum)

Alexandria District

Coast Defence Artillery
84th Siege Battery RGA
92nd Company RGA, Mex Battery
Ras el Tin Battery
Silsileh Battery
"Y" Battery Royal Malta Artillery

and Lines of Communications units of Infantry, Signal Service, Engineers, ASC, Medical Units, Ordnance Units, Veterinary Units and Postal Units.[17]

Distribution, 27 July[edit]

Eastern Frontier No. 1 Section

8th Mounted Brigade
54th (East Anglian) Division (less 163rd Brigade)
20th Indian Infantry Brigade
29th Indian Infantry Brigade

No. 2 Section

3rd Light Horse Brigade
160th (Welsh Border) Brigade (53rd Division)
163rd Infantry Brigade (54th Division)
British West Indies Brigade

No. 2a Section

42nd (East Lancashire) Division

No. 3 Section

Anzac Mounted Division
5th Mounted Brigade
52nd (Lowland) Division
158th Brigade (53rd Division)
1st Dismounted Brigade

Western Frontier

6th Mounted Brigade
22nd Mounted Brigade
Part 53rd Division
2nd Dismounted Brigade
4th Dismounted Brigade[18]

No. 3 Section Canal Defences August[edit]

Canal Defences No. 3 Section Headquarters Kantara (included Romani) (Major General H.A. Lawrence)

Force Defending Romani on 4 August

52nd (Lowland) Division (Major General W.E.B. Smith)
155th (South Scottish) Brigade
156th (Scottish Rifles) Brigade
157th (Highland Light Infantry) Brigade
Anzac Mounted Division (Major General Sir H.G. Chauvel)
1st Australian Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General J. B. H. Meredith)
1st Light Horse Regiment
2nd Light Horse Regiment
3rd Light Horse Regiment
2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General J. R. Royston)
Wellington Mounted Rifle Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel W. Meldrum) detached from New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade
6th Light Horse Regiment
7th Light Horse Regiment
(5th Light Horse Regiment at Duidar)

Force moved to Romani during 4 August and took part in the battle

5th Mounted Brigade (Brigadier General E.A. Wiggin)
Gloucestershire Hussars
Warwickshire Yeomanry
Worcestershire Yeomanry
New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade (Brigadier General E. W. C. Chaytor)
Auckland Mounted Rifle Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel C. E. R. Mackesy
Canterbury Mounted Rifle Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel J. Findlay)

Force moved to Romani during 4 August and took part in the battle on 5 August

42nd (East Lancashire) Division
125th (Lancashire Fusiliers) Brigade
126th (East Lancashire) Brigade
127th (Manchester) Brigade
3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade
8th Light Horse Regiment
9th Light Horse Regiment
10th Light Horse Regiment[19][20]

Eastern Frontier Force[edit]

October 1916

Eastern Frontier Force, also known as Eastern Force, was formed in Cairo on 18 October 1916 with headquarters at Ismailia. The force was commanded by Lieutenant General C. M. Dobell, who had previously commanded Western Frontier Force.[21] Eastern Force consisted of

52nd (Lowland) Division
155th (South Scottish) Brigade
156th (Scottish Rifles) Brigade
157th (Highland Light Infantry) Brigade
53rd (Welsh) Division
158th (North Wales) Brigade
159th (Cheshire) Brigade
160th (Welsh Border) Brigade
54th (East Anglian) Division
161st (Essex) Brigade
162nd (East Midland) Brigade
163rd (Norfolk & Suffolk) Brigade
Anzac Mounted Division
1st Australian Light Horse Brigade
1st Light Horse Regiment
2nd Light Horse Regiment
3rd Light Horse Regiment
4th Light Horse Regiment (attached)
2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade
5th Light Horse Regiment
6th Light Horse Regiment
7th Light Horse Regiment
12th Light Horse Regiment (attached)
3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade (commander Brevet Lieutenant Colonel J. M. Antill)
8th Light Horse Regiment
9th Light Horse Regiment
10th Light Horse Regiment
11th Light Horse Regiment (attached)
New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade
Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment
Canterbury Mounted Rifles Regiment
Wellington Mounted Rifles Regiment
Otago Mounted Rifles Regiment (less one squadron attached)
4 Territorial Royal Horse Artillery Batteries 2 Scottish and 2 English (Ayrshire, Inverness-shire, Somerset and Leicestershire Batteries)
5th Mounted Brigade
Gloucestershire Hussars
Warwickshire Yeomanry
Worcestershire Yeomanry
Imperial Camel Corps Brigade
2 Light Car Patrols

No. 1 Squadron, Australian Flying Corps[22][23][24]

Western Frontier Force[edit]

October 1916 to February 1917

Western Desert Force (Major General William Watson)

Egyptian Army troops Darfur
Sollum Recapture (Major General W. E. Peyton)
Siwa Raid (General H. W. Hodgson)
1st Light Horse Brigade
Imperial Camel Corps
Bikanir Camel Corps
Armoured Car Brigade (11 Rolls–Royces)
6 Light Car Patrols (Model T Fords armed with Lewis guns)[25][26][27]

Order of battle 23 December[edit]

Anzac Mounted Division (Major General Chauvel)
1st Light Horse Brigade
1st Light Horse Regiment
2nd Light Horse Regiment
3rd Light Horse Regiment
3rd Light Horse Brigade
8th Light Horse Regiment
9th Light Horse Regiment
10th Light Horse Regiment
New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade (Brigadier General E. W. C. Chaytor)
Auckland Mounted Rifle Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel C. E. R. Mackesy
Canterbury Mounted Rifle Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel J. Findlay)
Wellington Mounted Rifle Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel W. Meldrum)
Imperial Camel Corps Brigade
Hong Kong & Singapore Mountain Battery,
Inverness-shire and Somerset Batteries Royal Horse Artillery
No. 1 Squadron Australian Flying Corps
No. 14 Squadron Royal Flying Corps[28][29][30]

Desert Column December[edit]

Desert Column Headquarters El Arish (Lieutenant General Sir Philip Chetwode)

42nd (East Lancashire) Division
125th (Lancashire Fusiliers) Brigade
126th (East Lancashire) Brigade
127th (Manchester) Brigade
52nd (Lowland) Division (Major General W.E.B. Smith)
155th (South Scottish) Brigade
156th (Scottish Rifles) Brigade
157th (Highland Light Infantry) Brigade
Anzac Mounted Division (Major General H. G. Chauvel)
1st Light Horse Brigade
2nd Light Horse Brigade
3rd Light Horse Brigade
New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade
Imperial Camel Corps Brigade

[31] [32][33][34][35]

Royal Flying Corps 5th Wing stationed at Mustabig (Lieutenant Colonel W G H Salmond)
No. 14 (British) Squadron
(No. 17 Squadron)
No. 1 Squadron Australian Flying Corps / No. 67 (Australian) Squadron[29]

1917[edit]

Royal Flying Corps in Egypt in January 1917

Headquarters Middle East Brigade
5th Wing
No. 14 Squadron Royal Flying Corps
No. 67 Squadron Royal Flying Corps
20th Reserve Wing
Nos. 21, 22, 23, 57 and 58 Reserve Squadrons
No. 3 School of Military Aeronautics.[36]

By January 1917 there were three smaller commands directly under GHQ EEF.

Western Force

Bikanir Camel Corps
230th Brigade
231st Brigade
Detachments R.A., dismounted (seven 15-pdr. guns, two 9-pdr. Krupp guns, two Naval 4-in. guns)
5 Armoured Motor Batteries
6 Light Car Patrols (Ford)
Motor Machine Gun Battery
1 Garrison Battalion

Alexandria District

103rd Local Company RGA
5th Battalion British West Indies Regiment[37][Note 2]
2 Garrison Battalions

Delta District

2nd Battalion North Lancs Regiment (from East Africa)
1/4th Battalion Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry (from Aden)
5 Garrison Battalions

With the front line approaching Gaza, the defence of the Suez Canal was still part of Eastern Force but had been reduced to:

Northern Section Suez Canal

20th (Indian) Brigade
1st Battalion British West Indies Regiment
2nd Battalion British West Indies Regiment
3 Garrison Battalions

Southern Section Suez Canal

Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade
2 Companies Imperial Camel Corps
267th Brigade RFA (53rd Division)
272nd Brigade RFA (54th Division
229th Brigade (to form part of the 74th Division).[37]

Order of Battle 9 January[edit]

Desert Column (Lieutenant General Chetwode)

Anzac Mounted Division (Major General Chauvel)
1st Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General C. F. Cox)
3rd Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General Royston)
New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade (Brigadier General E. W. C. Chaytor)
Inverness-shire, Leicestershire and Somerset Territorial Royal Horse Artillery batteries
Imperial Camel Corps Brigade
1st (Australian) Battalion
2nd (British) Battalion
3rd (Australian) Battalion
4th (Australian and New Zealand) Battalion
Hong Kong and Singapore Mountain Battery
5th Mounted Brigade
Honourable Artillery Company (18–pounder)Battery
No. 7 Light Car Patrol (six Ford cars equipped with machine guns)
No. 1 Squadron Australian Flying Corps
No. 14 Squadron Royal Flying Corps[38][39][40][41][42][43]

Order of Battle March[edit]

Eastern Force (Lieutenant General Sir C.M. Dobell)

Imperial Camel Corps Brigade (Brigadier General S. Smith)
1st (Australian) Battalion
2nd (British) Battalion
3rd (Australian) Battalion
4th (Anzac) Battalion[44]
52nd (Lowland) Division (Major General W.E.B. Smith)
155th (South Scottish) Brigade
1/4th Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers
1/5th Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers
1/4th Battalion, King's Own Scottish Borderers
1/5th Battalion, King's Own Scottish Borderers
156th (Scottish Rifles) Brigade
1/7th Battalion, Cameronians (Scottish Rifles)
1/8th Battalion, Cameronians (Scottish Rifles)
1/4th Battalion, Royal Scots
1/7th Battalion, Royal Scots
157th (Highland Light Infantry) Brigade
1/5th Battalion, Highland Light Infantry
1/6th Battalion, Highland Light Infantry
1/7th Battalion, Highland Light Infantry
1/5th Battalion, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders[45]
54th (East Anglian) Division (Major General S.W. Hare)
161st (Essex) Brigade
1/4th Battalion, Essex Regiment
1/5th Battalion, Essex Regiment
1/6th Battalion, Essex Regiment
1/7th Battalion, Essex Regiment
162nd (East Midland) Brigade
1/5th Battalion, Bedfordshire Regiment
1/4th Battalion, Northamptonshire Regiment
1/10th Battalion, London Regiment
1/11th Battalion, London Regiment
163rd (Norfolk & Suffolk) Brigade
1/4th Battalion, Norfolk Regiment
1/5th Battalion, Norfolk Regiment
1/5th Battalion, Suffolk Regiment
1/8th Battalion, Hampshire Regiment[46]
74th (Yeomanry) Division (Major General E.S. Girdwood)
229th Brigade
16th Battalion, Devonshire Regiment
12th Battalion, Somerset Light Infantry
12th Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers
14th Battalion, Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment)[47]
No. 7 Light Car Patrol
Nos. 11 and 12 Armoured Motor Batteries
5th Wing Royal Flying Corps
No. 1 Squadron Australian Flying Corps
No. 14 Squadron Royal Flying Corps

Desert Column (Lieutenant General P. Chetwode)

53rd (Welsh) Division (Major General A.G. Dallas)
158th (North Wales) Brigade (Brigadier General H. A. Vernon)
1/5th Battalion, Royal Welsh Fusiliers
1/6th Battalion, Royal Welsh Fusiliers
1/7th Battalion, Royal Welsh Fusiliers
1/1st Battalion, Herefordshire Regiment
158th Brigade Machine Gun Company
159th (Cheshire) Brigade (Brigadier General N. Money)
1/4th Battalion, Cheshire Regiment
1/7th Battalion, Cheshire Regiment
1/4th Battalion, Welch Regiment
1/5th Battalion Welch Regiment
159th Brigade Machine Gun Company
160th (Welsh Border) Brigade (Brigadier General V. L. N. Pearson)
2/4th Battalion, Royal West Surrey Regiment
1/4th Battalion, Royal Sussex Regiment
2/4th Battalion, Royal West Kent Regiment
2/10th Battalion, Middlesex Regiment
160th Brigade Machine Gun Company[48][49]
Anzac Mounted Division (Major General H. G. Chauvel)
2nd Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General Granville Ryrie)
5th Light Horse Regiment
6th Light Horse Regiment
7th Light Horse Regiment
New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade (Brigadier General Edward Chaytor)
Auckland Mounted Rifle Regiment
Canterbury Mounted Rifle Regiment
Wellington Mounted Rifle Regiment
22nd Mounted Yeomanry Brigade (Brigadier General Fryer)
1/1st Lincolnshire Yeomanry
1/1st Staffordshire Yeomanry
1/1st East Riding Yeomanry
Imperial Mounted Division (less 4th Light Horse Brigade) (Major General Henry West Hodgson)
3rd Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General Royston/L. C. Wilson)
8th Light Horse Regiment
9th Light Horse Regiment
10th Light Horse Regiment
5th Mounted Brigade (Brigadier General Percy Desmond FitzGerald)
Royal Gloucestershire Hussars
Warwickshire Yeomanry
Worcestershire Hussars
6th Mounted Yeomanry Brigade (Lieutenant Colonel (temp. Brigadier General T. M. S. Pitt/Brigadier General C. A. C. Godwin)
Dorset Yeomanry
Berkshire Yeomanry
Royal Buckinghamshire Yeomanry

Artillery

  • 53rd (Welsh) Division (3 Brigades RFA 12 18–pdrs=24 guns) 4 of each battery only = 16 guns; 4 4.5-inch howitzers = 8 howitzer
  • 54th (East Anglian) Division (3 Brigades RFA 12 18–pdrs=24 guns) 4 of each battery only = 16 guns; 4 4.5-inch howitzers = 8 howitzer
  • Anzac Mounted Division 4 Batteries RHA of 4 18–pdrs = 16 guns
  • Imperial Mounted Division 4 Batteries RHA of 4 18–pdrs = 16 guns
  • Imperial Camel Brigade 1 Camel Pack Battery of 6 2.75-inch = 6 guns
  • Army Troops (3 Batteries of 4 60–pdrs=12 guns) one section only = 6 guns[50][51][52][53][Note 3]

Organization in April 1917[edit]

General Headquarters

General Headquarters Troops
Southern Canal Section
Cyprus Detachment
Eastern Force
Force Troops
Desert Column
Northern Canal Section
Delta and Western Force
Alexandria District

1st Garrison Battalion, Essex Regiment at Khartoum[54]

Order of Battle April[edit]

General Headquarters Commander in Chief Lieutenant General (temp. General) A. J. Murray

Eastern Force GOC Major General (temp. Lieutenant General C. M. Dobell Brigadier General General Staff Brevet Lieutenant Colonel (temp. Brigadier General G. P. Dawnay

Force Troops
Mounted Troops
Imperial Camel Brigade GOC Major (temp. Brigadier General C. L. Smith
1st (Australian and New Zealand) Battalion
2nd (Imperial) Battalion
3rd (Australian and New Zealand) Battalion
Hong Kong and Singapore Camel Battery
Brigade Signal Section
Brigade Field Troop
Brigade Machine Gun Company
1/1st Scottish Horse Field Ambulance
Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade GOC Major (temp. Brigadier General) M. H. Henderson
Mysore Lancers
1st Hyderabad Lancers
Kathiwar Signal Troop
124th Indian Cavalry Field Ambulance
Artillery
XCVI Heavy Artillery Group (four 4-gun 60-pdr, one siege battery)
Nos. 30, 38, 55, 85, 96 Anti-Aircraft Sections
Machine Gune Corps
"E" Company, Heavy Section (Tanks)
Nos. 11 and 12 Light Armoured Car Batteries
17th Motor Machine Gun Battery
Nos. 1 and 3 Armoured Trains
Engineers
220th and 555th Army Troops Companies
No. 10 Company (Kings's Own) Sappers and Miners
1/23rd and 2/23rd Sikh Pioneers
360th Company, RE (water unit)
Signal Service
GHQ Signal Company
Pigeon Section
N 14, N 15, N 23, N 24, No. 61 Airline Sections
BR, NA, NB, NN Cable Sections
No. 9 Wagon and London Pack W/T Sections

52nd (Lowland) Division GOC Brevet Colonel (temp. Major General) W. E. B. Smith

155th Infantry Brigade
156th Infantry Brigade
157th Infantry Brigade
Artillery
261st Brigade RFA
262nd Brigade RFA
263rd Brigade RFA (troops same as April 1916 oob less cyclist company)

53rd (Welsh) Division GOC Major General S. F. Mott

158th Infantry Brigade
159th Infantry Brigade
160th Infantry Brigade
Artillery
265th Brigade RFA
266th Brigade RFA
267th Brigade RFA

(troops same as April 1916 oob)

54th (East Anglian) Division GOC Colonel (temp. Major General) S. W. Hare

161st Infantry Brigade
162nd Infantry Brigade
163rd Infantry Brigade
Artillery
270th Brigade RFA
271st Brigade RFA
272nd Brigade RFA

(troops same as April 1916 oob)

74th (Yeomanry) Division GOC Brevet Lieutenant Colonel (temp. Major General) E. S Girdwood

229th Infantry Brigade
16th (R. 1st Devon and R. N. Devon Yeo Bn) Devonshire Regiment
12th (W. Somerset Yeo. Bn) Somerset Light Infantry
14th (Fife and Forfar Yeo. Bn) Royal Highlanders
12th (Ayr and Lanark Yeo Bn) Royal Scots Fusiliers
4th Machine Gun Company
230th Infantry Brigade
10th (R.E. Kent and W. Kent Yeo. Bn) East Kent Regiment
16th (Sussex Yeo. Bn) Sussex Regiment
15th (Suffolk Yeo. Bn) Suffolk Regiment
12th (Norfolk Yeo. Bn) Norfolk Regiment
209th Machine Gun Company
231st Infantry Brigade
10th (Shrop. and Chester Yeo. Bn) Shropshire Light Infantry
24th (Denbigh Yeo. Bn) Royal Welch Fusiliers
24th (Pemb. and Glam. Yeo. Bn) Welch Regiment
25th (Montgomery and Welsh Horse Yeo. Bn) Royal Welch Fusiliers
210th Machine Gun Company
Divisional Troops
Mounted Troops
1 Squadron 1/2nd County of London Yeomanry
Engineers
5th Royal Monmouth Field Company RE
5th Royal Anglesey Field Company RE
Signal Service
74th Divisional Signal Company
ASC
74th Divisional Train
Medical Units
229th, 230th, 231st Field Ambulances

Desert Column GOC Major General (temp. Lieutenant General P. W. Chetwode

Anzac Mounted Division GOC Colonel (temp. Major General) H. G. Chauvel
1st Australian Light Horse Brigade [Anzac Mounted Division] GOC Lieutenant Colonel C. F. Cox
1st Light Horse Regiment
2nd Light Horse Regiment
3rd Light Horse Regiment
1st Australian Light Horse Signal Troop
1st Australian Machine Gun Squadron
2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade GOC Colonel (temp. Brigadier General G. de L. Ryrie
5th Light Horse Regiment
6th Light Horse Regiment
7th Light Horse Regiment
2nd Australian Light Horse Signal Troop
2nd Australian Machine Gun Squadron
New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade GOC Brigadier General E. W. C. Chaytor)
Auckland Mounted Rifle Regiment
Canterbury Mounted Rifle Regiment
Wellington Mounted Rifle Regiment
New Zealand Mounted Rifles Signal Troop
New Zealand Machine Gun Squadron
22nd Mounted Brigade GOC Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) F. A. B. Fryer
1/1st Lincolnshire Yeomanry
1/1st Staffordshire Yeomanry
1/1st East Riding Yeomanry
22nd Mounted Brigade Signal Troop
18th Machine Gun Squadron

Divisional Troops

Artillery
III (T.F.) Brigade RHA Leicester and Somerset Batteries
IV (T.F.) Brigade RHA Inverness-shire and Ayrshire Batteries – no longer brigaded
Mounted Divisional Ammunition Column
Engineers
1st Australian Field Squadron
Signal Service
1st Anzac Signal Squadron
Army Service Corps (ASC)
HQ, Light Horse Divisional ASC
Nos 26 and 27 Australian Units of Supply
Medical Units
1st, 2nd Light Horse and the 1/1st North Midland Mounted Brigade Field Ambulance
NZ Mounted Brigade Ambulance
Imperial Mounted Division GOC Colonel (temp. Major General) H. W. Hodgson
3rd Light Horse Brigade GOC Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) J. R. Royston
8th Light Horse Regiment
9th Light Horse Regiment
10th Light Horse Regiment
3rd Australian Light Horse Signal Troop
3rd Australian Machine Gun Squadron
4th Light Horse Brigade GOC Lieutenant Colonel (temp. Brigadier General J. B. Meredith
4th Light Horse Regiment
11th Light Horse Regiment
12th Light Horse Regiment
4th Australian Light Horse Signal Troop
4th Australian Machine Gun Squadron
5th Mounted Brigade GOC Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) E. A. Wiggin
1/1st Warwick Yeomanry
1/1st Gloucester Yeomanry
1/1st Worcester Yeomanry
5th Mounted Brigade Signal Troop
16th Machine Gun Squadron
6th Mounted Brigade GOC Lieutnant Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) T. M. S. Pitt
1/1st Buckinghamshire Yeomanry
1/1st Berkshire Yeomanry
1/1st Dorsetshire Yeomanry
6th Brigade Signal Troop
17th Machine Gun Squadron
Divisional Troops
Artillery
1/1st Nottinghamshire and 1/1st Berkshire Batteries RHA
"A" and "B" Batteries, H.A.C.
Mounted Divisional Ammunition Column
Engineers
Imperial Mounted Division Field Squadron
Signal Service
Imperial Mounted Division Signal Squadron
ASC (unidentified)
Medical Units
3rd and 4th Light Horse, 1/1st and 1/2nd South Midland Mounted Brigades Field Ambulances

Northern Canal Section GOC Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) H. D. Watson commander of 20th Indian Brigade

Mounted Troops
1/2nd County of London Yeomanry (less two squadrons)
16th Company Imperial Camel Corps (attached from 4th Battalion)
Infantry
20th (Indian) Infantry Brigade (attached)
Alwar Infantry
Gwalior Infantry
Patiala Infantry
Signal Section
121st (Indian) Field Ambulance
1st Battalion British West Indies Regiment
2nd Battalion British West Indies Regiment
1st Garrison Battalion, Notts and Derby Regiment (two companies)
19th Garrison Battalion, Rifle Brigade
Medical Units
1/1st Lowland Mounted Brigade Field Ambulance

Delta and Western Force GOC Brevet Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) H. G. Casson

Mounted Troops
Bikanir Camel Corps
Nos. 8 and 10 Companies Imperial Camel Corps
"B" Squadron 1/2nd County of London Yeomanry (attached Imperial School of Instruction, Zeitoun)
Infantry
2nd Garrison Battalion, Royal Welch Fusiliers
2/7th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers
6th Garrison Battalion, Royal Welch Fusiliers
20th Garrison Battalion, Rifle Brigade
21st Garrison Battalion, Rifle Brigade
22nd Garrison Battalion, Rifle Brigade
1st Garrison Battalion, Royal Warwickshire Regiment
1st Garrison Battalion, Devonshire Regiment
1st Garrison Battalion, Royal Irish Regiment
1 Coy, 3rd Infantry Battalion, Egyptian Army
Artillery
Detachment, Royal Marine Artillery (2 Naval 4-inch guns)
No. 2 Armoured Train
Detachments RFA dismounted (three 15-pdr, Q.F., two 15-pdr BLC, two 15-pdr Ehrhardt and two 9-pdr Krupp guns)
Nos 1, 2, 3 Light Armoured Motor Batteries
Six Light Car Patrols (Ford cars)
Signal Service
Western Force Signal Company
No. 42 Airline Section
UU Cable Section
Pigeon Section (detachment)
No. 6 Wagon and No. 6 Pack W/T Section
ASC
Mechanical transport
5th, 6th, 29th Reserve Field Ambulance and Workshop Units
Western Force Mechanical Transport Supply Company
Advanced M.T. Supply Depot (Samalut)
No. 303 (M.T.) Company ASC
Camel Transport
"H" and "O" Companies, Egyptian Camel Transport Corps

Alexandria District GOC Colonel (temp. Brigadier General R. C. Boyle

Coast Defence Artillery
No. 103rd Local Company, RGA
Ras el Tin Fort
Royal Malta Artillery (detachment)
Quarantine and Chatby Batteries
Mex Fort
Infantry
5th [sic probably 3rd] Battalion, British West Indies Regiment
1st Garrison Battalion, Liverpool Regiment
2nd Garrison battalion, Cheshire Regiment

General Headquarters Troops

Royal Flying Corps Middle East Brigade RFC GOC Brevet Lieutenant Colonel (temp. Brigadier General) W. G. H. Salmond
5th Wing
Nos 14 and 67 (Australian) Squadrons
20th Reserve Wing
Nos 21, 22, 23, 57, 58 Reserve Squadrons
Engineers
Railway Operating Division
115th and 116th Railway Companies RE
2 Companies Railway Battalion Sappers and Miners
Topographical Section RE
Signal Service
"M" (L. of C.) Signal Company
Nos 12 and 62 Airline Sections
BQ, BS Cable Sections
Northern Wagon, Southern Motor and No. 12 Pack W/T Sections
ASC
Mechanical transport
HQ, ASC Motor Boat Company
Two Advanced M.T. Sub Depots (Ismailia and Qantara)
52nd Highland Mounted Brigade, 6th Reserve and 29th Field Ambulance and Workshop Units
Camel Transport
Nos 1 and 2 Came Transport Depots
"O" [sic] and "R" Companies, Egyptian Camel Transport Corps

Southern Canal Section GOC Brevet Colonel (temp. Brigadier General P. C. Palin in addition to GOC 29th Indian Brigade

Mounted Troops
4th (Australian and New Zealand) Battalion, Imperial Camel Corps (less 15th Coy, attached 3rd Battalion and 16th Coy attached Northern Canal Section with 13th Coy from 3rd Battalion attached)
Engineers
14th Army Troops Company RE
496th (Kent) Field Company (less detachment)
Infantry
232nd Infantry Brigade (first brigade of the yet to be formed 75th Division )
2nd Loyal North Lancashire
1/4th Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry (both temporarily attached to Eastern Force)
1/5th Devonshire Regiment
2/5th Hampshire Regiment
29th Indian Infantry Brigade
2/3rd Gurkhas
3/3rd Gurkhas
123rd Rifles
Brigade Signal Section
123rd Indian Field Ambulance
Indian Brigade Supply Column
49th Indian Infantry Brigade
58th Rifles
1/101st Grenadiers
1/102nd Grenadiers
110th Indian Field Ambulance
1st Garrison Battalion Notts and Derby Regiment (less two companies)
1st Garrison Battalion, Northampton Regiment
ASC
No. 900 Company ASC (Axiliary Horse Transport Company, Ismailia)

Cyprus Detachment

1st Garrison Battalion Royal Scots

and Lines of Communications controlled by GHQ including RFC "X" Aircraft Park (5th Wing), "X" Aircraft Depot for all Middle East units RFC, Engineers, Signal Service, ASC, Medical Units, Ordnance, Veterinary, Remounts and Postal Units.[55]

Expansion of Desert Column June 1917[edit]

Desert Column was expanded to three divisions, commanded by Chauvel –

Anzac Mounted Division commanded by Major General Chaytor
1st Light Horse Brigade
2nd Light Horse Brigade
New Zealand Mounted Rifle Brigade
18th Brigade, Royal Horse Artillery (18 pounder guns)
Australian Mounted Division commanded by Major General Hodgson
3rd Light Horse Brigade
4th Light Horse Brigade
5th Mounted Brigade
19th Brigade, Royal Horse Artillery (18 pounder guns)
Yeomanry Mounted Division commanded by Major General Barrow
6th Mounted Brigade
8th Mounted Brigade (recently arrived from Salonika)
22nd Mounted Brigade (recently arrived from Salonika)
20th Brigade, Royal Horse Artillery (13 pounder guns)
Army Troops
Imperial Camel Corps Brigade
7th Yeomanry Brigade (two regiments)
an unidentifed battery.[56]

At the end of June 1917 General Allenby took command. At that time the Egyptian Expeditionary Force consisted of the British XX Corps and the British XXI Corps, under the command of Lieutenant Generals Philip Chetwode and Edward Stanislaus Bulfin, respectively, along with the Desert Mounted Corps commanded by Lieutenant General Harry Chauvel. The air component was the Palestine Brigade of the Royal Flying Corps (later the Royal Air Force) and the Australian Flying Corps.[citation needed]

Order of Battle October[edit]

The commander of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, General Sir Edmund Allenby entering the Holy City of Jerusalem on foot December 1917
British troops on parade at Jaffa Gate in December 1917 after the capture and occupation of Palestine.

XX Corps (Lieutenant General Sir R.W. Chetwode, Bart.)

10th (Irish) Division (Major General J.R. Longley)[Note 4]
29th Brigade
30th Brigade
31st Brigade
53rd (Welsh) Division (Major General S.F. Mott)
158th (North Wales) Brigade
159th (Cheshire) Brigade
160th (Welsh Border) Brigade
60th (2/2nd London) Division (Major General J.S.M. Shea)
179th (2/4th London) Brigade
180th (2/5th London) Brigade
181st (2/6th London) Brigade
74th (Yeomanry) Division (Major General E.S. Girdwood)
229th Brigade
230th Brigade
231st Brigade
Corps Cavalry Regiment – 1/2nd County of London Yeomanry
Corps Artillery – 96th Heavy Artillery Group

XXI Corps (Lieutenant General Sir E.S. Bulfin)

52nd (Lowland) Division (Major General J. Hill)
155th (South Scottish) Brigade
156th (Scottish Rifles) Brigade
157th (Highland Light Infantry) Brigade
54th (East Anglian) Division (Major General S.W. Hare)
161st (Essex) Brigade
162nd (East Midland) Brigade
163rd (Norfolk and Suffolk) Brigade
75th Division(Major General P.C. Palin)
232nd Brigade
233rd Brigade
234th Brigade
Corps Cavalry Regiment – Composite Yeomanry Regt.
Corps Artillery – 97th, 100th, 102nd Heavy Artillery Groups
20th Indian Brigade (Brigadier General H.D. Watson)

Desert Mounted Corps (Lieutenant General Sir H. Chauvel)

Anzac Mounted Division (Major General E.W.C. Chaytor)
1st Light Horse Brigage (Brigadier General C. F. Cox)
1st, 2nd and 3rd Australian Light Horse Regiments
2nd Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General G. de L. Ryrie)
5th, 6th and 7th Australian Light Horse Regiments
New Zealand Mounted Rifle Brigade (Brigadier General W. Meldrum)
Auckland, Canterbury and Wellington Mounted Rifle Regiments
18th Brigade RHA (Inverness-shire, Ayrshire and Somerset Batteries) of 13–pounder guns and Divisional Ammunition Column
Australian Mounted Division (Major General Henry W. Hodgson)
3rd Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General L. C. Wilson)
8th, 9th and 10th Australian Light Horse Regiments
4th Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General W. Grant)
4th, 11th and 12th Australian Light Horse Regiments
5th Mounted Brigade (Brigadier Generals Percy Desmond FitzGerald/P. J. V. Kelly)
Gloucestershire Husssars, Warwickshire and Worcestershire Yeomanry Regiments
19th Brigade RHA (A and B Batteries Honourable Artillery Company and Notts Battery RHA) of 13–pounder guns and Divisional Ammunition Column
Yeomanry Mounted Division (Major General G. de S. Barrow)
6th Mounted Brigade (Brigadier General C. A. C. Godwin)
Dorset, Bucks and Berks Yeomanry Regiments
8th Mounted Brigade (Brigadier General C. S. Rome)
1st City of London and 1st and 3rd County of London Yeomanry Regiments
22nd Mounted Brigade (Brigadier General P. D. FitzGerald)
Stafford, Lincoln and East Riding Yeomanry Regiments
20th Brigade RHA (Berkshire, Hampshire and Leicestershire Batteries) of 13–pounder guns and Divisional Ammunition Column
Corps Reserve
7th Mounted Brigade (Brigadier General J. T. Wigan)
Sherwood Rangers, South Notts and Herts Yeomanry Regiments with the Essex Battery RHA and Brigade Ammunition Column
Imperial Camel Corps Brigade (Brigadier General C. L. Smith)
2nd (British) Battalion
3rd (Australian and New Zealand) Battalion
4th (Australian and New Zealand) Battalion
Hong Kong and Singapore Camel Battery RGA.[52][57][58][Note 5]
British 18-pounders as used until September 1917

On establishment in 1916 and 1917, the first two mounted divisions had been supplied with 18–pounder artillery guns. In September 1917 these guns were replaced with 13-pounders, making the divisions "even more capable," according to Erickson.[56][58][59]

HAC 13-pounders in March 1918
General Headquarters Troops
Army Cavalry
Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade (Major (temp. Brigadier General M. H. Henderson)
Jodhpur Lancers
Mysore Lancers
1st Hyderabad Lancers
Kathiwar Signal Troop
124th Indian Cavalry Field Ambulance.[60]
Royal Flying Corps, Middle East (Brigadier General W. G. H. Salmond to 5 November then Brigadier General W. S. Brancker to 3 January 1918 when Salmond returned)
Palestine Brigade (composite Royal Flying Corps RFC and Australian Flying Corps (AFC) (Lieutenant Colonel A. E. Borton) operational from 27 October to 7 November 1917)
5th (Artillery Corps) Wing at Deir el Belah
No. 14 Squadron RFC at Deir el Belah and allotted to XXI Corps
No. 113 Squadron RFC at Sheikh Nuran (2 flights allotted to XX Corps; 1 flight to Desert Mounted Corps)[Note 6]
No. 21 Kite Balloon Company[Note 7] consisting of –
No. 49 Kite Balloon Section at Sheikh Shabasi
No. 50 Kite Balloon Section at Wadi Ghuzze.
40th (Army) Wing Headquarters at Deir el Belah
No. 11 Squadron RFC at Deir el Belah
No. 67 Squadron (No. 1 Squadron Australian Flying Corps) at Shiekh Nuran. (A special squadron was formed from the 20th Training Wing at Aboukir on 24 October for duty at Nuran under the direct orders of the Palestine Brigade for operations consisting of bombing raids on enemy camps, dumps, trench works and battery positions.)
Aircraft Park – "X" Aircraft Park at Abbassia with an advanced stores section at Kantara was responsible for the supplies to the RFC in Palestine.[57][61]

Also in General Headquarters Troops were the

VIII Mountain Brigade RGA (10th and 11th Batteries of 3.7inch howitzers
IX Mountain Brigade RGA of "A" and "B" Batteries of 2.75 inch howitzers and the 12th Battery of 3.7 inch howitzers.[61][Note 8]

1918[edit]

The force initially consisted mostly of British and Egyptian troops, but most of the former were sent to the Western Front in early 1918 to help repel Germany's Spring Offensive. In the meantime, new troops were then dispatched from India, Australia, and New Zealand, in particular who made up a large portion of the army. Though it was feared that mostly Muslim Indian troops might desert and join Ottoman Empire forces in the region (who had declared a jihad against the Allies early in the war), this fear proved unfounded, as the Indians fought valiantly on the front lines of most of the army's major engagements. The force also included a small contingent of French and Italian troops. The forces of the Arab Revolt, led by Prince Feisal of Mecca, were also unofficially attached during Allenby's Damascus offensive.[citation needed]

The force also included contingents of Armenian soldiers

The force's role evolved from a defense of Egypt to the invasion of Palestine which involved: the capture of Beersheba and Gaza in October–November 1917 (see Third Battle of Gaza), entering Jerusalem on December 11, 1917, and Allenby's successful campaign of 1918, resulting in the defeat of the Turks at Megiddo, and the capture of Damascus, Beirut, and Aleppo. The force's successes ultimately led to Turkey's exit from the war and the creation of the British Mandate of Palestine.[citation needed]

The Palestine Brigade RAF was reorganised at the end of 1917 or during the summer of 1918, as follows:

5th (Corps) Wing
No. 14 Squadron RAF
No. 113 Squadron RAF
No. 142 Squadron RAF
40th (Army) Wing
No. 111 Squadron RAF
No. 144 Squadron RAF
No. 145 Squadron RAF
No. 1 Squadron AFC
No. 21 Balloon Company
Nos 49, 50, 57 Balloon Section[62]

Deployment, 9 February[edit]

7th Mounted Brigade at Deir el Belah
Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade at Herbieh
Imperial Camel Brigade at Rafa
20th Indian Infantry Brigade at Gaza
Anzac Mounted Division at Richon le Zion (Ayun Kara)
Australian Mounted Division at Deir el Belah
Yeomanry Mounted Division at Deir el Belah
10th (Irish) Division at O99, P.20.d. place not named.
53rd (Welsh) Division at Ram Allah
60th (London) Division at Jerusalem
74th (Yeomanry) Division at Latron
52nd (Lowland) Division at Jaffa and Sarona
54th (East Anglian) Division at Wilhelma
75th Division at Ramleh.[63]

Shea's Force March[edit]

60th (London) Division
Anzac Mounted Division
Imperial Camel Corps Brigade including the Hong Kong and Singapore Mountain Battery, with four BL 2.75 inch Mountain Guns, (firing 12-pounder shells) :the 10th Heavy Battery Royal Garrison Artillery (RGA)
one Light Armoured Car Brigade
Army Bridging Train
Desert Mounted Corps Bridging Train and pontoon units.[64][65][66][67][Note 9]

Order of Battle April[edit]

  • Desert Mounted Corps (GOC Lieutenant General H. G. Chauvel)
60th (London) Division commanded by Major General John Shea (less the 181st Brigade in reserve on the XXth Corps front)
179th Brigade (Brigadier General FitzJ. M. Edwards)
2/13th London Regiment
2/14th London Regiment
2/15th London Regiment
2/16th London Regiment
180th Brigade (Brigadier General C. F. Watson)
2/17th London Regiment
2/18th London Regiment
2/19th London Regiment
2/20th London Regiment
Artillery 301st, 302nd, 303rd Brigades RFA
20th Indian Brigade (Brigadier General E. R. B. Murray)
Alwar Imperial Service Infantry Regiment
Patiala Imperial Service Infantry Regiment
Gwalior Imperial Service Infantry Regiment
110th Mahratta L. I. Regiment
Anzac Mounted Division (GOC Major General E. W. C. Chaytor)
2nd Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General G. de L. Ryrie)
5th Light Horse Regiment
6th Light Horse Regiment
7th Light Horse Regiment
New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade (Brigiadier General W. Meldrum)
Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment
Canterbury Mounted Rifles Regiment
Wellington Mounted Rifles Regiment
Divisional Artillery XVIII Brigade RHA (Inverness-shire, Ayrshire and Somerset Batteries)
Australian Mounted Divisions (GOC Major General H. W. Hodgson)
1st Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General C. F. Cox) (Anzac Mounted Division)
1st Light Horse Regiment
2nd Light Horse Regiment
3rd Light Horse Regiment
3rd Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General L. C. Wilson)
8th Light Horse Regiment
9th Light Horse Regiment
10th Light Horse Regiment
4th Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General W. Grant)
4th Light Horse Regiment
11th Light Horse Regiment
12th Light Horse Regiment
5th Mounted Brigade (Brigadier General P. J. V. Kelly)
1/1st Gloucester Yeomanry Regiment
1/1st Worcester Yeomanry Regiment
1/1st Sherwood Rangers Regiment (7th Mounted Yeomanry Brigade)
Divisional Artillery XIX Brigade RHA (Notts. Battery RHA, "A" and "B: Batteries HAC with Hong Kong Mountain Battery attached
1/1st Dorset Yeomanry Regiment (6th Mounted Yeomanry Brigade)
1/1st County of London (Middlesex) Yeomanry Regiment (8th Mounted Yeomanry Brigade)
Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade
Jodhpur Lancers
Mysore Lancers
Hyderabad Lancers
11th and 12th Light Armoured Motor Batteries [LAMB] (Machine Gun Corps)

West of the Jordan

Imperial Camel Corps Brigade (Brigadier General C. L. Smith)
2nd (British) Battalion
3rd (Australian) Battalion
4th (ANZAC) Battalion
Artillery Singapore Mountain Battery less Hong Kong Mountain Battery
22nd Mounted Brigade (Brigadier General F. A. B. Fryer/Brigadier General P. D. FitzGerald)
1/1st Lincolnshire Yeomanry Regiment
1/1st Staffordshire Yeomanry Regiment
1/1st East Riding Yeomanry Regiment[68]

Order of Battle 19 September[edit]

XX Corps (Lieutenant General Sir P. Chetwode)

53rd (Welsh) Division (Major General S. F. Mott)
158th Brigade (Brigadier General H. A. Vernon)
5/6th R. Welsh Fus., 4/11th Gurkhas, 3/153rd and 154th Indian Inf.
159th Brigade (Brigadier General N. Money)
4/5th Welsh Regt., 3/152nd, 1/153rd and 2/153rd Indian Inf.
160th Brigade (Brigadier General V. L. N. Pearson)
1/7th R. Welsh Fus., 1/17th Indian Inf., 1/21st Punjabis, 1st Cape Corps
265th, 266th, 267th Brigades RFA each with three batteries of twelve 18-pdrs. and four 4.5-inch hows.
39th Indian Mountain Battery
Troop Corps Cavalry Regiment (1/1st Worcester Yeomanry)
10th (Irish) Division (Major General J. R. Longley)
29th Brigade (Brigadier General C.L. Smith)
1st Leinsters, 1/101st Grenadiers, 1/54th Sikhs, 2/151st Infantry
30th Brigade (Brigadier General F. A. Greer)
1st Royal Irish Regt., 1st Kashmir I.S. Rifles, 38th Dogras, 46th Punjabis
31st Brigade (Brigadier General E. M. Morris)
2nd Royal Irish Fus., 2/101st Grenadiers, 74th Punjabis, 2/42nd Deolis
67th, 68th, 263rd Brigades RFA (67th and 68th Brigades with three batteries of twelve 18-pdrs. and four 4.5-inch hows.; 263rd Brigade with six 18-pdrs. and four 4.5-inch hows.)
Hong Kong and Singapore Mountain Battery
"Watson's Force" (holding centre of XX Corps' Front
Corps Cavalry Regiment (1/1 Worcester Yeomanry)
Pioneer Battalions (2/155th and 1/155th) of 10th and 53rd Divisions
Corps Reinforcement Detachment (700 strong)
XX Corps Heavy Artillery
  • For support of 53rd Division
103rd Brigade RGA
R. Section 10th Heavy Battery
L. Section 10th Heavy Battery
205th Siege Battery
387th Siege Battery (less 1 gun)
392nd Siege Battery
  • For support of 10th Division
421st Siege Battery
397th Siege Battery (1 gun)
2 captured 15 cm hows.
2 captured 105 mm hows
3 captured 75 mm hows.

XXI Corps (Lieutenant General Sir E. Bulfin)

3rd (Lahore) Division (Major General A.R. Hoskins)
7th Brigade (Brigadier General S. R. Davidson)
1st Connaught Rngrs, 2/7th Gurkha Rifles, 27th and 91st Punjabis
8th Brigade (Brigadier General S. M. Edwardes)
1st Manchester Regt., 27th Sikhs, 59th Scinde Rifles, 2/124th Baluchistan Infantry
9th Brigade (Brigadier General C. C. Luard)
2nd Dorsets, 1/1st Gurkha Rifles, 93rd Infantry, 105th Mahratta Light Infantry
4th, 8th, 53rd Brigades RFA, each with twelve 18-pdrs. and four 4.5-inch hows.
7th (Meerut) Division (Major General Sir V. B. Fane)
19th Brigade (Brigadier General G. S. Weir)
1st Seaforth Highrs., 28th and 92nd Punjabis, 125th Napier's Rifles
21st Brigade (Brigadier General A. G. Kemball)
2nd Black Watch, 1st Guides Infantry, 20th Punjabis, 1/8th Gurkha Rifles
28th Brigade (Brigadier General C. H Davies)
2nd Leicesters, 51st and 53rd Sikhs, 56th Punjabi Rifles
261st, 262nd, 264th Brigades RFA, each with twelve 18-pds and four 4.5-inch hows.
54th (East Anglian) Division (Major General S. W. Hare)
161st Brigade (Brigadier General A. B. Orpen Palmer)
1/4th, 1/5th, 1/6th and 1/7th Essex
162nd Brigade (Brigadier General A. Mudge)
1/5th Bedford, 1/4th Nothampton, 1/10th and 1/11th London
163rd Brigade (Brigadier General A. J. MacNeill)
1/4th, 1/5th Norfolk, 1/5th Suffolk, 1/8th Hampshire
270th, 271st, 272nd Brigades RFA, each with twelve 18-pds and four 4.5-inch hows.
60th (London) Division (Major General Sir J. S. M. Shea)
179th Brigade (Brigadier General E. T. Humphreys)
2/13th London, 3/151st Infantry, 2/19th Punjabis, 2/137th Baluchis
180th Brigade (Brigadier General C. F. Watson)
2/19th London, 2nd Guides, 2/30th Punjabis, 1/50th Kumoan Rifles
181st Brigade (Brigadier General E. C. da Costa)
2/22nd London, 130th Baluchis, 2/97th Deccan Inf., 2/152nd Infantry.[69][70]
75th Division (Major General P. C. Palin)
232nd Brigade (Brigadier General H. J. Huddleston)
1/4th Wilts, 72nd Punjabis, 2/3rd Gurkhas, 3rd Kashmir I.S. Infantry
233rd Brigade (Brigadier General E. M. Colston)
1/5th Somerset Light Infantry, 29th Punjabis, 3/3rd Gurkhas, 2/154th Infantry
234th Brigade (Brigadier General C. A. H. Maclean)
1/4th D.C.L.I., 123rd Outram Rifles, 58th Vaughan's Rifles, 1/152nd Infantry.[71][72][73]
301st, 302nd 303rd Brigades RFA, each with twelve 18-pdrs. and four 4.5- hows.
5th Light Horse Brigade (under orders of 60th Division)
French Palestine Contingent (4 Bns and 3 Btys)[71][74]
Corps mounted troops (Composite Yeomanry Regiment)
XXI Corps Heavy Artillery
  • Sub-Group under the Right Group
4.7-inch Battery RGA
300 SB, RGA 6-inch Section
334 SB, RGA, One Section
  • Right Group
100th Brigade, RGA, Headquarters –
15th HB, RGA
134 SB, RGA
334 SB, RGA One Section
43 SB, RGA "Bessie"
  • Right Centre Group
95th Brigade, RGA Headquarters –
181 HB, RGA
304 SB, RGA
314 SB, RGA
383 SB, RGA
422 SB, RGA
5.9-inch Hows. Section.
  • Left Centre Group
102nd Brigade, RGA Headquarters –
91 HB, RGA
209 SB, RGA
380 SB, RGA
440 SB, RGA
300 SB, RGA 8 inch Section
43 SB, RGA "Lizzie"
  • Left Group
96th Brigade, RGA Headquarters –
189 HB, RGA
202 HB, RGA
378 SB, RGA
394 SB, RGA

Generally –

  • The Sub-Group was in support of the French
  • The Right Group was in support of the 54th Division
  • The Right Centre Group was in support of the 3rd (Lahore) Division
  • The Left Centre Group was in support of the 75th Division
  • The Left Group was in support of the 60th Division.[75]

Desert Mounted Corps (Lieutenant General Sir H. Chauvel)

4th Cavalry Division (Major General Sir G. de S. Barrow)
10th Cavalry Brigade (Brigadier General Wilfrith Gerald Key Green/Richard Howard-Vyse)
1/1 Dorset Yeomanry (ex 6th Mounted Brigade), 2nd Lancers, 38th Central India Horse (38th King George's Own Central India Horse)
11th Cavalry Brigade (Brigadier General Charles Levinge Gregory)
1/1st County of London Yeomanry (ex 8th Mounted Brigade), 29th Lancers, 36th Jacob's Horse
12th Cavalry Brigade (Brigadier General J. T. Wigan)
1/1Stafford Yeomanry (ex 22nd Mounted Brigade), 6th Cavalry, 19th Lancers
20th Brigade RHA and Divisional Ammunition Column
12th LAM Battery
No. 7 Light Car Patrol
5th Cavalry Division (Major General H. J. M. MacAndrew)
13th Cavalry Brigade (Brigadier General Philip James Vandeleur Kelly)
1/1 Gloucester Yeomanry (ex 5th Mounted Brigade), 9th Hodson's Horse, 18th Lancers
14th Cavalry Brigade (Brigadier General Goland Vanhalt Clarke)
1/1 Sherwood Rangers Yeomanry (ex 7th Mounted Brigade), 20th Deccan Horse, 34th Poona Horse
15th (Imperial Service) Cavalry Brigade (Brigadier General Cyril Rodney Harbord)
Jodhpur, Mysore and 1st Hyderabad Lancers [Regiments] (These regiments were all maintained by the Ruling Princes of their respective States in India.)
'B' Battery HAC and Essex Battery RHA with Divisional Ammunition Column
11th LAM Battery
No. 1 Light Car Patrol.[76][77]
Australian Mounted Division (Major General H. W. Hodgson)
3rd Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General L. C. Wilson)
8th, 9th, 10th Australian Light Horse Regiments
4th Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General W. Grant)
4th, 11th 12th Light Horse Regiments[78]
5th Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General C. Macarthur Onslow) (attached XXI Corps till 22 September)
14th, 15th Light Horse Regiments (ex Imperial Camel Corps Brigade)
16th Regiment Mixte de Marche de Palestine et Syrie (French Régiment Mixte de Cavalerie)
French Chasseurs d’Afrique (2 squadrons)
Spahis (1 squadron).[79][80][81]
19th Brigade RHA.[82]

Chaytor's Force (Major General E.W.C. Chaytor)

20th Imperial Service Infantry Brigade
Four Indian Battalions
1st Battalion British West Indies Regiment
2nd Battalion British West Indies Regiment
38th Battalion Royal Fusiliers (Jewish Battalion)
39th Battalion Royal Fusiliers (Jewish Battalion)[71][83][84][85]
Anzac Mounted Division (Major General E.W.C. Chaytor)
1st Light Horse Brigage (Brigadier General C. F. Cox)
1st, 2nd and 3rd Light Horse Regiments
2nd Light Horse Brigade (Brigadier General G. de L. Ryrie)
5th, 6th and 7th Light Horse Regiments
New Zealand Mounted Rifle Brigade (Brigadier General W. Meldrum)
Auckland, Canterbury and Wellington Mounted Rifle Regiments
18th Brigade RHA (Inverness-shire, Ayrshire and Somerset Batteries) and Divisional Ammunition Column[86]
A/263 Battery RFA
195th Heavy Battery RGA
29th and 32nd Indian Mountain Batteries
No. 6 (Medium) Trench Mortar Battery
3 anti–aircraft sections RA
Detachment No. 35 AT Company RE.[87]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The names of the infantry divisions, brigades and battalions and some other units have, in many cases, been changed so they no longer reflect the names of these units as they appear in the sources quoted. Additional names of units have been added without citation.
  2. ^ This could be the 3rd Battalion mentioned in Falls EEF April 1916 order of battle. [Falls 1930 Vol. 1 p. 389] However in his EEF April 1917 order of battle he again mentions only the 1st 2nd and 5th Battalions. [Falls 1930 Vol. 1 pp. 402, 404
  3. ^ The third brigades of 53rd and 54th Divisions were in the Suez Canal Defences with 1st Light Horse Brigade about Bir el Abd, Mazar and Bardawil patrolling the pipeline until moving to El Arish on 20 March. And only four guns of each 18–pounder battery of the 53rd and 54th Divisions, and one section of each heavy battery were brought across the Sinai Peninsula. The guns left behind formed part of the Suez Canal Defences. [Wavell 1968, p. 94, 1st Light Horse Brigade War Diary March 1917 AWM4-10-1-32]
  4. ^ Nominally Army Troops. [Keogh 1955 p. 135]
  5. ^ Keogh notes the 7th Mounted Brigade had only two regiments. He places six squadrons of Indian Imperial Service troops, one West Indies battalion, French and Italian contingents in Army Troops, totalling 3,000. He also places the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade in Desert Mounted Corps. [Keogh 1955 p. 135]
  6. ^ Shown as No. 113 Squadron in Falls 1930 Vol. 2 p. 666
  7. ^ Shown as part of the 40th Wing by Falls 1930 Vol. 2 p. 666
  8. ^ The 7th Mounted Brigade and the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade had been attached to Desert Mounted Corps and the 10th Division attached to the XX Corps. [Falls 1930 Vol. 2 p. 666]
  9. ^ Blenkinsop refers to the 60th Indian Division but the Londoners did not leave for the Western Front until after the Second Transjordan attack.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bruce 2002, p. 34
  2. ^ Keogh 1955, p. 32
  3. ^ Wavell 1968, p. 41
  4. ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 pp. 69–204
  5. ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 pp. 242–350
  6. ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 pp. 351–372, Vol. 2 pp. 1–43
  7. ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 2 pp. 44–647
  8. ^ a b Keogh 1955, p. 34
  9. ^ a b Powles 1922, pp. 12, 29–35, 278–9
  10. ^ a b Wavell 1968, pp. 92–3, 139–41
  11. ^ a b Woodward 2006, p. 53
  12. ^ "Sinai and Palestine". Australian War Memorial. p. 68. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  13. ^ Bruce 2002, pp. 38–9
  14. ^ "Imperial Camel Corps". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 13 January 2012. 
  15. ^ Cutlack 1941, pp. 32
  16. ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 Appendix 2 p. 395
  17. ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 Appendix 2 pp. 380–394
  18. ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 p. 203
  19. ^ Bruce 2002, pp.43–4
  20. ^ Keogh 1955, p. 53–4
  21. ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 p. 244
  22. ^ Wavell, 1968, p. 69
  23. ^ Powles 1922, p. 47
  24. ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 p. 381
  25. ^ McGuirk 2007, pp. 260–1, 263–4
  26. ^ Carver 2003 pp. 186–8
  27. ^ Bowman–Manifold 1923, p. 23
  28. ^ Anzac MD WD AWM4-1-60-10 Appendix 24 pp. 3–7
  29. ^ a b Cutlack 1941, pp. 45–9
  30. ^ Powles 1922, pp. 48–9 Map of Magdhaba & 278-9
  31. ^ Woodward 2003, p. 53
  32. ^ Bou 2009, pp. 150–2
  33. ^ Hill 1978, p. 67
  34. ^ Kinloch 2007, pp. 57–8
  35. ^ Powles 1922, p. 12
  36. ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 p. 276
  37. ^ a b Falls 1930 Vol. 1 p. 275
  38. ^ Bruce 2002 p. 85
  39. ^ Cutlack 1941, pp. 45–9, 51
  40. ^ Gullett 1941, pp. 230–1
  41. ^ Keogh 1955, p. 77
  42. ^ Powles 1922, p. 65
  43. ^ Coulthard-Clark 1998, p. 123
  44. ^ "Imperial Camel Corps". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 10 December 2011. 
  45. ^ "The 52nd (Lowland) Division in 1914–1918". Long Long Trail. Retrieved 10 December 2011. 
  46. ^ "The 54th (East Anglian) Division in 1914–1918". Long Long Trail. Retrieved 10 December 2011. 
  47. ^ "The 74th (Yeomanry) Division in 1914–1918". Long Long Trail. Retrieved 10 December 2011. 
  48. ^ "The 53rd (Welsh) Division in 1914–1918". Long Long Trail. Retrieved 10 December 2011. 
  49. ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 pp. 390, 398
  50. ^ Wavell 1968, pp. 92–4
  51. ^ Powles 1922, pp. 278–9
  52. ^ a b Preston 1921, pp. 331–3
  53. ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 p. 402
  54. ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 Appendix 3 p. 407
  55. ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 1 Appendix 3 pp. 396–406, Vol. 2 Appendix 2 pp. 660–666
  56. ^ a b Keogh 1955 pp. 125–6
  57. ^ a b Wavell 1968, pp. 139–41
  58. ^ a b Erickson 2007 p. 112
  59. ^ Powles 1922 p. 28
  60. ^ Blenkinsop 1925 pp. 199–200
  61. ^ a b Falls 1930 Vol. 2 p. 666
  62. ^ Cutlack 1941 p. 68
  63. ^ GS, GHQ, EEF War Diary AWM4, 1-6-22 pp.18–9
  64. ^ Woodward 2006 p. 163
  65. ^ Blenkinsop 1925 p. 224
  66. ^ Keogh 1955 p. 212
  67. ^ Powles 1922 p. 202
  68. ^ Falls 1930 Vol. 2 pp. 365, 368, 660–2, 673
  69. ^ Wavell 1968, p. 217-8
  70. ^ Massey 1920, pp. 339–40
  71. ^ a b c Keogh 1955, p. 240
  72. ^ Blenkinsop 1925, pp. 235–6
  73. ^ Massey 1920, p. 340
  74. ^ Wavell 1968, p. 218
  75. ^ Wavell 1968, p. 218-9
  76. ^ Preston 1921, pp. 331, 333–4
  77. ^ Wavell 1968 pp. 216
  78. ^ Preston 1921, p.332
  79. ^ Jones 1987, pp. 146–7
  80. ^ Preston 1921, p. 335
  81. ^ Massey 1920, p. 338
  82. ^ Preston 1921, p. 333
  83. ^ Powles 1922, p. 236
  84. ^ Wavell 1968, p. 219
  85. ^ Massey 1920, p. 339
  86. ^ Preston 1921, p. 331
  87. ^ Powles 1922, p. 236

Bibliography[edit]

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  • "General Staff Headquarters Anzac Mounted Division War Diary". Canberra: Australian War Memorial. December 1916. 
  • "1st Light Horse Brigade War Diary". Canberra: Australian War Memorial. March 1917. 
  • Bowman–Manifold, M. G. E. (1923). An Outline of the Egyptian and Palestine Campaigns, 1914 to 1918 (2nd ed.). Chatham: The Institution of Royal Engineers, W. & J. Mackay & Co. OCLC 224893679. 
  • Bruce, Anthony (2002). The Last Crusade: The Palestine Campaign in the First World War. London: John Murray. ISBN 978-0-7195-5432-2. 
  • Carver, Michael, Field Marshal Lord (2003). The National Army Museum Book of The Turkish Front 1914–1918 The Campaigns at Gallipoli, in Mesopotamia and in Palestine. London: Pan Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-283-07347-2. 
  • Coulthard-Clark, Chris (1998). Where Australians Fought: The Encyclopaedia of Australia's Battles. St Leonards: Allen and Unwin. ISBN 1-86448-611-2. 
  • Cutlack, Frederic Morley (1941). The Australian Flying Corps in the Western and Eastern Theatres of War, 1914–1918. Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918. Volume VIII (11th ed.). Canberra: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 220900299. 
  • Falls, Cyril; A. F. Becke (maps) (1930). Military Operations Egypt & Palestine from June 1917 to the End of the War. Official History of the Great War Based on Official Documents by Direction of the Historical Section of the Committee of Imperial Defence. Volume 2 Part I. London: HM Stationery Office. OCLC 644354483. 
  • Falls, Cyril; A. F. Becke (maps) (1930). Military Operations Egypt & Palestine from June 1917 to the End of the War. Official History of the Great War Based on Official Documents by Direction of the Historical Section of the Committee of Imperial Defence. Volume 2 Part II. London: HM Stationary Office. OCLC 256950972. 
  • Gullett, Henry S. (1941). The Australian Imperial Force in Sinai and Palestine, 1914–1918. Official History of Australian in the War of 1914–1918. Volume VII (11th ed.). Canberra: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 220900153. 
  • Jones, Ian (1987). Australians at War: The Australian Light Horse. North Sydney: Time-Life Books (Australia). OCLC 255503233. 
  • Keogh, E. G.; Joan Graham (1955). Suez to Aleppo. Melbourne: Directorate of Military Training by Wilkie & Co. OCLC 220029983. 
  • McGuirk, Russell (2007). The Sanusi's Little War: The Amazing Story of a Forgotten Conflict in the Western Desert, 1915–1917. London: Arabian Publishing. OCLC 156803398. 
  • Massey, William T. (1920). Allenby's Final Triumph. London: Constable & Co. OCLC 345306,433827755,457411812. 
  • Powles, C. Guy; A. Wilkie (1922). The New Zealanders in Sinai and Palestine. Official History New Zealand's Effort in the Great War. Volume III. Auckland: Whitcombe & Tombs. OCLC 2959465. 
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  • Wavell, Field Marshal Earl (1968) [1933]. "The Palestine Campaigns". In Sheppard, Eric William. A Short History of the British Army (4th ed.). London: Constable & Co. OCLC 35621223. 
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