Elliott Cresson Medal

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Elliott Cresson Medal
Elliott Cresson Medal, Berliner, 1913.jpg
Elliott Cresson Medal given to Emile Berliner in 1913
Country USA
Presented by Franklin Institute
First awarded 1875
Last awarded 1997

The Elliott Cresson Medal, also known as the Elliott Cresson Gold Medal, was the highest award given by the Franklin Institute. The award was established by Elliott Cresson, life member of the Franklin Institute, with $1,000 granted in 1848.[1] The endowed award was to be "for some discovery in the Arts and Sciences, or for the invention or improvement of some useful machine, or for some new process or combination of materials in manufactures, or for ingenuity skill or perfection in workmanship."[1] The medal was first awarded in 1875, 21 years after Cresson's death.[1]

The Franklin Institute continued awarding the medal on an occasional basis until 1998 when they reorganized their endowed awards under one umbrella, The Benjamin Franklin Awards.[2] A total of 268 Elliott Cresson Medals were given out during the award's lifetime.[3]

Year Awardee Category Citation
1875
Bonwill, W. G. A.W. G. A. Bonwill Life Science Electro Magnetic Dental Mallet
1875
Fiss, Banes, Erben & Co., Fiss, Banes, Erben & Co. Engineering Worsted Yarns
1875
Powers & Weightman, Powers & Weightman Engineering Drug Manufacturing
1875
Tatham, W.P.W.P. Tatham Invention Printing press
1875
Tilghman, Benjamin ChewBenjamin Chew Tilghman Engineering Sand Blast
1875
Zentmayer, JosephJoseph Zentmayer Engineering Microscopes and Objectives
1877
Charlton, JohnJohn Charlton Engineering Shaft Coupling
1877
Dudley, P. H.P. H. Dudley Engineering Dynomagraph
1878
Bower, HenryHenry Bower Chemistry Inodorous Glycerin
1878
Chambers, Jr., CyrusCyrus Chambers, Jr. Engineering Bolt and rivet clipper
1878
Goodwin, Williams FarrWilliams Farr Goodwin Engineering Competitive test of mowing machines
1879
Delandtsheer, NorbertNorbert Delandtsheer Invention Machine for Testing Flax
1880
Spellier, L. H.L. H. Spellier Invention Time Telegraph
1881
Griscom, W. WoodnutW. Woodnut Griscom Engineering Electric Induction Motor and Battery
1885
Chabot, CyprienCyprien Chabot Engineering Shoe Sewing Machine
1885
Siemens, FrederickFrederick Siemens Engineering Regenerative Gas Burner
1886
Delany, Patrick BernardPatrick Bernard Delany Engineering Synchronous Telegraphy
1886
Lowe, Thaddeus S. C.Thaddeus S. C. Lowe Engineering Water Gas Process and Apparatus
1886
Ott & Brewer, Ott & Brewer Engineering China and Porcelain Wares
1886
Pratt & Whitney Co., Pratt & Whitney Co. Engineering System of Interchangeable Cut Gears
1886
Ramsay, R. H.R. H. Ramsay Engineering Railway Car Transfer Apparatus
1886
Walkup, LibertyLiberty Walkup Invention Airbrush
1887
Albert, Charles F.Charles F. Albert Engineering Violins and Bows
1887
Bilgram, HugoHugo Bilgram Engineering Bevel Gear Cutter
1887
Cowles, Alfred H.Alfred H. Cowles Engineering Electric Smelting Furnace
1887
Cowles, Eugene H.Eugene H. Cowles Engineering Electric Smelting Furnace
1887
Shaw, ThomasThomas Shaw Engineering Testing for Mine Gases and system of Mine Signaling
1889
Cowper, Edward AlfredEdward Alfred Cowper Invention Writing Telegraph
1889
Mergenthaler, OttmarOttmar Mergenthaler Engineering Linotype machine
1889
Robertson, T. HartT. Hart Robertson Invention Writing Telegraph
1889
Simonds, George FrederickGeorge Frederick Simonds Engineering Universal Rolling Machine
1890
Hammond, J. B.J. B. Hammond Engineering Typewriter Improvements
1890
Hollerith, HermanHerman Hollerith Computer and Cognitive Science Electric Tabulating Device
1890
Mayer Hayes & Co., Mayer Hayes & Co. Engineering Manufacture of files
1891
Bates, StocktonStockton Bates Engineering Spindle Support
1891
Bevington, James H.James H. Bevington Engineering Welding Metal and Spinning and Shaping Tube
1891
Fiske, Bradley AllenBradley Allen Fiske Engineering Rangefinder
1891
Olsen, TiniusTinius Olsen Engineering Testing Machine
1891
Shaw, Edwin F.Edwin F. Shaw Engineering Spindle Support
1891
Vauclain, Samuel M.Samuel M. Vauclain Engineering Compound Locomotive
1891
Von Culin, George M.George M. Von Culin Engineering Spindle Support
1892
Holmes, Philip H.Philip H. Holmes Engineering Composition for Journal Bearings
1892
Howe, Henry M.Henry M. Howe Engineering Metallurgy of Steel
1893
Batchellor, Clifford H.Clifford H. Batchellor Engineering Compound Locomotive
1893
Ives, Frederic EugeneFrederic Eugene Ives Engineering Color photography
1893
Marks, George E.George E. Marks Life Science Improvements in Artificial Limbs
1893
von Jankó, PaulPaul von Jankó Engineering Jankó piano keyboard
1894
Tesla, NikolaNikola Tesla Engineering Alternating Electric Currents of High Frequency
1895
Howe, Henry M.Henry M. Howe Engineering Experimental Researches on Steel
1895
Peckover, JamesJames Peckover Invention Stone Sawing Machine
1895
Pelton, Lester AllanLester Allan Pelton Engineering Water Wheel
1896
Delany, Patrick BernardPatrick Bernard Delany Engineering Telegraphy, High speed system
1896
Lanston, TolbertTolbert Lanston Invention Monotype Machine
1897
Castner, Hamilton Y.Hamilton Y. Castner Engineering Process of electrolytic decomposing of alkaline chlorides
1897
Gray, ElishaElisha Gray Engineering Telautograph
1897
Jenkins, Charles FrancisCharles Francis Jenkins Invention Phantoscope projector
1897
Röntgen, Wilhelm ConradWilhelm Conrad Röntgen Physics Discovery of X-rays
1897
Wilckes, JosephJoseph Wilckes Invention Econometer
1898
Atwater, Wilbur OlinWilbur Olin Atwater Engineering Respiration Calorimeter
1898
Corscaden, ThomasThomas Corscaden Engineering All-Wrought Steel Belt Pulley
1898
Hirschel, ClemensClemens Hirschel Invention Venturi Meter
1898
Moissan, HenriHenri Moissan Engineering Investigations with his electric furnace
1898
Rosa, Edward BennettEdward Bennett Rosa Engineering Respiration Calorimeter
1900
American Cotton Company, American Cotton Company Engineering Round Lap Bale System
1900
Levy, Louis EdwardLouis Edward Levy Engineering Method and apparatus for acid blast etching of metal plates
1900
Pencoyd Iron Works, Pencoyd Iron Works Engineering Bridge construction
1900
United States Geological Survey, United States Geological Survey Earth Science Exhibit of the USGS
1900
von Welsbach, Carl AuerCarl Auer von Welsbach Chemistry Discoveries regarding metallic oxides
1901
Diesel, RudolphRudolph Diesel Engineering Diesel engine
1901
Forbes, John S.John S. Forbes Chemistry Process of automatically heating and sterilizing fluids
1901
Haupt, L. M.L. M. Haupt Engineering Reaction Breakwater
1901
Mason & Hamlin Company, Mason & Hamlin Company Engineering Liszt Pipe Organ
1901
Waterhouse, A. G.A. G. Waterhouse Engineering Process of automatically heating and sterilizing fluids
1902
Acker, C. E.C. E. Acker Engineering Manufacturing Caustic Alkali and Halogen Gas
1902
Taylor, Fred W.Fred W. Taylor Engineering Process of Treating Tool Steel
1902
White, MaunselMaunsel White Engineering Process of Treating Tool Steel
1903
Clam, G. H.G. H. Clam Engineering Method of eliminating metals from mixtures of metals
1903
Ferrell, J. L.J. L. Ferrell Engineering Process of fireproofing wood
1903
Gill, Wilson LindsleyWilson Lindsley Gill Engineering; Computer and Cognitive Science School City Educational Plan
1903
Goldschmidt, VictorVictor Goldschmidt Engineering Theory of Musical Harmony
1903
Sprague, Frank J.Frank J. Sprague Engineering System of Electric Traction
1904
Dodge, James MapesJames Mapes Dodge Engineering System of Storing Coal
1904
Gill, Wilson LindsleyWilson Lindsley Gill Engineering; Computer and Cognitive Science School City
1904
Goldschmidt, HansHans Goldschmidt Physics Alumino-Thermics
1904
Levy, L. E.L. E. Levy Engineering Machine for preparation of plates for etching
1904
Lovekin, L. D.L. D. Lovekin Engineering Expanding and Flanging Machinery for Tubes
1904
Outerbridge, Jr., A. E.A. E. Outerbridge, Jr. Engineering Molecular Structure of Cast Iron
1904
Parker, J. C.J. C. Parker Engineering Steam Generator
1905
Gray National Telautograph Company, Gray National Telautograph Company Engineering Telautograph
1905
Pupin, M. I.M. I. Pupin Physics Reducing Attenuation of Electrical Waves
1906
American Paper Bottle Company, American Paper Bottle Company Engineering Paper Milk Bottles
1906
Hammer, William JosephWilliam Joseph Hammer (unspecified) Historic Collection of Incandescent Electric Lamps
1907
Baldwin Locomotive Works, Baldwin Locomotive Works Engineering Contributions to Evolution of American Locomotive
1907
Borsch, J. L.J. L. Borsch Physics A new Bi-Focal Lens
1907
Heany, J. AllenJ. Allen Heany Engineering Fireproof Insulated Wire
1907
Philips, F.F. Philips Engineering Pressed Steel Pulley for Power Transmission
1907
Taylor, Edward R.Edward R. Taylor Chemistry Electric Furnace Manufacture of Carbon bisulfide
1908
Hough, Romeyn BeckRomeyn Beck Hough Engineering Uses of American Woods
1908
Mallet, AnatoleAnatole Mallet Engineering Improved Articulated Compound Locomotive
1909
Curie, MarieMarie Curie Chemistry The discovery of radium
1909
Curie, PierrePierre Curie Chemistry The discovery of radium
1909
Gaede, WolfgangWolfgang Gaede Engineering Molecular Air Pump
1909
Gayley, JamesJames Gayley Engineering Dry air blast in blast furnace operation
1909
Lumière, Auguste and LouisAuguste and Louis Lumière Engineering Color photography
1909
Squier, George OwenGeorge Owen Squier Engineering Multiplex Telephony
1909
Talbot, BenjaminBenjamin Talbot Engineering Open Hearth Steel Process
1909
Turner, W. V.W. V. Turner Engineering Air Brake Design and Application
1909
Underwood Typewriter Co., Underwood Typewriter Co. Engineering Underwood Typewriter
1909
Vernasz, AlexisAlexis Vernasz Engineering Milling files
1909
Wood, H. A. WiseH. A. Wise Wood Engineering The Autoplate Machine
1910
Automatic Electric Company, Automatic Electric Company Engineering Automatic System of Telephony
1910
Brashear, John A.John A. Brashear Physics Distinguished work in astronomical instruments
1910
Hewitt, Peter CooperPeter Cooper Hewitt Invention Mercury rectifier
1910
Fritz, JohnJohn Fritz Engineering Distinguished work in iron and steel industries
1910
Hadfield, Robert AbbottRobert Abbott Hadfield Engineering Distinguished work in metallurgical sciences
1910
Rutherford, ErnestErnest Rutherford Engineering Distinguished work in electrical theory
1910
Thomson, Joseph JohnJoseph John Thomson Physics For distinguished work in physical sciences
1910
Weston, EdwardEdward Weston Engineering Distinguished work in electrical discovery
1910
Wiley, Harvey W.Harvey W. Wiley Life Science Distinguished work in agricultural chemistry
1912
Bell, Alexander GrahamAlexander Graham Bell Engineering Electrical Transmission of Articulate Speech
1912
Crookes, WilliamWilliam Crookes Chemistry Discoveries in Chemistry
1912
Noble, Alfred EAlfred E Noble Engineering Distinguished work in civil engineering
1912
Morley, Edward WilliamsEdward Williams Morley Chemistry Determination of fundamental magnitudes in chemistry
1912
Michelson, Albert A.Albert A. Michelson Physics Investigations in physical optics
1912
Roscoe, Sir Henry EnfieldSir Henry Enfield Roscoe Chemistry Important Research in Chemistry
1912
Stratton, Samuel WesleySamuel Wesley Stratton Engineering Distinguished work in metrology
1912
Thomson, ElihuElihu Thomson Engineering Industrial applications of electricity
1912
von Baeyer, AdolfAdolf von Baeyer Chemistry Extended research in organic chemistry
1913
Berliner, EmileEmile Berliner Engineering Contributions to telephony and science of sound reproduction
1913
Fischer, Hermann EmilHermann Emil Fischer Life Science Organic and biological chemistry
1913
Ramsay, Sir WilliamSir William Ramsay Chemistry Discoveries in chemistry
1913
Randolph, IshamIsham Randolph Engineering Distinguished work in civil engineering
1913
Strutt, JohnJohn Strutt Physics Extended researches in physical science
1913
Sauveur, AlbertAlbert Sauveur Engineering Metallography of Iron and Steel
1913
Steinmetz, Charles ProteusCharles Proteus Steinmetz Engineering Analytical methods in electrical engineering
1914
von Eder, J. M.J. M. von Eder Chemistry Original Researches in Photo-Chemistry
1914
von Linde, Carl Paul GottfriedCarl Paul Gottfried von Linde Engineering Liquefaction of gases and refrigeration
1914
Smith, Edgar FahsEdgar Fahs Smith Chemistry Leading work in electro-chemistry
1914
Wright, OrvilleOrville Wright Engineering The art and science of aviation
1915
Owens, Michael J.Michael J. Owens Engineering Automatic Bottle Blowing Machine
1916
American Telephone & Telegraph, American Telephone & Telegraph Engineering Development of the Art of telephony
1916
Eldred, Byron E.Byron E. Eldred Engineering Low Expansion Wire for Incandescent Lamps
1916
Gans, RobertRobert Gans Engineering Permutit water softening process
1917
Northrup, Edwin FitchEdwin Fitch Northrup Engineering Investigation of Electric Furnaces and High Temperature
1918
Lewis, Isaac NewtonIsaac Newton Lewis Engineering Lewis Machine Gun
1920
Emmet, William LeRoyWilliam LeRoy Emmet Engineering Electrical Propulsion of Ships
1923
DeForest, LeeLee DeForest Engineering Audion
1923
Johnson, Raymond D.Raymond D. Johnson Engineering Hydraulic Valve
1923
Kingsbury, AlbertAlbert Kingsbury Engineering Thrust bearing
1925
Hodgkinson, FrancisFrancis Hodgkinson Engineering Turbo-Electric Appliances
1926
Hale, George ElleryGeorge Ellery Hale Physics Astronomical Researches of sun, solar atmosphere and solar physics
1926
Hastings, Charles S.Charles S. Hastings Engineering Design of Optical Systems
1927
Miller, Dayton C.Dayton C. Miller Physics Researches in Sound
1927
Nichols, Edward LeamingtonEdward Leamington Nichols Physics Investigations in the Physical Sciences
1928
Elmen, Gustaf W.Gustaf W. Elmen Engineering Permalloy
1928
Ford, HenryHenry Ford Engineering Revolutionizing automobile industry, and industrial leadership
1928
Karapetoff, VladimirVladimir Karapetoff Computer and Cognitive Science Kinematic Computing Devices
1928
Lawrance, Charles L.Charles L. Lawrance Engineering Wright Whirlwind Air-Cooled Engine, Model J-5
1929
Irvine, James ColquhounJames Colquhoun Irvine Life Science Carbohydrate chemistry
1929
Jackson, ChevalierChevalier Jackson Life Science Instruments for Removal of Foreign Bodies from Respiratory and food Passages
1929
Sperry, Elmer AmbroseElmer Ambrose Sperry [4] Engineering Navigational and Recording Instruments (Gyroscopic)
1930
Gibson, Norman RothwellNorman Rothwell Gibson Physics Measurement of Liquid Flow in Closed Conduits
1930
Moultrop, Irving EdwinIrving Edwin Moultrop Engineering High Pressure Steam Boilers in Electric Generating Stations
1931
Davisson, Clinton JosephClinton Joseph Davisson Physics Scattering and diffraction of electrons by crystals
1931
Germer, Lester HalbertLester Halbert Germer Physics Scattering and Diffraction of Electrons by Crystals
1931
Honda, KotaroKotaro Honda Engineering Contributions to magnetism and metallurgy
1931
Lyman, TheodoreTheodore Lyman Physics Work in Spectroscopy
1932
Bridgman, Percy W.Percy W. Bridgman Physics Work in high pressure
1932
Fortescue, Charles LeGeytCharles LeGeyt Fortescue Engineering Symmetrical Coordinates in Polyphase Networks
1932
Whitehead, John B.John B. Whitehead (unspecified) Dielectric Behavior
1933
Bauersfeld, WaltherWalther Bauersfeld Physics Optical Planetarium
1933
de la Cierva, JuanJuan de la Cierva Engineering Autogiro-flying machine with freely rotating wings
1934
Ballantine, StuartStuart Ballantine Engineering Vertical Antenna for Radio Transmission
1934
Union Switch & Signal, Union Switch & Signal Engineering Continuous Cab Signal and Automatic Train Control Systems
1936
Curme, George O.George O. Curme Chemistry Development of synthetic aliphatic chemistry
1936
Van de Graaff, Robert J.Robert J. Van de Graaff Engineering High Voltage Electrostatic Generator
1937
Anderson, Carl DavidCarl David Anderson Chemistry Discovery of the positron
1937
Bowie, WilliamWilliam Bowie Earth Science Contributions to the Science of Geodesy (Isostasy)
1937
Brandenberger, Jacques EdwinJacques Edwin Brandenberger Engineering Process for Manufacture of Cellophane
1937
Giauque, William F.William F. Giauque Physics Low temperature research
1937
Lawrence, Ernest O.Ernest O. Lawrence Engineering Development of the Cyclotron
1938
Land, Edwin H.Edwin H. Land Engineering Polaroid camera
1939
Boys, Charles VernonCharles Vernon Boys Physics Creation of new methods for measuring gravitation, sound, heat, radiation and current and static electricity
1939
Campbell, George AshleyGeorge Ashley Campbell Engineering Theory of electric circuits for improvements in telephony
1939
Carson, John R.John R. Carson Engineering Contributions to electric communications
1940
Backet, Frederick M.Frederick M. Backet Engineering Low carbon ferro-alloys and electro-metallurgy
1940
Williams, Robert R.Robert R. Williams Life Science Researches upon Vitamin B1 including its isolation in the pure state in quantities sufficient for further study
1941
United States Navy, United States Navy Engineering Submarine rescue devices, U.S. lung and rescue chamber
1942
Hudson, Claude SilbertClaude Silbert Hudson Life Science Investigation in Carbohydrate chemistry
1942
Rabi, Isidor I.Isidor I. Rabi Physics Measurement of magnetic moments of atomic nuclei, and their radio frequency spectra
1943
Allen, Charles MetcalfCharles Metcalf Allen Engineering Salt velocity method for measuring the flow of water in conduits
1944
Adams, RogerRoger Adams Chemistry Contributions in organic chemistry
1945
Hooper, Stanford CaldwellStanford Caldwell Hooper Engineering Leadership in field of radio for U.S. Navy
1945
Moody, Lewis FerryLewis Ferry Moody Engineering Hydraulic turbines
1946
Barnes, Gladeon M.Gladeon M. Barnes Engineering Contributions to design and development of anti-aircraft guns, tanks, seacoast artillery and welded gun carriages
1948
Colpitts, Edwin H.Edwin H. Colpitts Engineering Practical systems of long distance communications
1950
Schonland, Basil Ferdinand JamiesonBasil Ferdinand Jamieson Schonland Physics Work in the field of atmospheric electricity and the mechanism of lightning discharge
1952
Molina, Edward C.Edward C. Molina Engineering Contributions to improvement of telephonic communications by applying mathematical probability to the study of telephone traffic and by the invention of switching equipment
1952
Taylor, H. BirchardH. Birchard Taylor Engineering Development of the single runner vertical reaction turbine
1953
Blum, WilliamWilliam Blum Physics Scientific basis for the electro-deposition of metals
1953
Harrison, George RussellGeorge Russell Harrison Physics Precision measurement in Zeeman effect
1953
Meggers, William F.William F. Meggers Physics Contributions to field of spectroscopy and to the knowledge of the electronic structure of many elements
1955
Bowden, F. PhilipF. Philip Bowden Physics For extensive investigations involving frictions between solid surfaces
1957
Libby, Willard F.Willard F. Libby Physics Technique of radio carbon dating
1957
Pigott, Reginold James SeymourReginold James Seymour Pigott Engineering Engineering accomplishments, inventions and leadership
1957
Watson-Watt, Robert AlexanderRobert Alexander Watson-Watt Engineering Pulsed radar, and development of radar systems
1958
Patrick, Joseph C.Joseph C. Patrick Chemistry Discoveries in polysulfide polymers and new processes of combining chemical compounds for the manufacture of synthetic rubber
1958
Timoshenko, Stephen P.Stephen P. Timoshenko Engineering Theory of elasticity and elastic stability
1959
Hammond, John HaysJohn Hays Hammond Engineering Developed remote radio control of moving vehicles
1959
Harrison, Henry CharlesHenry Charles Harrison Engineering Matched impedance principle in electro-mechanical devices
1959
Wolff, IrvingIrving Wolff Engineering Contributions to radio, radar and electronics
1960
Dryden, Hugh LatimerHugh Latimer Dryden Engineering Contributions to theory and application of aerodynamics which advanced the art of wind tunnel and aircraft design and for contributions to design and development of first automatic radar homing guided missile
1960
Nadai, Arpad LudwigArpad Ludwig Nadai Engineering Pioneering work in elasticity of materials
1960
Swann, William Francis GrayWilliam Francis Gray Swann Physics Significant studies in the field of cosmic radiation
1961
Glaser, Donald A.Donald A. Glaser Physics The bubble chamber for tracking and photographing tracks of high energy ionizing particles and the fragments of nuclear collisions
1961
Mössbauer, Rudolf L.Rudolf L. Mössbauer Physics Discovery of recoilless emission
1961
Rudenberg, ReinholdReinhold Rudenberg Engineering Performance of electric power systems
1961
Van Allen, James AlfredJames Alfred Van Allen Physics Pioneering achievements in space science, Van Allen Radiation Belts
1962
Baker, James G.James G. Baker Physics Innovations in the design of astronomical instruments and the mathematics of optical design
1962
von Braun, WernherWernher von Braun Engineering Liquid rocket motors and rocket development
1963
Christofilos, NicholasNicholas Christofilos Physics Contributions to applied electromagnetism and nuclear physics such as conception of strange-focusing principle in synchrotrons, the ARGUS experiment and principles in Astron development
1963
Reber, GroteGrote Reber Physics Radio astronomy, early radio telescopes, and the identification of the first radio star
1964
Semon, Waldo L.Waldo L. Semon Engineering Achievements in natural and synthetic rubber production
1964
Southwell, Richard V.Richard V. Southwell Physics Solution of buckling problems in physics and engineering
1964
Wilson, Robert RathbunRobert Rathbun Wilson Physics Contributions to the control and direction of high-energy particle beams and as a designer of instrumentation for measurement of high-energy physical phenomena
1965
Van Slyke, Donald DexterDonald Dexter Van Slyke Life Science Clinical chemistry procedures and apparatus
1966
Blizard, Everitt P.Everitt P. Blizard Physics Development of the theory of radiation shielding
1966
Mark, Herman FrancisHerman Francis Mark Chemistry Polymers
1968
Bartlett, NeilNeil Bartlett Chemistry Fluorine Compounds of Xenon and Radon
1969
Eyring, HenryHenry Eyring Chemistry Quantum mechanical calculations of activation energies
1969
Goldmark, Peter CarlPeter Carl Goldmark Engineering Contributions in the fields of electronics
1970
Zinn, Walter HenryWalter Henry Zinn Engineering Nuclear power reactors
1971
Flory, Paul J.Paul J. Flory Chemistry Polymer science
1971
Van Vleck, John HasbrouckJohn Hasbrouck Van Vleck Physics Theories of magnetism and dielectrics
1972
Josephson, Brian D.Brian D. Josephson Physics Josephson effect and theory of matter at low temperatures
1972
Lear, William PowellWilliam Powell Lear Engineering Development of full maneuvering automatic pilot and Lear jet
1973
Sandage, Allan R.Allan R. Sandage Physics Astronomy
1973
Stapp, John PaulJohn Paul Stapp Life Science Crash Injury Research
1974
Cairns, Theodore L.Theodore L. Cairns Chemistry Percyano compounds, synthesis and exploration of chemical and physical properties
1974
Dicke, Robert H.Robert H. Dicke Physics Role in gravitational experiment and theory
1974
Haagen-Smit, Arie JanArie Jan Haagen-Smit Earth Science Plant hormones and air pollution chemistry
1974
Rossi, Bruno B.Bruno B. Rossi Physics Cosmic rays, gamma-ray astronomy
1975
Cohn, MildredMildred Cohn Life Science Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of enzymatic complexes
1975
Lighthill, Michael JamesMichael James Lighthill Physics Acoustic quadrupole theory of aerodynamic noise generation
1976
Lederman, LeonLeon Lederman Physics Leadership in forefront of experimentation in study of high energy interactions, nuclear forces and particle physics
1978
Brown, Herbert C.Herbert C. Brown Chemistry Development of methods for synthesis of diborane and alkali metal hydrides
1978
Stillinger, Frank H.Frank H. Stillinger Chemistry Computer-generated model for water molecules
1979
Weinberg, StevenSteven Weinberg Physics Unified theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions
1980
Giacconi, RiccardoRiccardo Giacconi Physics Outstanding work in X-ray astronomy
1981
Hubbert, Marion KingMarion King Hubbert Earth Science Application of quantitative methods to geological problems
1982
Eubank, Harold P.Harold P. Eubank Physics Plasma physics
1982
Wilson, Jr., Edgar BrightEdgar Bright Wilson, Jr. Physics Contributions to the understanding of molecular structure and dynamics
1984
Neufeld, Elizabeth F.Elizabeth F. Neufeld Life Science For investigation of genetics of mucopolysaccharide storage disease
1985
Clayton, Robert N.Robert N. Clayton Engineering For the application of mass spectrometry to geoscience research
1985
Sakharov, AndreiAndrei Sakharov Physics For contributions to controlled thermonuclear reactions, baryon synthesis and proton decay, induced gravity and the quark model
1986
Kadanoff, Leo P.Leo P. Kadanoff Physics For contributions to the current understanding of second order phase transition
1987
Binnig, GerdGerd Binnig Physics For development of the scanning tunneling microscope
1987
Rohrer, HeinrichHeinrich Rohrer Physics For the development of scanning tunneling microscope
1988
Drickamer, Harry G.Harry G. Drickamer Engineering For clarification of the role of pressure in producing paramagnetic-ferromagnetic and conductor-insulator transitions
1989
Lorenz, Edward NortonEdward Norton Lorenz Physics For interpretation of dynamical chaos in physical systems
1990
Scully, Marlan O.Marlan O. Scully Physics For his discoveries in laser physics and quantum optics, atomic and statistical physics, and biological engineering
1991
Aharonov, YakirYakir Aharonov Physics For observations of electromagnetic potentials and insights into quantum mechanics
1991
Bohm, DavidDavid Bohm Physics For elevated electromagnetic potentials to status of physical observables
1992
Tsui, Lap-CheeLap-Chee Tsui Life Science For the discovery of the cystic fibrosis gene
1995
Caruthers, Marvin H.Marvin H. Caruthers Life Science For his contributions in automating the synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides
1995
Cho, Alfred Y.Alfred Y. Cho Physics For development and refinement of techniques of molecular beam epitaxy for use in quantum physics
1997
Fridovich, IrwinIrwin Fridovich Life Science For discovering the biology of free radical reactions in living organisms
1997
McCord, Joe MiltonJoe Milton McCord Life Science For discovering the biology of free radical reactions in living organisms

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c The Franklin Institute. Donors of the Medals and their histories. The Elliott Cresson Medal - Founded in 1848 - Gold Medal. Retrieved on July 13, 2009.
  2. ^ The Franklin Institute. Awards. About the Awards: History and Facts, Retrieved on July 13, 2009.
  3. ^ The Franklin Institute. Winners. Cresson Medal winners. Note that the 269 listed awardees include two different entries for Lee DeForest, with different spellings of his name. DeForest received only one medal, in 1923. Retrieved on July 13, 2009.
  4. ^ "Elmer Sperry Dies. Famous Inventor". New York Times. June 17, 1930. Retrieved 2012-12-21. "In 1914, he was awarded first prize of the Aero Club of France or his airplane stabilizer; he also was the winner of two Franklin Institute Medals in 1914 and 1929; Collier Trophies, 1915, 1916; Holley Medal, 1927; John Fritz Medal, 1927; Albert Gary Medal, 1929; two decorations from the last Czar of Russia; two decorations from the Emperor of Japan, the Order of the Rising Sun and the Order of the Sacred Treasure; and the grand prize of the Panama Exposition."