Civil engineering

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A multi-level stack interchange, buildings, houses, and park in Shanghai, China.
Philadelphia City Hall in the United States is still the world's tallest masonry load bearing structure.

Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings.[1][2][3] Civil engineering is the second-oldest engineering discipline after military engineering,[4] and it is defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering.[5] It is traditionally broken into several sub-disciplines including architectural engineering, environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, geophysics, geodesy, control engineering, structural engineering, earthquake engineering, transportation engineering, earth science, atmospheric sciences, forensic engineering, municipal or urban engineering, water resources engineering, materials engineering, offshore engineering, quantity surveying, coastal engineering,[4] surveying, and construction engineering.[6] Civil engineering takes place in the public sector from municipal through to national governments, and in the private sector from individual homeowners through to international companies.

History of the civil engineering profession[edit]

Leonhard Euler developed the theory explaining the buckling of columns

Engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human existence. The earliest practice of civil engineering may have commenced between 4000 and 2000 BC in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia (Ancient Iraq) when humans started to abandon a nomadic existence, creating a need for the construction of shelter. During this time, transportation became increasingly important leading to the development of the wheel and sailing.

Until modern times there was no clear distinction between civil engineering and architecture, and the term engineer and architect were mainly geographical variations referring to the same occupation, and often used interchangeably.[7] The construction of pyramids in Egypt (circa 2700–2500 BC) were some of the first instances of large structure constructions. Other ancient historic civil engineering constructions include the Qanat water management system (the oldest is older than 3000 years and longer than 71 km,[8]) the Parthenon by Iktinos in Ancient Greece (447–438 BC), the Appian Way by Roman engineers (c. 312 BC), the Great Wall of China by General Meng T'ien under orders from Ch'in Emperor Shih Huang Ti (c. 220 BC)[6] and the stupas constructed in ancient Sri Lanka like the Jetavanaramaya and the extensive irrigation works in Anuradhapura. The Romans developed civil structures throughout their empire, including especially aqueducts, insulae, harbors, bridges, dams and roads.

John Smeaton, the "father of civil engineering"

In the 18th century, the term civil engineering was coined to incorporate all things civilian as opposed to military engineering.[5] The first self-proclaimed civil engineer was John Smeaton, who constructed the Eddystone Lighthouse.[4][6] In 1771 Smeaton and some of his colleagues formed the Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers, a group of leaders of the profession who met informally over dinner. Though there was evidence of some technical meetings, it was little more than a social society.

In 1818 the Institution of Civil Engineers was founded in London, and in 1820 the eminent engineer Thomas Telford became its first president. The institution received a Royal Charter in 1828, formally recognising civil engineering as a profession. Its charter defined civil engineering as:

the art of directing the great sources of power in nature for the use and convenience of man, as the means of production and of traffic in states, both for external and internal trade, as applied in the construction of roads, bridges, aqueducts, canals, river navigation and docks for internal intercourse and exchange, and in the construction of ports, harbours, moles, breakwaters and lighthouses, and in the art of navigation by artificial power for the purposes of commerce, and in the construction and application of machinery, and in the drainage of cities and towns.[9]

The first private college to teach Civil Engineering in the United States was Norwich University, founded in 1819 by Captain Alden Partridge.[10] The first degree in Civil Engineering in the United States was awarded by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1835.[11][12] The first such degree to be awarded to a woman was granted by Cornell University to Nora Stanton Blatch in 1905.[13]

History of civil engineering[edit]

Chichen Itza was a large pre-Columbian city in Mexico built by the Maya people of the Post Classic. The northeast column temple also covers a channel that funnels all the rainwater from the complex some 40 metres (130 ft) away to a rejollada, a former cenote.
A Roman aqueduct [built circa 19 BC] near Pont du Gard, France

Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles for solving the problems of society, and its history is intricately linked to advances in understanding of physics and mathematics throughout history. Because civil engineering is a wide ranging profession, including several separate specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge of structures, materials science, geography, geology, soils, hydrology, environment, mechanics and other fields.

Throughout ancient and medieval history most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans, such as stonemasons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Knowledge was retained in guilds and seldom supplanted by advances. Structures, roads and infrastructure that existed were repetitive, and increases in scale were incremental.[14]

One of the earliest examples of a scientific approach to physical and mathematical problems applicable to civil engineering is the work of Archimedes in the 3rd century BC, including Archimedes Principle, which underpins our understanding of buoyancy, and practical solutions such as Archimedes' screw. Brahmagupta, an Indian mathematician, used arithmetic in the 7th century AD, based on Hindu-Arabic numerals, for excavation (volume) computations.[15]

The civil engineer[edit]

Education and licensure[edit]

Main article: Civil engineer
Surveying students with professor at the Helsinki University of Technology in the late 19th century.

Civil engineers typically possess an academic degree in civil engineering. The length of study is three to five years, and the completed degree is designated as a bachelor of engineering, or a bachelor of science. The curriculum generally includes classes in physics, mathematics, project management, design and specific topics in civil engineering. After taking basic courses in most sub-disciplines of civil engineering, they move onto specialize in one or more sub-disciplines at advanced levels. While an undergraduate degree (BEng/BSc) normally provides successful students with industry-accredited qualification, some academic institutions offer post-graduate degrees (MEng/MSc), which allow students to further specialize in their particular area of interest.[16]

Snapshot from shake-table video[17] testing of base-isolated (right) and regular (left) building models

In most countries, a bachelor's degree in engineering represents the first step towards professional certification, and a professional body certifies the degree program. After completing a certified degree program, the engineer must satisfy a range of requirements (including work experience and exam requirements) before being certified. Once certified, the engineer is designated as a professional engineer (in the United States, Canada and South Africa), a chartered engineer (in most Commonwealth countries), a chartered professional engineer (in Australia and New Zealand), or a European engineer (in most countries of the European Union). There are international agreements between relevant professional bodies to allow engineers to practice across national borders.

The benefits of certification vary depending upon location. For example, in the United States and Canada, "only a licensed professional engineer may prepare, sign and seal, and submit engineering plans and drawings to a public authority for approval, or seal engineering work for public and private clients."[18] This requirement is enforced under provincial law such as the Engineers Act in Quebec.[19]

No such legislation has been enacted in other countries including the United Kingdom. In Australia, state licensing of engineers is limited to the state of Queensland. Almost all certifying bodies maintain a code of ethics which all members must abide by.[20]

Engineers must obey contract law in their contractual relationships with other parties. In cases where an engineer's work fails, he may be subject to the law of tort of negligence, and in extreme cases, criminal charges.[21] An engineer's work must also comply with numerous other rules and regulations such as building codes and environmental law.

Sub-disciplines[edit]

The Akashi Kaikyō Bridge in Japan, currently the world's longest suspension span.

In general, civil engineering is concerned with the overall interface of human created fixed projects with the greater world. General civil engineers work closely with surveyors and specialized civil engineers to design grading, drainage, pavement, water supply, sewer service, electric and communications supply, and land divisions. General engineers spend much time visiting project sites, developing community consensus, and preparing construction plans. General civil engineering is also referred to as site engineering, a branch of civil engineering that primarily focuses on converting a tract of land from one usage to another. Civil engineers apply the principles of geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, environmental engineering, transportation engineering and construction engineering to residential, commercial, industrial and public works projects of all sizes and levels of construction.

Materials science and engineering[edit]

Main article: Materials science

Materials science is closely related to civil engineering. Material engineering studies fundamental characteristics of materials, and deals with ceramics such as concrete and mix asphalt concrete, strong metals such as aluminum and steel, and polymers including polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and carbon fibers.

Materials engineering also involves protection and prevention (paints and finishes). Alloying combines two types of metals to produce another metal with desired properties. It incorporates elements of applied physics and chemistry. With recent media attention on nanoscience and nanotechnology, materials science has been at the forefront of academic research. It is also an important part of forensic engineering and failure analysis.

Coastal engineering[edit]

Main article: Coastal management
Oosterscheldekering sea wall, the Netherlands.

Coastal engineering is concerned with managing coastal areas. In some jurisdictions, the terms sea defense and coastal protection mean defense against flooding and erosion, respectively. The term coastal defense is the more traditional term, but coastal management has become more popular as the field has expanded to techniques that allow erosion to claim land.

Construction engineering[edit]

Construction engineering involves planning and execution, transportation of materials, site development based on hydraulic, environmental, structural and geotechnical engineering. As construction firms tend to have higher business risk than other types of civil engineering firms do, construction engineers often engage in more business-like transactions, for example, drafting and reviewing contracts, evaluating logistical operations, and monitoring prices of supplies.

Earthquake engineering[edit]

Earthquake engineering involves designing structures to withstand hazardous earthquake exposures. Earthquake engineering is a sub-discipline of structural engineering. The main objectives of earthquake engineering are[22] to understand interaction of structures on the shaky ground; foresee the consequences of possible earthquakes; and design, construct and maintain structures to perform at earthquake in compliance with building codes.

Environmental engineering[edit]

Water pollution

Environmental engineering is the contemporary term for sanitary engineering, though sanitary engineering traditionally had not included much of the hazardous waste management and environmental remediation work covered by environmental engineering. Public health engineering and environmental health engineering are other terms being used.

Environmental engineering deals with treatment of chemical, biological, or thermal wastes, purification of water and air, and remediation of contaminated sites after waste disposal or accidental contamination. Among the topics covered by environmental engineering are pollutant transport, water purification, waste water treatment, air pollution, solid waste treatment, and hazardous waste management. Environmental engineers administer pollution reduction, green engineering, and industrial ecology. Environmental engineers also compile information on environmental consequences of proposed actions.

Geotechnical engineering[edit]

A phase diagram of soil indicating the weights and volumes of air, soil, water, and voids.

Geotechnical engineering studies rock and soil supporting civil engineering systems. Knowledge from the field of geology, materials science, mechanics, and hydraulics is applied to safely and economically design foundations, retaining walls, and other structures. Environmental efforts to protect groundwater and safely maintain landfills have spawned a new area of research called geoenvironmental engineering.[23][24]

Identification of soil properties presents challenges to geotechnical engineers. Boundary conditions are often well defined in other branches of civil engineering, but unlike steel or concrete, the material properties and behavior of soil are difficult to predict due to its variability and limitation on investigation. Furthermore, soil exhibits nonlinear (stress-dependent) strength, stiffness, and dilatancy (volume change associated with application of shear stress), making studying soil mechanics all the more difficult.[23]

Water resources engineering[edit]

Water resources engineering is concerned with the collection and management of water (as a natural resource). As a discipline it therefore combines hydrology, environmental science, meteorology, geology, conservation, and resource management. This area of civil engineering relates to the prediction and management of both the quality and the quantity of water in both underground (aquifers) and above ground (lakes, rivers, and streams) resources. Water resource engineers analyze and model very small to very large areas of the earth to predict the amount and content of water as it flows into, through, or out of a facility. Although the actual design of the facility may be left to other engineers.

Hydraulic engineering is concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water. This area of civil engineering is intimately related to the design of pipelines, water supply network, drainage facilities (including bridges, dams, channels, culverts, levees, storm sewers), and canals. Hydraulic engineers design these facilities using the concepts of fluid pressure, fluid statics, fluid dynamics, and hydraulics, among others.

Structural engineering[edit]

Burj Khalifa animation of construction process
Shallow foundation construction example

Structural engineering is concerned with the structural design and structural analysis of buildings, bridges, towers, flyovers (overpasses), tunnels, off shore structures like oil and gas fields in the sea, aerostructure and other structures. This involves identifying the loads which act upon a structure and the forces and stresses which arise within that structure due to those loads, and then designing the structure to successfully support and resist those loads. The loads can be self weight of the structures, other dead load, live loads, moving (wheel) load, wind load, earthquake load, load from temperature change etc. The structural engineer must design structures to be safe for their users and to successfully fulfill the function they are designed for (to be serviceable). Due to the nature of some loading conditions, sub-disciplines within structural engineering have emerged, including wind engineering and earthquake engineering.[25]

Design considerations will include strength, stiffness, and stability of the structure when subjected to loads which may be static, such as furniture or self-weight, or dynamic, such as wind, seismic, crowd or vehicle loads, or transitory, such as temporary construction loads or impact. Other considerations include cost, constructability, safety, aesthetics and sustainability.

Surveying[edit]

Civil engineering students

Surveying is the process by which a surveyor measures certain dimensions that generally occur on the surface of the Earth. Surveying equipment, such as levels and theodolites, are used for accurate measurement of angular deviation, horizontal, vertical and slope distances. With computerisation, electronic distance measurement (EDM), total stations, GPS surveying and laser scanning have supplemented (and to a large extent supplanted) the traditional optical instruments. This information is crucial to convert the data into a graphical representation of the Earth's surface, in the form of a map. This information is then used by civil engineers, contractors and even realtors to design from, build on, and trade, respectively. Elements of a building or structure must be correctly sized and positioned in relation to each other and to site boundaries and adjacent structures. Although surveying is a distinct profession with separate qualifications and licensing arrangements, civil engineers are trained in the basics of surveying and mapping, as well as geographic information systems. Surveyors may also lay out the routes of railways, tramway tracks, highways, roads, pipelines and streets as well as position other infrastructures, such as harbors, before construction.

Land surveying
BLM cadastral survey marker from 1992 in San Xavier, Arizona.

In the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and most Commonwealth countries land surveying is considered to be a distinct profession. Land surveyors are not considered to be engineers, and have their own professional associations and licencing requirements. The services of a licenced land surveyor are generally required for boundary surveys (to establish the boundaries of a parcel using its legal description) and subdivision plans (a plot or map based on a survey of a parcel of land, with boundary lines drawn inside the larger parcel to indicate the creation of new boundary lines and roads), both of which are generally referred to as cadastral surveying.

Construction surveying

Construction surveying is generally performed by specialised technicians. Unlike land surveyors, the resulting plan does not have legal status. Construction surveyors perform the following tasks:

  • Survey existing conditions of the future work site, including topography, existing buildings and infrastructure, and even including underground infrastructure whenever possible;
  • Construction surveying (otherwise "lay-out" or "setting-out"): to stake out reference points and markers that will guide the construction of new structures such as roads or buildings for subsequent construction;
  • Verify the location of structures during construction;
  • As-Built surveying: a survey conducted at the end of the construction project to verify that the work authorized was completed to the specifications set on plans.

Transportation engineering[edit]

Main article: Transport engineering
The engineering of this roundabout in Bristol, England, attempts to make traffic flow free-moving

Transportation engineering is concerned with moving people and goods efficiently, safely, and in a manner conducive to a vibrant community. This involves specifying, designing, constructing, and maintaining transportation infrastructure which includes streets, canals, highways, rail systems, airports, ports, and mass transit. It includes areas such as transportation design, transportation planning, traffic engineering, some aspects of urban engineering, queueing theory, pavement engineering, Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), and infrastructure management.

Forensic engineering[edit]

Main article: Forensic engineering

Forensic engineering is the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate or function as intended, causing personal injury or damage to property. The consequences of failure are dealt with by the law of product liability. The field also deals with retracing processes and procedures leading to accidents in operation of vehicles or machinery. The subject is applied most commonly in civil law cases, although it may be of use in criminal law cases. Generally the purpose of a Forensic engineering investigation is to locate cause or causes of failure with a view to improve performance or life of a component, or to assist a court in determining the facts of an accident. It can also involve investigation of intellectual property claims, especially patents.

Municipal or urban engineering[edit]

Main article: Urban engineering

Municipal engineering is concerned with municipal infrastructure. This involves specifying, designing, constructing, and maintaining streets, sidewalks, water supply networks, sewers, street lighting, municipal solid waste management and disposal, storage depots for various bulk materials used for maintenance and public works (salt, sand, etc.), public parks and bicycle paths. In the case of underground utility networks, it may also include the civil portion (conduits and access chambers) of the local distribution networks of electrical and telecommunications services. It can also include the optimizing of waste collection and bus service networks. Some of these disciplines overlap with other civil engineering specialties, however municipal engineering focuses on the coordination of these infrastructure networks and services, as they are often built simultaneously, and managed by the same municipal authority. Municipal engineers may also design the site civil works for large buildings, industrial plants or campuses (i.e. access roads, parking lots, potable water supply, treatment or pretreatment of waste water, site drainage, etc.)

Control engineering[edit]

Main article: Control engineering

Control engineering (or control systems engineering) is the branch of civil engineering discipline that applies control theory to design systems with desired behaviors. The practice uses sensors to measure the output performance of the device being controlled (often a vehicle) and those measurements can be used to give feedback to the input actuators that can make corrections toward desired performance. When a device is designed to perform without the need of human inputs for correction it is called automatic control (such as cruise control for regulating a car's speed). Multidisciplinary in nature, control systems engineering activities focus on implementation of control systems mainly derived by mathematical modeling of systems of a diverse range.

Civil engineering associations[edit]

The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. [1] (accessed: 2007-08-08).
  2. ^ "History and Heritage of Civil Engineering". ASCE. Retrieved 2007-08-08. 
  3. ^ "Institution of Civil Engineers What is Civil Engineering". ICE. Retrieved 2007-09-22. 
  4. ^ a b c "What is Civil Engineering?". The Canadian Society for Civil Engineering. Retrieved 2007-08-08. 
  5. ^ a b "Civil engineering". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-08-09. 
  6. ^ a b c Oakes, William C.; Leone, Les L.; Gunn, Craig J. (2001). Engineering Your Future. Great Lakes Press. ISBN 1-881018-57-1. 
  7. ^ The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance Jacob Burckhardt ISBN 0-8052-1082-2
  8. ^ p. 4 of Mays, L. (2010-08-30). Ancient Water Technologies. Springer. ISBN 978-90-481-8631-0. 
  9. ^ "Institution of Civil Engineers' website". Retrieved 2007-12-26. 
  10. ^ "Norwich University Legacy Website"
  11. ^ Griggs, Francis E Jr. "Amos Eaton was Right!". Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, Vol. 123, No. 1, January 1997, pp. 30–34.
  12. ^ RPI Timeline
  13. ^ "Nora Stanton Blatch Barney". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2010-10-08. 
  14. ^ Victor E. Saouma. "Lecture notes in Structural Engineering". University of Colorado. Retrieved 2007-11-02. 
  15. ^ Henry Thomas Colebrook, Algebra: with Arithmetic and mensuration (London 1817)
  16. ^ ,"Cite Postgrad". 
  17. ^ Video on YouTube
  18. ^ "Why Should You Get Licensed?". National Society of Professional Engineers. Retrieved 2007-08-11. 
  19. ^ "Engineers Act". Quebec Statutes and Regulations (CanLII). Retrieved 2007-08-11. 
  20. ^ "Ethics Codes and Guidelines". Online Ethics Center. Retrieved 2007-08-11. 
  21. ^ "Singapore's Circle Line criminal trial started". New Civil Engineer. Retrieved 2013-11-16. 
  22. ^ Chen W-F, Scawthorn C. Earthquake Engineering Handbook, CRC Press, 2003, ISBN 0-8493-0068-1, Chapter 2
  23. ^ a b Mitchell, James Kenneth (1993), Fundamentals of Soil Behavior (2nd ed.), John Wiley and Sons, pp 1–2
  24. ^ Shroff, Arvind V.; Shah, Dhananjay L. (2003), Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Taylor & Francis, 2003, pp 1–2
  25. ^ Narayanan, R, A Beeby. Introduction to Design for Civil Engineers. London: Spon, 2003.

Further reading[edit]

  • W . F . Chen and J . Y . Richard Liew, ed. (2002). The Civil Engineering Handbook. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-0958-8. 
  • Jonathan T. Ricketts, M. Kent Loftin, Frederick S. Merritt, ed. (2004). Standard handbook for civil engineers (5 ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0071364730. 

External links[edit]