Emirate of Afghanistan
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|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the German Wikipedia. (October 2012)|
|Emirate of Afghanistan
Da Afghanistan Amarat
Afghanistan before the 1893 Durand Line Agreement
|-||1823–1829 (first)||Dost Mohammad Khan|
|-||1919–1926 (last)||Amanullah Khan|
|-||1893||652,225 km² (251,825 sq mi)|
|History of Afghanistan|
The Emirate of Afghanistan (Pashto: إمارة أفغانستان, Da Afghanistan Amarat) was an emirate between Central Asia and South Asia, which is presently today's Afghanistan. The emirate emerged from the Durrani Empire, when Dost Mohammed Khan, the founder of the Barakzai dynasty in Kabul prevailed. The history of the Emirates was the Great Game between the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom for supremacy in Central Asia dominated. This period was characterized by the expansion of European colonial interests in South Asia. The Emirate of Afghanistan continued the war with the Sikh Empire, which led to invasion of Afghanistan by British-led Indian forces who completely wiped out the Afghans in 1842 but didn't fulfil their initial war objectives. However, during the Second Anglo-Afghan War, the British again defeated the Afghans and this time the British took control of Afghanistan's foreign affairs until Emir Amanullah Khan regained them after the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919 was signed following the Third Anglo-Afghan War.
Escalated a few years after the establishment of the Emirates in 1837, the Russian and British interests were in the conflict between Muhammad Shah of Iran and Dost Mohammed Khan, what was known as the First Anglo-Afghan War led from 1839 to 1842. During the war, Britain occupied the country, trying to prevent the approach of Afghanistan to Russia and curb Russian expansion. The war ended with a temporary victory of Great Britain, which, however, had to withdraw so that Dost Muhammad came to power again.
After the death of Dost Muhammad in 1863, his son followed Sher Ali Khan, however, three years later his older brother Mohammad Afzal Khan overthrew him. In 1878, however, he was again replaced by Shir Ali, the 1878 re-turned to Russia, which led to new conflicts with Britain. Subsequently, the British marched on 21 November in Afghanistan and Shir Ali was forced to flee to Russia, but he died in 1879 in Mazar-i-Sharif . His successor, Mohammed Yaqub Khan sought solutions for peace with Russia and gave them a greater say in Afghanistan's foreign policy. However, when the British envoy Louis Cavagnari was killed in Kabul, the British had offered Abdur Rahman Khan as an emir, concluded peace in 1880, and withdrew again in 1881 from Afghanistan. Afghanistan in 1893 forced the British to consent to the Durand Line, which is still straight through the settlement area of the Pashtuns runs and about a third of Afghanistan to British India annexing.
After the war Emir Abdur Rahman Khan, who struck down the country reformed and repressed numerous uprisings. After his death in 1901 his son Habibullah Khan succeeded as emir and continued reforms. Habibullah Khan sought reconciliation with Great Britain, where he graduated in 1905 with a peace treaty with Russia, stretching for defeat in the Russo-Japanese War had to withdraw from Afghanistan. In the First World War, Afghanistan remained despite German and Ottoman efforts neutral ( Niedermayer-Hentig expedition ).In 1919 Habibullah Khan was assassinated by political opponents.
Habibullah Khan's son Amanullah Khan was in 1919 against the rightful heir apparent Nasrullah Khan the then Emir of Afghanistan. Shortly afterwards broke another war from which by the Treaty of Rawalpindi was stopped in the UK for the first time recognized the independence of Afghanistan. Amanullah Khan began the reformation of the country and was crowned 1926 Padshah (king) of Afghanistan and founded the Kingdom of Afghanistan .