Expressways of Singapore
The expressways of Singapore are special roads that allow motorists to travel quickly from one urban area to another. All of them are dual carriageways with grade-separated access. They usually have three to four lanes in each direction, although there are two-lane carriageways at many expressway - expressway intersections and five-lane carriageways in some places. There are ten expressways, including the new Marina Coastal Expressway. Studies about the feasibility of additional expressways are ongoing.
The Singaporean expressway networks are connected with Malaysian expressway networks via Ayer Rajah Expressway (connects with the Second Link Expressway in Malaysia) and Bukit Timah Expressway (connects with the Skudai Highway via Johor–Singapore Causeway).
|15 April 1962||Construction of the Pan Island Expressway (PIE) begins.|
|8 May 1966||First phase of the Pan Island Expressway (PIE) completed. Construction of the second phase of the PIE begins.||Whitley Road: Mount Pleasant Flyover - Thomson Flyover - Jalan Toa Payoh - Jalan Kolam Ayer - Paya Lebar Way|
|14 December 1970||Toa Payoh Flyover, Singapore's first flyover is opened to motorists.||Length: 1.2 kilometres|
|23 January 1971||Construction of the East Coast Parkway (ECP) begins with the land reclamation of East Coast.|
|12 December 1974||First phase of the East Coast Parkway (ECP) completed.||Fort Road – Marine Parade
Formerly called Bedok Highway
|20 January 1975||Second phase of the Pan Island Expressway (PIE) completed.||Length: 42.8 kilometres
Whitley Road (Mount Pleasant Flyover) - Jalan Anak Bukit
|15 July 1975||Planning for the Sembawang Expressway begins from Ang Mo Kio Avenue 3 to Ang Mo Kio Avenue 1.|
|22 February 1976||Second phase of the East Coast Parkway (ECP) completed.||Marine Parade – Bedok South Road
Formerly called Bedok Highway
|1 January 1977||Planning for the Sembawang Expressway was extended to Yio Chu Kang Road.|
|22 January 1980||Third phase of the East Coast Parkway (ECP) completed.||Bedok South Road – Changi Airport
It was renamed to East Coast Parkway
|15 March 1980||Third phase of the Pan Island Expressway (PIE) completed.||Jalan Eunos - Changi Airport|
|18 April 1981||Opening of the Benjamin Sheares Bridge on the East Coast Parkway (ECP) and the completion of the ECP phase 4 from Fort Road to Keppel Road.||ECP Length: 20 kilometres
ECP phase 4: Fort Road - Keppel Road
|11 July 1981||Construction of the Sembawang Expressway (renamed to Central Expressway) begins.|
|20 December 1981||Fourth phase of the Pan Island Expressway (PIE) completed.||Jalan Anak Bukit - Jurong Road|
|5 March 1983||Construction of the Ayer Rajah Expressway (AYE) begins.|
|31 August 1983||Opening of the Central Expressway (CTE) Phase 1.||Ang Mo Kio Avenue 1 - PIE|
|23 September 1983||Construction of the Bukit Timah Expressway (BKE) begins.|
|18 May 1985||Opening of the Central Expressway (CTE) Phase 1.||PIE - Thomson Road|
|22 January 1986||Opening of the Bukit Timah Expressway (BKE).||Length: 10 kilometres|
|1 July 1986||Construction of the Central Expressway (CTE) phase 2 including Kampong Java Tunnel and Chin Swee Tunnel.||Cavenagh Road was closed to make way for the construction of Central Expressway.|
|30 September 1987||Opening of the Tampines Expressway (TPE) phase 1.||PIE - Elias Road|
|5 November 1988||Opening of the Ayer Rajah Expressway (AYE).||Keppel Viaduct - Jurong Town Hall Road|
|2 June 1989||Opening of the Tampines Expressway (TPE) phase 1.||Elias Road - Old Tampines Road|
|17 June 1989||Opening of the Central Expressway (CTE) phase 1||Yio Chu Kang Road – Ang Mo Kio Avenue 1|
|24 March 1990||Opening of the Seletar Expressway (SLE) phase 1.||Yio Chu Kang Road – Upper Thomson Road|
|21 September 1991||Opening of the Central Expressway (CTE) phase 2 including Kampong Java Tunnel and Chin Swee Tunnel||Length: 15.8 kilometres|
|31 October 1991||Construction of the Kranji Expressway (KJE) begins.|
|5 December 1993||Opening of the Pan Island Expressway (PIE).||Jurong Road - Upper Jurong Road|
|20 February 1994||Opening of the Kranji Expressway (KJE).||Length: 8 kilometres|
|5 November 1995||Opening of the Seletar Expressway (SLE) phase 2.||Bukit Timah Expressway – Woodlands Avenue 2|
|3 September 1996||Opening of the Tampines Expressway (TPE) phase 2.||Old Tampines Road - SLE|
|2 January 1998||Opening of the Ayer Rajah Expressway (AYE) phase 2.||Jurong Town Hall Road - Tuas Second Link|
|22 February 1998||Opening of the Seletar Expressway (SLE) phase 2.||Length: 10.8 kilometres
Woodlands Avenue 2 - Upper Thomson Road
Opened by: Mr John Chen Seow Phun, Minister of State for Communications
|22 August 1998||Opening of the Tampines Expressway viaduct connecting PIE and TPE.|
|September 1998||The Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) systems is implemented on all expressways.|
|2001||Construction of the Kallang-Paya Lebar Expressway begins.|
|2004||The SOS telephones were removed on all expressways except for tunnels.|
|23 June 2007||Opening of the Tampines Service Road, currently part of the Kallang-Paya Lebar Expressway (KPE)|
|28 October 2007||Opening of the Kallang–Paya Lebar Expressway (KPE), the longest subterranean road tunnel in Southeast Asia.||ECP - PIE|
|March 2008||Construction of the Marina Coastal Expressway (MCE) begins.|
|20 September 2008||Official opening of the Kallang-Paya Lebar Expressway (KPE).||Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong
PIE - TPE
|29 December 2013||Opening of the Marina Coastal Expressway (MCE), Singapore's first undersea expressway.||Length: 5 kilometres|
The latest expressway completed is the Marina Coastal Expressway which runs for 5 km, 3.5 km of which are underground. Construction started in 2008 and ended in late 2013. It was opened to the public on 29 December 2013. Prior to construction of the Marina Coastal Expressway, the Kallang–Paya Lebar Expressway which runs for 12 km, 9 km of which are 10 m underground, was started in 2001 and a 3 km section linking the Pan Island Expressway and East Coast Parkway was opened in late 2007. The Kallang–Paya Lebar Expressway was completed on 20 September 2008.
On 27 July 2007, the Land Transport Authority announced that approval had been given for the construction of a new 5 km long Marina Coastal Expressway (MCE) at a cost of $2.5 billion. The expressway, which includes Singapore's first undersea tunnel, links the East Coast Parkway and Kallang-Paya Lebar Expressway to Marina South and Ayer Rajah Expressway and opened to traffic 29 December 2013.
Construction of the 11th expressway, the North–South Expressway, was announced on 30 January 2008. The new 21-kilometre expressway will cost about $7 to $8 billion when fully completed by 2020 and will connect the East Coast Parkway with the northern parts of Singapore.
There are no traffic lights on the expressways. At an interchange with another road, an expressway is connected to it via slip roads. This allows traffic to change routes without having to stop or slow down. Due to the need to conserve space in land-scarce Singapore, there are no cloverleaf interchanges on the entire island. Instead, traffic efficiency and land space are maximized by having traffic lights on terrestrial roads, as well as the usage of interchanges such as stack interchanges. The most common forms of highway-road or highway-highway intersections are single-point urban, diamond, and trumpet interchanges.
The road surface is asphalt, unlike normal roads which may have concrete surfaces. The lanes are separated with white dashed lines, while unbroken white lines are used to mark the edges of the median and shoulder. The shoulder is reserved for stops due to breakdowns and emergencies, and motorists are prohibited by law from travelling on it. Lanes are numbered from right to left, with lane 1 being the closest to the median. Crash barriers, cat's eyes and rumble strips are also used to ensure road safety.
There are signs marking the start and end of an expressway at its entry and exit points respectively. The Expressway Monitoring and Advisory System is used on all the expressways—cameras are used for live monitoring of expressway conditions, and LED signboards display information messages, such as warnings of any disruptions to the normal flow of traffic, as well as estimated travel times. The longest expressway, the Pan Island Expressway, is only 41 km (25 mi) long and therefore has no rest areas.
The default speed limit and National Speed Limits on Singapore expressways is 90 km/h (56 mph), but in certain areas a lower speed limit such as 80 km/h (50 mph) or 70 km/h (43 mph) is applied, especially in large urban areas, tunnels, heavy traffic and crosswinds. Speed traps are also deployed by the Singapore police at many places along the expressways and are deployed from 7am to 12am.
In Singapore, there are three semi-expressways: Nicoll Highway, the Outer Ring Road System (ORRS) and West Coast Highway. These semi-expressways are scaled down versions of expressways. Semi-expressways do not have a uniform speed limit through its entire length, and some sections still feature traffic light controlled junctions, such as the eastern section of the ORRS and the controlled roundabout along the West Coast Highway. Still, just like expressways, semi-expressways allow motorists to travel quickly from one urban area to another with the use of viaducts, flyovers and underpasses.
- "Expressways in Singapore: Did you know?". The Highway. Automobile Association of Singapore. July 2001. Retrieved 5 April 2006.
- "Government Approves the Construction of MCE" (Press release). Land Transport Authority. 27 July 2007.
- "Marina expressway to be ready by year-end". The Straits Times. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- "Singapore's first undersea road—Marina Coastal Expressway—set to open on Dec 29". The Straits Times. 13 November 2013.