Failaka Island

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Failaka island

Failaka Island (Arabic: جزيرة فيلكاjazīrat Faylakah / Fēlaka ) is a Kuwaiti Island in the Persian Gulf. The island is 20 km off the coast of Kuwait City in the Persian Gulf. The name "Failaka" is thought to be derived from the ancient Greek φυλάκιο(ν) - fylakio(n) "outpost".[1]

Failaka Island
Beach at Failaka Island

History[edit]

Historic Coins from Failaka Island

In 2000 B.C., Mesopotamians settled in Failaka at least a century before the Dilmun civilization.[2] Traders from the Sumerian city of Ur occupied Failaka and ran a mercantile business.[2] Failaka had many Mesopotamian-style buildings typical of those found in Iraq dating from around 2000 B.C.[2]

In 3rd century BC, Failaka was home to the Dilmun civilization.[3] During the Dilmun era (from ca. 3000 BC), Failaka was known as "Agarum", the land of Enzak, a great god in the Dilmun civilization according to Sumerian cuneiform texts found on the island.[3] As part of Dilmun, Failaka became a hub for the civilization from the end of the 3rd to the middle of the 1st millennium BC.[3] Failaka was settled following 2000 BC after a drop in sea level.[4]

Antiquities of Failaka island.

After the Dilmun civilization, Failaka was inhabited by the Kassites of Mesopotamia,[5] and was formally under the control of the Kassite dynasty of Babylon.[5] Studies indicate traces of human settlement can be found on Failaka dating back to as early as the end of the 3rd millennium BC, and extending until the 20th century AD.[3] Many of the artifacts found in Falaika are linked to Mesopotamian civilizations and seem to show that Failaka was gradually drawn toward the civilization based in Antioch.[6]

At some point following Alexander the Great's initial advance through the region in 331 BC or in the period 324/3 BC when he returned to Mesopotamia, the ancient Greeks colonized the island, which they named Ikaros after the Greek island in the Aegean Sea and the mythical hero Icarus, apparently in the belief that the island had a similar shape of its Aegean counterpart. Some elements of Greek mythology were mixed with the local cults.[7] "Ikaros" was also the name of a prominent city situated in Failaka.[8] Remains of the settlement include a large Hellenistic fort and two Greek temples.[9]

Under Nebuchadnezzar II, Failaka was under Babylonian control.[10] Cuneiform documents found in Failaka indicate the presence of Babylonians in the island's population.[11] Babylonian Kings were present in Failaka during the Neo-Babylonian Empire period, Nabonidus had a governor in Failaka and Nebuchadnezzar II had a palace and temple in Falaika.[12][13] Failaka also contained temples dedicated to the worship of Shamash, the Mesopotamian sun god in the Babylonian pantheon.[13]

In 127 BC, the kingdom of Characene was established around the Bay of Kuwait near Failaka. Characene was centered in the region encompassing southern Mesopotamia,[14] including Failaka island.[15] A busy Characene commercial station existed on Failaka island.[16]

A Christian Nestorian settlement flourished in Failaka from the 5th century until the 9th century.[17] Excavations have revealed several farms, villages and two large churches dating from the 5th and 6th century.[17] Archaeologists are currently excavating nearby sites to understand the extent of the settlements that flourished in the eighth and ninth centuries A.D.[17] An old island tradition is that a community grew up around a Christian mystic and hermit.[17] The small farms and villages were eventually abandoned.[17] Remains of Byzantine era Nestorian churches were found at Al-Qusur in Failaka. Pottery at the site can be dated from as early as the first half of the 7th century through the 9th century.[18][19]

Prior to the Iraqi Invasion, the island had over two thousand residents and several schools. The village of Az Zawr is situated near the middle of the northwest side of the island. It was the longest continuously inhabited location in Kuwait. During 1990 and 1991, the invading Iraqis depopulated the island, expelling all of its residents to the mainland. The Iraqi military mined the beaches and used the island's facilities and buildings for target practice. In 1991, the allied forces forced the Iraqi army forces occupying the island to surrender through bombing and psywar operations.[20] The sewage system was destroyed and has yet to be fully repaired. Also, many old homes continue to sit empty and decaying; bullet holes can still be seen.

After the war, Failaka was cleared of mines, but it remains under military use. Nevertheless, Failaka Island is becoming a popular holiday destination from Kuwait City. The ferry Ikarus takes passengers out to the island.

Several of the captives held in extrajudicial detention in Guantanamo faced the allegation that their name had been found on a list recovered from a hard drive of a computer of an al Qaeda terrorist suspected of involvement with an October 2002 attack on US Marines stationed on Faylaka Island.[21][22][23][24][25] The Marines were training with blank ammunition when two terrorists drove by and fired AK47 rifles, killing one Marine and wounding another. Several Marines responded by killing the two attackers with pistols that were on hand for security.[26]

House with bullet shot in Failaka Island

Climate, geography and the future[edit]

Al-Zawr

Failaka Island is located in the northern part of the Persian Gulf. Springtime on Failaka Island is regarded as particularly special by Kuwaitis. Failaka has quite a different ecosystem to mainland Kuwait, and its budding flowers and changing temperatures are much appreciated.[citation needed] Although the island's infrastructure remains poor, Failaka is beginning to develop a local tourist industry; it provides fishing, boating, swimming, sailing and water sports.

The few remaining local residents are mostly those Failakawans who lived with their families on the island prior to the Iraqi Invasion of 1990. Most Failakawans have their own boats and some are involved in tourism, but many are reticent about letting tourism detract from the quiet island life. Some Failakawan families, although now living in mainland Kuwait, regularly go to the island on weekends.

On the mainland, in Kuwait City, there have been various schemes to build a bridge to the island and make it a vacation paradise, as has been done in Bahrain.

The museum and archaeological sites (the Ikarus and Azuk temple sites) are planned to re-open. In July 2007, Kuwait and Greece signed an agreement allowing Greek archaeologists to continue their work on the island[7] under the aegis of Angeliki Kottaridou and Panagiotis Hadzidakis. Other sporadic archaeological work has restarted on the island, with the discovery of 18th-century Portuguese, and later British, fortifications. A new hotel resort has encouraged many of the improvements.

Coordinates: 29°26′N 48°20′E / 29.433°N 48.333°E / 29.433; 48.333

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ BBC News article
  2. ^ a b c "Traders from Ur?". Archaeology Magazine. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Sa'ad and Sae'ed Area in Failaka Island". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  4. ^ Potts, Daniel T.. Mesopotamian civilization: the material foundations. 1997
  5. ^ a b Potts, D.T. (2009). "Potts 2009 - The archaeology and early history of the Persian Gulf". p. 35. 
  6. ^ Tétreault, Mary Ann. "Failaka Island: Unearthing the Past in Kuwait". Middle East Institute. Retrieved 21 July 2013. 
  7. ^ a b Αρχαιολογία: Ελληνες στο Κουβέιτ (Greek)
  8. ^ J. Hansamans, Charax and the Karkhen, Iranica Antiquitua 7 (1967) page 21-58
  9. ^ George Fadlo Hourani, John Carswell, Arab Seafaring: In the Indian Ocean in Ancient and Early Medieval Times Princeton University Press,page 131
  10. ^ "Brill's New Pauly: encyclopedia of the ancient world". 2007. p. 212. 
  11. ^ "The Archaeology of Seafaring in Ancient South Asia". Himanshu Prabha Ray. 2003. p. 101. 
  12. ^ "From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire". Pierre Briant. 2002. p. 761. 
  13. ^ a b "The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia". Trevor Bryce. 2009. p. 198. 
  14. ^ Kaveh Farrokh (2007). Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War. p. 124. With Babylon and Seleucia secured, Mehrdad turned to Charax in southern Mesopotamia (modern south Iraq and Kuwait). 
  15. ^ "Hellenism in the East". Amelie Kuhrt, Susan Sherwin-White. 1987. To the south of Characene, on Failaka, the north wall of the fort was pushed forward, before occupation ceased around 100 BC. 
  16. ^ Leonardo Gregoratti. "A Parthian Harbour in the Gulf: the Characene". p. 216. 
  17. ^ a b c d e "Hidden Christian Community". Archaeology Magazine. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  18. ^ Vincent Bernard and Jean Francois Salles, "Discovery of a Christian Church at Al-Qusur, Failaka (Kuwait)," Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 21 (1991), 7–21. Vincent Bernard, Olivier Callot and Jean Francois Salles, "L'eglise d'al-Qousour Failaka, Etat de Koweit," Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 2 (1991): 145-181.
  19. ^ Yves Calvet, "Monuments paléo-chrétiens à Koweit et dans la région du Golfe," Symposium Syriacum , Uppsala University, Department of Asian and African Languages, 11–14 August 1996, Orientalia Christiana Analecta 256 (Rome, 1998), 671–673.
  20. ^ "US psy-ops play it loud". BBC News. 2003-03-17. Retrieved 2010-05-02. 
  21. ^ OARDEC (2005-05-19). "Unclassified Summary of Evidence for Administrative Review Board in the case of Al Bahooth, Salih bin Muhammad". United States Department of Defense. pp. pages 38–40. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  22. ^ OARDEC (2005-04-06). "Unclassified Summary of Evidence for Administrative Review Board in the case of Al Umari, Musa Ali Said Al Said". United States Department of Defense. pp. pages 69–71. Retrieved 2007-12-07. 
  23. ^ OARDEC (2004-11-16). "Summary of Evidence for Combatant Status Review Tribunal --". United States Department of Defense. pp. pages 80–81. Retrieved 2008-11-21.  mirror
  24. ^ OARDEC (28 September 2004). "Summary of Evidence for Combatant Status Review Tribunal -- Al Umari, Musa Ali Said Al Said". United States Department of Defense. pp. page 8. Retrieved 2007-12-07. 
  25. ^ OARDEC (2005-04-28). "Unclassified Summary of Evidence for Administrative Review Board in the case of Al Kandari, Faiz Muhammed Ahmed". United States Department of Defense. pp. pages 31–33. Retrieved 2009-07-31. 
  26. ^ Schmitt, Eric (2002-10-09). "U.S. Marine Is Killed in Kuwait As Gunmen Strike Training Site". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-07-31. 

Further reading[edit]

Hellenistic Failaka

  • H.E. Mathiesen et al., Ikaros: The Hellenistic Settlements, 4 vols. (Copenhagen, 1982-1989).
  • C. Roueché and S. Sherwin-White, ‘Some aspects of the Seleucid Empire: The Greek inscriptions from Failaka in the Persian Gulf’ Chiron 15 (1985) 1-39.
  • J. Naveh, 'The inscriptions from Failaka and the lapidary Aramaic script' Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 297 (1995) 1-4.

External links[edit]