Fatali Khan Khoyski

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Fatali Khan Khoyski
Fətəli-xan Xoyski
Khoysky.jpeg
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR)
In office
December 26, 1918 – March 14, 1919
President Mammad Yusif Jafarov (Chairman of Azerbaijani Parliament) (acting)
Preceded by Alimardan Topchubashev
Succeeded by Mammad Yusif Jafarov
In office
December 24, 1919 – April 1, 1920
Preceded by Mammad Yusif Jafarov
Succeeded by office eliminated
Minister of Internal Affairs of ADR
In office
May 28, 1918 – June 17, 1918
Preceded by office created
Succeeded by Behbud Khan Javanshir
Minister of Defense of ADR
In office
November 18, 1918 – December 25, 1918
Preceded by office re-established
Succeeded by Samedbey Mehmandarov
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
In office
May 28, 1918 – April 14, 1919
Preceded by Office established
Succeeded by Nasib Yusifbeyli
Personal details
Born (1875-12-07)December 7, 1875
Shaki, Russian Empire (present-day Azerbaijan)
Died June 19, 1920(1920-06-19) (aged 44)
Tbilisi, Democratic Republic of Georgia
Religion Islam

Fatali Khan Khoyski Isgender oglu (Azerbaijani: Fətəli-xan Xoyski İsgəndər oğlu) (December 7, 1875 – June 19, 1920) was an attorney, a member of the Second State Duma of the Russian Empire, Minister of Internal Affairs, Minister of Defense and, later the first Prime Minister of the independent Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.[1]

Early life[edit]

Khoyski was born on December 7, 1875 in Shaki to the noble family of Isgender Khoyski, a colonel in the Russian Army.[2][3] His great grandfather Jafargulu, the Khan of Khoy was defeated by the Iranian Fatali shah and with his 20,000 army retreated to Echmiadzin. In the 1804-1813 Russo-Persian war, Jafargulu khan sided with Russian Empire and was therefore rewarded by tsar Alexander I by being appointed the Khan of Shaki Khanate and his rank was raised to Lieutenant Colonel.[4]

After receiving his school education at Ganja gymnasium, Fatali Khan studied at the Law Faculty of the Moscow University, from which he graduated in 1901. After the graduation, Khoyski worked as a court lawyer in Ganja, Sukhumi, Batumi, Kutaisi. Once he was appointed Assistant Prosecutor of Yekaterinodar county court, he began to be involved in socio-political activities.

Political career[edit]

Russian Empire[edit]

Fatali Khan Khoyski (seated left) with a group of deputies of the II State Duma Muslims. 1907

Khoyski was elected a deputy to the Second Duma of Russian Empire from Elisabethpol Governorate. While delivering a speech before the Duma on February 2, 1907, he criticized the Russian colonization policies in Azerbaijan and the Caucasus. Although he was formally registered with Constitutional Democratic Party (known as the Kadets), he also joined the Muslim fraction in Duma.[4] On March 27, soon after the 1917 February revolution in Russia, Khoyski became a member of the Temporary Executive Committee of Muslim National Councils (MNCs). During the first Musavat summit on October 26-31, 1917, Khoyski spoke in favor of autonomy for Azerbaijan. In December 1917, he was elected a member of the newly created Transcaucasian Sejm and subsequently appointed the Minister of Justice of an independent Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic.

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic[edit]

On May 28 1918, the republic dissolved and an independent Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was proclaimed. It was the first state ever in the Muslim world to function and be based on principles of republic government. Fatali Khan was put in charge of forming the first cabinet of the republic.

One of ADR stamps published on Khoyski's initiative

Khoyski served as the Chairman of Cabinet of Ministers and Minister of Internal Affairs. On June 17, 1918 the second government was formed by Khoyski led by Nasib Yusifbeyli. He played a significant role in making alliance with the Turkish government, defeating and removing the Centrocaspian Dictatorship from power in Baku as well as establishing diplomatic ties with other countries as the Foreign Minister. He is also credited for establishing the Azerbaijan State University. During the period of the third government formed by Khoyski, he served as Chairman of the National Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan. During his term in office, he succeeded in removing the city names Elisabethpol and restoring the historic name of Ganja and renaming the Karyagino county to Jabrayil province, establishing a multi-party system, printing of Azerbaijani postage stamps and Azerbaijani currency Manat, founding schools and colleges teaching in Azerbaijani. In March 1919, the third government dissolved.

In January, 1920, when the Allied Powers de facto recognized Azerbaijan Democratic Republic,Council of Allied Powers,[5] Georgy Chicherin, the Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs repeatedly mailed Khoyski asking him to open a new front to confront Anton Denikin and his White movement to which Fatali Khan gave negative responses saying ADR would not meddle into internal affairs of Russia. In his fourth last correspondence, Chicherin notified Khoyski about the upcoming invasion of the 11th Red Army of Azerbaijan. Khoyski moved his family to Tbilisi before the Bolshevik Red Army invaded Baku on April 28, 1920.

Death[edit]

Fatali-khan Khoyski was assassinated in Tiflis on June 19, 1920 by Aram Yerganian as part of Operation Nemesis organised by the Armenian Revolutionary Federation[citation needed]. His burial ceremony was arranged by the Persian consulate in Tiflis.[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Presidential Library. Fatali Khan Khoyski". p. 70. Retrieved 2010-07-09. 
  2. ^ ХРОНОС — всемирная история в интернете. Хойский Фатали Хан Искендер оглы
  3. ^ Fuad Akhundov, "Fatali Khoyski - Prime Minister (1875-1920), Azerbaijan International, vol. 6.1, Spring 1998.
  4. ^ a b "Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan. Fatali Khan Khoyski". Retrieved 2010-07-09. 
  5. ^ Fuad Akhundov (Spring 1998). "Alimardan Topchubashev - Minister of Foreign Affairs (1862-1934)". Azerbaijan International. p. 31. Retrieved 2010-07-09. 
  6. ^ "Storm over the Caucas: A glance at the Iranian regional relations with the republics of Azerbiajan, Armenia and Georgia in the first period of independence 1917-1921" ( In Persian), Kaveh Bayat, The center for documents and diplomatic history, Tehran 2001, First ed., ISBN 964-361-065-9, p. 410