Flag of the Second Spanish Republic

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"Spanish Republican Flag" redirects here. For the flag of the First Spanish Republic, see Flag of the First Spanish Republic.
Second Spanish Republic
Flag of Spain (1931 - 1939).svg
Name Tricolor
Proportion 3:5
Adopted 27 April 1931
Flag of the Second Spanish Republic (plain).svg
Variant flag of Second Spanish Republic
Name Bandera de la marina mercante (Civil Ensign)
Proportion 3:5
Bandera de la II República Española.PNG
Variant flag of Second Spanish Republic
Name Bandera militar (Military Flag)
Proportion 2:3

The Flag of the Second Spanish Republic, also known as Spanish: la tricolor, was the official flag of Spain between 1931 and 1939 and the flag of the Spanish Republican government in exile until 1977.

History[edit]

It began to be used on April 27, 1931, thirteen days after municipal elections results led to the abolition of the monarchy and the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic.

This same flag had been previously displayed by certain Republican groups as an alternative to the red-and-yellow flag that was identified with the Bourbon monarchy in Spain. As a result of this previous use, the young republic proclaimed in 1931 eagerly adopted this symbol.[1]

The Republican flag was adopted on April 27 and presented to the army of the nation on May 6 with the following words:[2] "The national uprising against tyranny, victorious since April 14, has hoisted a flag that is invested by means of the feelings of the people with the double representation of the hope of freedom and of its irreversible triumph."

El alzamiento nacional contra la tiranía, victorioso desde el 14 de abril, ha enarbolado una enseña investida por el sentir del pueblo con la doble representación de una esperanza de libertad y de su triunfo irrevocable.

The Republican flag was formed by three horizontal bands of the same width, red, yellow, and murrey (mulberry-coloured). The National Flag would have the Spanish Republican coat of arms at the centre (quarterly of Castile, Leon, Aragon and Navarre, Enté en point for Granada, stamped by a mural crown between the two Pillars of Hercules). This coat of arms originated in 1868 and had been used then by the Provisional Government and later by the First Spanish Republic. The civil ensign or merchant flag would be a simple tricolour without the coat of arms. There was also a military version of the flag with proportion 2:3.

The flag of the Second Spanish Republic was also used by the Spanish Maquis between the end of the Spanish Civil War and the early 1960s, and later by the Spanish National Liberation Front (FELN). Versions of this flag were used in the 1970s by the radical anti-Francoist groups Revolutionary Antifascist Patriotic Front (FRAP) and First of October Anti-Fascist Resistance Groups (GRAPO).

The Republican flag is now widely used by trade unions[3] and left-wing political organizations, such as United Left[4] and some factions of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party. It is also used by republican platforms.[5][6]

Colours[edit]

The Spanish Republican flag has three colours, red, yellow, and murrey, Spanish: morado.[7]

La bandera de la República española es roja, amarilla y morada...

The purpose of the third colour was to represent Castile and León, the proverbial "Pendón Morado" ancient armorial banner of Castile in the flag's colours, while the existing red and yellow symbolized the territories of the former Crown of Aragon. These three colours symbolized a new era for Spain in which no part of Spain was excluded and every Spaniard would be represented.[1]

Since the restoration of the monarchy in the last quarter of the 20th century there are authors that openly contradict former Spanish historians by proclaiming that the Castilian "Pendón Morado" never existed, that it was actually red.[8] The controversy is part of a probable attempt to demonstrate that the colours of the flag of the Second Spanish Republic are wrong. Still, sound historical documents prove that murrey-coloured banners were formerly used in Castile & Leon.[9]

Purple was previously widely used as the heraldic colour of Kingdom of Castile in antiquity although the correct background red, the colour is prone to fading. The Kingdom of León shield bore a lion rampant on a purple shield, and Revolt of the Comuneros supposedly used a yellow castle on a purple background.

Flag of the comuneros
Arms of the Kingdom of León.

Since it is an unusual colour for a flag, in practice the morado colour of the lower band could be violet, purple (purpure) or even lilac, according to the available materials and dyes in each location.[10]

Use of the flag[edit]

  • Civil use
  • Military use
  • Present-day use

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b La Tricolor. Breve historia de la Bandera Republicana
  2. ^ Decreto de 27 de abril de 1931 de Presidencia del Gobierno Provisional de la República.
  3. ^ Workers' Commissions demonstration
  4. ^ United Left logo
  5. ^ Republican demonstration
  6. ^ demonstration
  7. ^ decreto del 27 de abril de 1931 de la Presidencia del Gobierno Provisional de la República
  8. ^ Pendón Real de Castilla. Principios del siglo XVI
  9. ^ Ministerio de Defensa - Isabel II (1833 - 1868)
  10. ^ Versions of the colours of the Flag of the Second Spanish Republic

External links[edit]