|Autonomous community||Basque Country|
|• Mayor||Miguel de los Toyos (PSE-EE)|
|• Total||24.78 km2 (9.57 sq mi)|
|Elevation||121 m (397 ft)|
|• Density||1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)|
Eibarrés, eibarresa (Spanish)
Eibar has 27,439 inhabitants (INE, 2013). Its chief industry is metal manufacturing, and has been known since the 16th century for the manufacture of armaments, particularly finely engraved small arms. It was also the home of Serveta scooters.
Eibar lies at an altitude of 121m above sea level, in the west of the province of Gipuzkoa, right next to Biscay. Eibar has an oceanic climate. The city lies in a narrow valley in a mountainous area, the highest mountains are between 700 and 800 metres high. Eibar is traversed by river Ego, which is a tributary of the Deba.
Apart from the urban area, the municipality consists of five rural neighbourhoods: Otaola-Kinarraga, Aginaga, Arrate, Mandiola and Gorosta.
The city was chartered by Alfonso XI of Castile in 1346, receiving the name of Villanueva de San Andrés de Heybar.
The feudal families that dominated the territory engaged in the War of the Bands. Eibar, like the rest of settlements in the valley, had an industry based on finery forges and the manufacture of arms. In 1766, Eibar got engaged in a social revolt known as the Machinada, and years later, in 1794, it was attacked by the French, who destroyed the town.
In the 19th century, industrialization transformed the production systems in the city and was accompanied by an important social movement. In the Carlist Wars, Eibar sided with the Liberals. Labour movement and socialism became particularly strong in Eibar. In 1931, Eibar was the first city in Spain to proclaim the Second Spanish Republic; in recognition it was given the title of "Very Exemplary City".
In the Spanish Civil War, Eibar was practically destroyed. The rebuilding brought an important industrial development and a demographic increase, as Eibar reached 40,000 inhabitants in a few years. This urban and industrial development took place in a complicated orography, as Eibar lies in the narrow Ego valley.
In the beginning of the 21st century, Eibar's economy is based on industry and services.
Eibar is traversed by the AP-8 motorway connecting Bilbao and the French border, and the N-634 road running pararell to it. The AP-1 motorway connects Eibar and Vitoria-Gasteiz. AP-8 and AP-1 meet at the Malzaga motorway junction located in the east of Eibar.
Regular bus services under Lurraldebus connect Eibar to the rest of Debabarrena and neighbour regions of Gipuzkoa, San Sebastián, Vitoria-Gasteiz and Bilbao Airport. BizkaiBus provides regular bus services with connections to Bilbao and Biscay.
Eibar also has an urban bus service called Udalbus.
Eibar is located on the Bilbao-San Sebastián narrow gauge railway line. Trains operated by Euskotren run regularly to Bilbao-Atxuri station and Donostia-Amara station. Services are more frequent in the Ermua-Eibar-Elgoibar section.
The Industrial Technical Engineering School of Eibar is part of the University of the Basque Country.
- Basque pelota
Since 2009, the city hosts an annual stage finish in the Tour of Basque Country, usually after the riders have climbed the Alto de Arrate. Before that, this was a traditional finish in the Euskal Bizikleta, which originated in Eibar as Bicicleta Eibarresa. The Arrate-finish has also been included in the Vuelta a España in 1972, 1974 and 2012.
- Francisco de Ibarra (1539-1575), explorer and conqueror.
- Martín Ignacio de Loyola (1550-1606), missionary and navigator.
- Juan Antonio Mogel (1745-1804), writer.
- Ignacio Zuloaga (1870-1945), painter.
- Alberto Ormaetxea (1939-2005), footballer and football coach.
- Luis Aranberri (1945-), politician and journalist.
- Javier Aguirresarobe (1948-), cinematographer.
- Koldo Zuazo (1956-), linguist.
- Maite Zúñiga (1964-), athlete.
- Pedro Horrillo (1974-), cyclist.
- Markel Susaeta (1987-), footballer.
- "Baserriak eta auzoak". Egoibarra (in Basque). Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Eibarko historia". Egoibarra (in Basque). Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Euskal Bizikleta: una carrera con base histórica". Juanjo Sebastian (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "El Santuario de Arrate, final de etapa de la Vuelta Ciclista a España" (in Spanish). SER. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- Official website
- Eibar´s pages
- EIBAR in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia (Euskomedia Fundazioa) (Spanish)
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