Crimson

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For other uses, see Crimson (disambiguation).
CrimsonHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #DC143C
sRGBB  (rgb) (220, 20, 60)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 100, 75, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (345°, 100%, 100%)
Source [Unsourced]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Crimson is a strong, deep red color. It originally meant the color of the Kermes dye produced from a scale insect, Kermes vermilio, but the name is now sometimes also used as a generic term for slightly reddish-blue colors that are between red and rose.

History[edit]

Crimson (NR4) is produced using the dried bodies of the kermes insect, which were gathered commercially in Mediterranean countries, where they live on the Kermes oak, and sold throughout Europe.[1] Kermes dyes have been found in burial wrappings in Anglo-Scandinavian York. They fell out of use with the introduction of cochineal, because although the dyes were comparable in quality and color intensity it needed ten to twelve times as much kermes to produce the same effect as cochineal.

Carmine is the name given to the dye made from the dried bodies of the female cochineal, although the name crimson is sometimes applied to these dyes too. Cochineal appears to have been brought to Europe during the conquest of Mexico by the Spaniard Hernán Cortés, and the name 'carmine' is derived from the French carmin. It was first described by Mathioli in 1549. The pigment is also called cochineal after the insect from which it is made.

Alizarin (PR83) is a pigment that was first synthesized in 1868 by the German chemists Carl Gräbe and Carl Liebermann and replaced the natural pigment madder lake. Alizarin crimson is a dye bonded onto alum which is then used as a pigment and mixed with ochre, sienna and umber. It is not totally colorfast.

Etymology[edit]

The word crimson has been recorded in English since 1400,[2] and its earlier forms include cremesin, crymysyn and cramoysin (cf. cramoisy, a crimson cloth). These were adapted via Old Spanish from the Medieval Latin cremesinus (also kermesinus or carmesinus), the dye produced from Kermes scale insects, and can be traced back to Arabic qermez ("red"), also borrowed in Turkish kırmızı and many other languages, e.g. German Karmesin, Italian Cremisi, French cramoisi, Portuguese "carmesim", etc. (via Latin). The ultimate source may be Sanskrit कृमिज kṛmi-jā meaning "worm-made".[3]

A shortened form of carmesinus also gave the Latin carminus, from which comes carmine.

Other cognates include the Old Church Slavic čruminu and the Russian čermnyj "red". Cf. also vermilion.

Dyes[edit]

Main articles: Carmine and Kermes (dye)
Carminic acid

Carmine dyes, which give crimson and related red and purple colors, are based on an aluminium and calcium salt of carminic acid. Carmine lake is an aluminium or aluminium-tin lake of cochineal extract, and Crimson lake is prepared by striking down an infusion of cochineal with a 5 percent solution of alum and cream of tartar. Purple lake is prepared like carmine lake with the addition of lime to produce the deep purple tone. Carmine dyes tend to fade quickly.

Carmine dyes were once widely prized in both the Americas and in Europe. They were used in paints by Michelangelo and for the crimson fabrics of the Hussars, the Turks, the British Redcoats, and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

Nowadays carmine dyes are used for coloring foodstuffs, medicines and cosmetics. As a food additive in the European Union, carmine dyes are designated E120, and are also called cochineal and Natural Red 4. Carmine dyes are also used in some oil paints and watercolors used by artists.

Variations of crimson[edit]

Pink[edit]

Main article: Pink
PinkHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FFC0CB
sRGBB  (rgb) (255, 192, 203)
HSV       (h, s, v) (350°, 100%, 88%)
Source X11 color names[4]
HTML/CSS[5]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

At right is displayed the color pink.

The color pink has a hue code of 350, placing it directly within the range of crimson colors. Thus, the color "pink" is actually a pale tint of crimson.

Baker-Miller pink[edit]

Main article: Baker-Miller Pink
Baker-Miller PinkHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FF91AF
sRGBB  (rgb) (255, 145, 175)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 43, 31, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (344°, 43%, 100[6]%)
Source Internet
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color Baker-Miller Pink is displayed at right.

Baker-Miller Pink was formulated in 1979.

With a hue code of 344, "Baker-Miller Pink" is within the range of crimson colors and may be considered a light tone of crimson.


Fandango pink[edit]

Fandango PinkHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #DE5285
sRGBB  (rgb) (222, 82, 133)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 63, 40, 13)
HSV       (h, s, v) (342°, 63%, 87[7]%)
Source Pantone TPX[8]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color fandango pink.

The color fandango pink, with a hue code of 342, is within the range of crimson colors and is a bright tone of crimson.

The source of this color is the "Pantone Textile Paper eXtended (TPX)" color list, color #17-2033 TPX—Fandango Pink.[9]


Radical red[edit]

Radical RedHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FF355E
sRGBB  (rgb) (255, 53, 94)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 79, 63, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (348°, 79%, 100%)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The Crayola crayon color radical red is displayed at right.

The color radical red was formulated by Crayola in 1990.

This color is supposed to be fluorescent, but there is no mechanism for displaying fluorescence on a computer screen.

With a hue code of 348, this color is within the range of crimson colors and may be regarded as a vivid tone of crimson.

Electric crimson[edit]

Electric CrimsonHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FF003F
sRGBB  (rgb) (255, 0, 63)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 100, 75, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (345°, 100%, 100[10]%)
Source Maerz and Paul
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color electric crimson.

Electric crimson is that tone of crimson which is precisely halfway between red and rose on the color wheel. In the 1930 book A Dictionary of Color, the color Crimson is shown as lying halfway between red and rose.[11]


Folly[edit]

FollyHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FF004F
sRGBB  (rgb) (255, 0, 79)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 100, 69, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (341°, 100%, 100[12]%)
Source Maerz and Paul
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color folly.

Folly is a color one-fourth of the way between crimson and rose, closer to crimson than to rose. The first recorded use of folly as a color name in English was in 1920.[13]


Alizarin crimson[edit]

Alizarin crimsonHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #E32636
sRGBB  (rgb) (227, 38, 54)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 83, 76, 11)
HSV       (h, s, v) (-5°, 83%, 89%)
Source Universalium
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Alizarin crimson is an artificially created color, used to replace the harder to obtain rose madder.


Spanish crimson[edit]

Crimson (G&S)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #E51A4C
sRGBB  (rgb) (229, 26, 76)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 95, 55, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (345°, 89%, 90%)
Source Gallego and Sanz[14]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Spanish crimson is the color that is called Carmesi (the Spanish word for "crimson") in the Guía de coloraciones (Guide to colorations) by Rosa Gallego and Juan Carlos Sanz, a color dictionary published in 2005 that is widely popular in the Hispanophone realm.

Razzmatazz[edit]

RazzmatazzHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #E3256B
sRGBB  (rgb) (227, 37, 107)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 84, 53, 11)
HSV       (h, s, v) (338°, 84%, 89[15]%)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color razzmatazz.

This color is a rich tone of crimson-rose.

Razzmatazz was a new Crayola crayon color chosen in 1993 as a part of the Name The New Colors Contest.

IU Crimson[edit]

IU CrimsonHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #A32638
sRGBB  (rgb) (163, 38, 56)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 767, 656, 361)
HSV       (h, s, v) (351.4°, 77%, 64%)
Source [1]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

IU Crimson, along with cream, is an official color for Indiana University and its athletic teams, the Indiana Hoosiers. The official IU Crimson is Pantone® 201.[16] However, in the 1970s former basketball coach Bob Knight and football coach Lee Corso started using uniforms that were more scarlet or bright red.[17] During the same time, cream gave way almost universally to white. But those colors reverted mostly to cream and crimson in the early 2000s, after then-athletics director Michael McNeely decided that the team uniforms needed to reflect the school's official colors of cream and crimson. Indiana cheerleaders still chant "Go Big Red".[17] The changes over the years has led to some clashing of colors in some varsity sport uniforms, as is the case with the baseball team's jackets being a different color than their caps and uniforms.[17] Athletic Director Fred Glass said, "My view is that we're an awfully big and diverse place. I think cream and crimson and 'Go Big Red' can survive in one place."[17]

KU Crimson[edit]

KU CrimsonHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #E8000D
sRGBB  (rgb) (232, 0, 13)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 100, 94, 9)
HSV       (h, s, v) (357°, 100%, 91%)
Source KU Visual Identity
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

KU Crimson, along with blue, is an official color for the University of Kansas and its athletic teams, the Kansas Jayhawks. The color is referenced in the school's alma mater.[18] While not an original color of the school, Crimson was suggested to honor a Harvard graduate who donated money for an athletic field at the school.[19]

Utah crimson[edit]

Logo of the University of Utah
Utah CrimsonHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #D3003F
sRGBB  (rgb) (211, 0, 63)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 100, 70, 17)
HSV       (h, s, v) (342°, 100%, 82.7[20]%)
Source Internet
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color Utah crimson, the color which is symbolic of the University of Utah. Of all the universities that list crimson as an official color, the University of Utah is closest to the web color crimson (RGB 220, 20, 60).

The school's athletic booster organization is called the Crimson Club.[21]


Cardinal[edit]

Main article: Cardinal (color)
CardinalHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #C41E3A
sRGBB  (rgb) (196, 30, 58)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 85, 70, 23)
HSV       (h, s, v) (350°, 85%, 77%)
Source Maerz and Paul[22]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color cardinal is shown at right.

The first recorded use of cardinal as a color name in English was in the year 1698.[23]

With a hue code of 350, the color "cardinal" may be considered a shade of crimson.

Crimson glory[edit]

The ornamental grape crimson glory vine autumn colors
Crimson GloryHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #BE0032
sRGBB  (rgb) (190, 0, 50)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 100, 74, 26)
HSV       (h, s, v) (344°, 100%, 75[24]%)
Source Plochere
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color crimson glory is displayed at right. It is a medium shade of crimson.

The color is a representation of the color of the flowers of the Crimson Glory Vine.

The first use of crimson glory as a color name in English was in 1948 when the Plochere Color System was inaugurated.

The source of the color name crimson glory is the Plochere Color System, a color system formulated in 1948 that is widely used by interior designers.[25]

OU Crimson[edit]

OU Logo
OU CrimsonHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #B20D35
sRGBB  (rgb) (178, 13, 53)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 93, 70, 30)
HSV       (h, s, v) (335°, 93%, 70[26]%)
Source Official Logos
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

OU Crimson, along with Cream, are the official colors for The University of Oklahoma, and its athletic teams, the Oklahoma Sooners. In the fall of 1895, Miss May Overstreet was asked to chair a committee to select the colors of the university. The committee decided the colors should be crimson and cream and an elaborate display of the colors was draped above a platform before the student body.[27]

OU Crimson is also an official color for the National Weather Center.[28]

Alabama Crimson[edit]

Alabama CrimsonHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #AF002A
sRGBB  (rgb) (175, 0, 42)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 100, 76, 31)
HSV       (h, s, v) (346°, 100%, 69[29]%)
Source UA Visual Identity Guide (see page 10 of the pdf)
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Alabama Crimson, along with white, is an official color for the University of Alabama and its athletic teams, the Alabama Crimson Tide. The specification provided by the office of university relations refers to the Pantone Matching System, color PMS 201.

There are different versions of the origin of the nickname "Crimson Tide." The football team was originally called the Crimson White. The first nickname newspapers used was The Thin Red Line. Hugh Roberts of the Birmingham Age-Herald is credited with being the first to use the term Crimson Tide in 1907 when Alabama tied a heavily favored Alabama Polytechnic Institute (Auburn) 6-6. The game was played in heavy rain and the field was red mud. The Thin Red Line was equal to the task and became the Crimson Tide.

Harvard crimson[edit]

Harvard CrimsonHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #A51C30
sRGBB  (rgb) (165, 28, 48)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 83, 71, 35)
HSV       (h, s, v) (351°, 83%, 65[30]%)
Source Harvard
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at left is the color Harvard crimson, the color which is symbolic of Harvard University.

The first recorded use of Harvard crimson as a color name in English was in 1928.[31]

Red devil[edit]

Red DevilHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #860111
sRGBB  (rgb) (134, 1, 17)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 99, 87, 48)
HSV       (h, s, v) (353°, 99%, 53[32]%)
Source Xona.com Color List
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color red devil.

The color name red devil for this dark tone of crimson has been in use since 2001, when it was promulgated as one of the colors on the Xona.com Color List.


In nature[edit]

Algae[edit]

Birds[edit]

In culture[edit]

Cultural references[edit]

  • The King's Royal Hussars still wear crimson trousers as successors to the 11th Hussars (the "Cherrypickers").
  • In Polish, karmazyn (crimson) is a synonym for a Magnate, i.e., a member of the rich, high nobility.
  • In texts of the Bahá'í Faith, crimson stands for tests and sacrifice, among other things.[33]

Food[edit]

Military[edit]

School colors[edit]

Vexillology[edit]

Flag of Nepal.svg

Crimson is the national color of Nepal and forms the background of the country's flag.[36]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Naturenet article with images and description of Kermes vermilio and its foodplant
  2. ^ The first recorded use of crimson as a color name in English was in 1400 according to the following book: Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930--McGraw Hill Page 193; Color Sample of Crimson: Page 31 Plate 4 Color Sample K6
  3. ^ "American Heritage Dictionary", s.v. Kermes; also Kluge, "Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache", s.v. Karmesin, et al.
  4. ^ X11 rgb.txt. XFree86. (February 1994). Retrieved on 16 September 2008.
  5. ^ W3C TR CSS3 Color Module, HTML4 color keywords. W3C. (May 2003). Retrieved on 16 September 2008.
  6. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #FF91AF (Baker-Miller Pink):
  7. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #DE5285 (Fandango Pink):
  8. ^ Type the words "Fandango Pink" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the color will appear.
  9. ^ Pantone TPX Pantone Color Finder--Type the words "Fandango Pink" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the color will appear:
  10. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #FF003F (Electric Crimson):
  11. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930--McGraw Hill The color sample for the color crimson, indicated in the index on page 193, and displayed on Page 31, Plate 4, Color Sample K6, is indicated as lying halfway between red and rose. In modern color terminology in psychedelic art, the adjective "electric" indicates the brightest possible tone of or a very bright tone of a color.
  12. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color # FF004F (Folly):
  13. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930--McGraw Hill Page 195; Color Sample of Folly: Page 27 Plate 2 Color Sample J6; on the upper half of Plate 2, the color Folly is shown as being one-fourth of the way between crimson and rose, closer to crimson than to rose.
  14. ^ Gallego, Rosa; Sanz, Juan Carlos (2005). Guía de coloraciones (Gallego, Rosa; Sanz, Juan Carlos (2005). Guide to Colorations) Madrid: H. Blume. ISBN 84-89840-31-8
  15. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #E3256B (Razzmatazz):
  16. ^ "Traditions: About IU". Indiana University. Retrieved April 2, 2012. 
  17. ^ a b c d "IU fan wants school's colors to return to red". Courier & Press. January 16, 2011. Retrieved April 2, 2012. 
  18. ^ KU Traditions - "Crimson and the Blue"
  19. ^ KU Traditions - The School Colors
  20. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool:
  21. ^ University of Utah Crimson Club:
  22. ^ The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called cardinal in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color cardinal is displayed on page 33, Plate 5, Color Sample L5.
  23. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 192; Color Sample of Cardinal: Page 33 Plate 5 Color Sample L5
  24. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #BE0032 (Crimson Glory):
  25. ^ Plochere Color System:
  26. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #B20D35 (OU Crimson):
  27. ^ Sooner Tradition - Crimson & Cream
  28. ^ National Weather Center Logo
  29. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #AF002A (Alabama Crimson):
  30. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #A51C30 (Harvard Crimson):
  31. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930--McGraw Hill Page 196; Color Sample of Harvard Crimson: Page 33 Plate 5 Color Sample J6
  32. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #860111 (Red Devil):
  33. ^ Taherzadeh, Adib (1992). The Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. p. 162. ISBN 0-85398-344-5. 
  34. ^ Rhubarb —the crimson stalks--rhubarb recipes:
  35. ^ Rhubarb plants—the crimson stalks:
  36. ^ Flag of Nepal-2nd line