From Elvis in Memphis
|From Elvis in Memphis|
|Studio album by Elvis Presley|
|Recorded||January–February 1969 at American Sound Studio in Memphis, Tennessee|
|Genre||Soul, country, rhythm and blues, pop|
|Producer||Chips Moman, Felton Jarvis|
|Elvis Presley chronology|
|Singles from From Elvis in Memphis|
From Elvis in Memphis is the ninth studio album by American rock and roll singer Elvis Presley and was released on RCA Victor. It was recorded at American Sound Studio in Memphis in January and February 1969 under the direction of producer Chips Moman and backed by its house band, informally known as "The Memphis Boys". Following the success of Presley's 1968 Christmas television special and its soundtrack, the album marked Presley's return to non-soundtrack albums after the completion of his film contract with Paramount Pictures.
The singer's entourage convinced him to leave the RCA studios and record this album at American Sound, a new Memphis studio in the midst of a hit-producing streak. On this recording, Moman and his arrangers decided to change Presley's pop sound (aimed at an established audience) to a new style which might refresh his image. They worked to blend his early country, rhythm and blues and gospel influences with soul music, which had become popular in Memphis. The album's arrangements have a Memphis soul-inspired emphasis on rhythm, relying less on strings, brass and woodwinds.
From Elvis in Memphis was released in June 1969 to favorable reviews. The album peaked at number 13 on the Billboard 200, number two on the country charts and number one in the United Kingdom, and its single "In the Ghetto" reached number three on the Billboard Hot 100. The album was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America in 1970, and was ranked number 190 on Rolling Stone magazine's 2003 list of the 500 greatest albums of all time.
After Presley's 1960 return from military service his manager, Tom Parker, shifted the focus of the singer's career from live music and albums to films and soundtracks. In March 1961, he performed what would become his last live concert for the next eight years: a benefit for the construction of the USS Arizona Memorial at Boch Arena in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. During the first half of the 1960s, three of Presley's soundtrack albums reached number one on the pop charts and a number of his most popular songs were from his films (including 1961's "Can't Help Falling in Love" and 1962's "Return to Sender".
After 1964, Parker decided that Presley should only record soundtrack albums. He viewed the films and soundtracks as complementary, with each helping to promote the other. As it turned out, the commercial success of Presley's films and soundtracks steadily diminished and the singer was increasingly disappointed with the quality of his work. From 1964 to 1968, Presley had just one top-ten hit: "Crying in the Chapel" (1965), a gospel number recorded in 1960. Only one LP of new material by Presley was issued: the gospel album How Great Thou Art (1967), which won him his first Grammy Award in the Best Sacred Performance category.
In 1968, Colonel Parker arranged a deal with NBC for a Christmas television special starring Presley in front of a live audience. Parker originally planned to have Presley sing Christmas carols only, but producer Steve Binder convinced the singer to perform songs from his original repertoire. The high ratings received by the special and the success of its attendant LP re-established Presley's popularity. During the making of the special, Presley said to Binder: "I'll never sing another song that I don't believe in, I'm never going to make another movie that I don't believe in." As part of his decision to refocus on music rather than film, Presley decided to record a new album.
The singer left his usual musicians and studios (Radio Recorders in Hollywood, California and RCA Studio B in Nashville, Tennessee), recording the new material in Memphis. After the special he approached Scotty Moore and D. J. Fontana, his previous Sun Studios backing players who appeared on the television show. Presley asked Moore about using Music City Recorders in Nashville, but that suggestion never came to fruition.
During a January 1969 meeting at Graceland Presley told his usual producer, Felton Jarvis, that he did not want to record his next album at RCA Studios. His friends, DJ George Klein and Marty Lacker, suggested that he use American Sound Studio, an up-and-coming studio with which Lacker was involved. RCA then contacted producer Chips Moman, head of American Sound. Moman was willing to work with Presley, and postponed a session with Neil Diamond after being asked to produce the sessions with Felton Jarvis as second producer. It was agreed that Presley's recordings would take ten days and cost $25,000. He would be backed by the studio's house band, the 827 Thomas Street Band (informally known as "The Memphis Boys"), composed of Reggie Young on guitar, Tommy Cogbill and Mike Leech on bass, Gene Chrisman on drums, Bobby Wood on piano and Bobby Emmons on organ.
Although RCA Records oversaw their company policy to record only on their own studios, the label sent their personnel out to American Sound. Recording began on February 13, 1969, when Presley arrived at the studio nursing a cold. In addition to his entourage, he was accompanied by Hill & Range publisher Freddy Bienstock; Colonel Parker's assistant Tom Diskin, and Felton Jarvis, executive Harry Jenkins and engineer Al Pachucki representing RCA Records. With Pachucki on the board, American Sound engineer Ed Kollis joined the musicians on harmonica. The session, which produced recordings of "Long Black Limousine", "Wearin' That Loved On Look" and several non-album songs, continued until 5:00 am. After the first day's recording Moman and his colleagues expressed discomfort with the size of Presley's entourage, and the singer was accompanied by fewer people for the remaining sessions.
The next day Presley recorded "I'm Moving On" and "Gentle on My Mind", leaving the studio while working on the latter to rest his throat. The following night, he did not appear; his cold had become worse, and on January 15 and 16 the house band recorded backing tracks for subsequent sessions. Presley returned on January 20, recording "In the Ghetto" in 23 takes and finishing the vocal track of "Gentle on My Mind". On January 22, he recorded Eddy Arnold's "I'll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)" and the non-album single "Suspicious Minds". Presley then took a break from recording for a vacation trip to Aspen, Colorado to celebrate his daughter Lisa Marie's first birthday.
During the singer's absence Moman was approached by Bienstock, who was concerned about possible future disputes concerning the songs' publication. Moman and Presley had decided not to record Hill & Range compositions, instead using songs by American Sound writers. Bienstock, particularly interested in the non-album "Suspicious Minds" and "Mama Liked the Roses", warned that Moman would have to surrender the publishing rights to release the songs. In response, Moman told Bienstock to take all the recordings and leave the studio. RCA vice-president Harry Jenkins interceded, siding with Moman and ordering Bienstock to stay away from the studio and let Presley work with the staff. Meanwhile, Tom Diskin informed Presley about the publishing issues. Presley supported Moman, assuring Diskin that he and the producer would handle the session work. Diskin contacted Tom Parker, who told him to return to California. Moman retained the publishing rights, and the sessions were scheduled to resume several weeks later.
Presley returned on February 17, recording "True Love Travels on a Gravel Road" and "Power of My Love", Eddy Arnold's "After Loving You" and "Do You Know Who I Am?" the following day. On February 19 the singer devoted most of the session to the non-album single "Kentucky Rain", one of the few Hill & Range songs used on the American Sound recordings. Presley followed with a recording of "Only The Strong Survive", a hit for Jerry Butler the previous year, which took twenty-nine takes. On February 20, he recorded Johnny Tillotson's "It Keeps Right on a Hurtin'" in three takes and "Any Day Now" in six. Presley's final session was on February 22, when he recorded vocal overdubs for "True Love Travels on a Gravel Road" and "Power of My Love" and vocals for several non-album cuts. The following month, Mike Leech and Green Spreen began work on the string and horn overdubs to finish the album; several brass overdubs were recorded by The Memphis Horns.
Moving away from the usual Presley pop recordings aimed at an established audience, Moman (a developer of the Stax Records sound), incorporated a Memphis sound integrating soul, country, gospel and rural and electric blues. Many arrangements lean heavily on the rhythm section, with lesser contributions from strings, brass and woodwinds. Arrangers Green Spreen and Mike Leech changed Presley's image on the tracks with the addition of violas, cellos and French horns. The arrangers intended to blend the tracks for a distinctive sound; the strings are used in counterpoint, rising when the track fades and vice versa. The violas play the same lines as the French horns, with cello used for darker tones. Syncopation was incorporated by bowing.
The twelve tracks on the album were selected from thirty-one which were recorded in the American Sound sessions. The first song, "Wearin' That Loved On Look" features an electric-bass lead for the first time in a Presley recording. The second is "Only the Strong Survive", with Presley backed by bass and drums. He plays piano on the third track, the country song "I Hold You in My Heart ('Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)". Presley's voice is roughened by a cold on the fourth song, the country-rhythm-and-blues "Long Black Limousine" featuring a trumpet solo. The fifth song, Johnny Tillotson's traditional country-western "It Keeps Right on A-Hurtin'", was arranged to sound more like Memphis soul. Side one ends with a version of Hank Snow's country-western "I'm Moving On" with a strong bass line and driving rhythm.
Side two begins with Florence Kaye and Bernie Baum's "Power of My Love". The song has a bluesy sound, with Presley backed by a brass section, drums and electric guitar and organ. The lyrics include double entendres, with groans by backing female singers emphasizing sexuality. A cover of John Hartford's "Gentle on My Mind" follows Glen Campbell's 1967 Grammy-winning, string-laden arrangement. The next song, Eddy Arnold's 1962 hit "After Loving You", is arranged in a 12/8 tempo rhythm-and-blues style. Dallas Frazier's "True Love Travels on a Gravel Road" and Chuck Jackson's 1962 hit, "Any Day Now", follow.
The twelfth and final song of the album, selected as a single, is Mac Davis' "In The Ghetto". The song was chosen by Billy Strange, who had previously picked material for other Presley sessions. The protest song denounces the consequences of poverty, with compassion for inner-city youth. Because of "In the Ghetto"'s lyrics, controversial for its time, Presley originally did not plan to record the song because he thought it might alienate fans. After Moman said he might give the song to Rosey Grier, Presley's friends Joe Esposito and George Klein (initially opposed to "In the Ghetto"), convinced the singer to record it.
The album cover is a still from the "Trouble"-"Guitar Man" production number of NBC's Elvis special. Presley is featured with a red electric guitar, wearing a black leather suit with a red scarf around his neck, with silhouettes of guitar players at the back of the set. From Elvis in Memphis became one of American Sound Studio's best-known productions, with Dusty Springfield's Dusty in Memphis; both albums reflected similar times and musical trends on the Memphis scene.
Release and reception
The single "In the Ghetto" was released on April 15, with 300,000 copies shipped by RCA. In its second week after release it entered the charts, where it remained for thirteen weeks (reaching number three on June 14). Selling a million copies in the United States, the single reached number two on the British Singles chart. However, its success triggered a confrontation between RCA and American Sound. During the sessions Presley's usual producer, Felton Jarvis, grew increasingly worried about losing control of Presley and his recordings. During its first two weeks on the chart, "In the Ghetto"'s production was credited to Felton Jarvis. Lacker then called Billboard and had them correct the producer credit to Chips Moman. During the fourth week, Tom Parker asked Billboard to remove the production credit from the song's entry entirely (arguing that Presley's records did not traditionally list a producer credit).
When the album was due for release Parker arranged a deal with Kirk Kerkorian, owner of the Las Vegas International Hotel. Presley signed to play the newly-built, 2,000-seat showroom for four weeks (two shows per night, with Mondays off) for $400,000. His initial Las Vegas show attracted an audience of 101,500, setting a new Vegas performance record. 
From Elvis in Memphis was released in June 1969. The album topped the UK Albums Chart and reached number thirteen on the Billboard 200, ranking number seventeen on Billboard's Top Country albums of 1969. By January 28, 1970, the album was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America after selling over 500,000 copies.
On July 12, 1969 Presley was featured on the cover of Rolling Stone, with the album receiving the lead review: "The ... album (was) great ... Flatly and unequivocally the equal of anything (Presley) has ever done", praising the "evident passion which (Presley) has invested in this music" and saying, "(he) is trying, and trying very hard, to please us. he needs to have our attention ... It is his involvement after all which comes as the surprise." Billboard also published a positive review: "(Presley) never sounded better, and the choice of material is perfect". High Fidelity wrote, "Elvis has been through a number of stages, and his latest is the best".
From Elvis in Memphis was also praised in later reviews. In 2009 Rolling Stone gave the album four-and-a-half stars out of five, describing it as "extraordinary". The magazine attributed the sessions' success to Presley's "newfound maturity and soulfulness" and Moman's "warm, distinctly Southern musical backing". Allmusic gave it five stars out of five, as an "Allmusic album pick". Critic Bruce Eder said that with 1956's Elvis Presley, From Elvis in Memphis was the singer's "greatest album". Eder called it "one of the greatest white soul albums (and one of the greatest soul albums) ever cut" and said that Presley had been "rejuvenated artistically (while) he's supported by the best playing and backup singing of his entire recording history."
PopMatters gave the album nine points out of ten, describing it as "some of the best music Elvis Presley ever made". Sputnik Music gave the album five points out of five, saying it "rivaled" Presley's early recordings in "terms of historical importance and innovation" and was "downright essential, for any Elvis fan and for any music fan".
In 2000 RCA released a remastered compact disc of From Elvis in Memphis, including six bonus tracks (released as A- or B-sides) recorded with the album. The reissue received five stars out of five from Rolling Stone. "Don't Cry Daddy" and "Kentucky Rain" were minor hits in 1970, but "Suspicious Minds" became one of Presley's signature songs and was the final chart-topper of his career. In 2003, the album was number 190 on Rolling Stone's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. In 2009, Sony Music Entertainment issued a Legacy RCA Edition of the album for its 40th anniversary: two discs (From Elvis In Memphis and the studio disk of From Memphis To Vegas/From Vegas To Memphis), four outtakes and ten tracks originally released as monaural singles (including "Suspicious Minds" and "Kentucky Rain").
|1.||"Wearin' That Loved On Look"||Dallas Frazier, A.L. Owens||January 13, 1969||2:46|
|2.||"Only the Strong Survive"||Jerry Butler, Kenny Gamble, Leon Huff||February 19, 1969||2:42|
|3.||"I'll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)"||Eddy Arnold, Thomas Dilbeck, Vaughan Horton||January 22, 1969||4:34|
|4.||"Long Black Limousine"||Bobby George, Vern Stovall||January 13, 1969||3:38|
|5.||"It Keeps Right On A-Hurtin'"||Johnny Tillotson||February 20, 1969||2:36|
|6.||"I'm Movin' On"||Hank Snow||January 14, 1969||2:43|
|1.||"Power of My Love"||Bernie Baum, Bill Giant, Florence Kaye||February 18, 1969||2:36|
|2.||"Gentle on My Mind"||John Hartford||January 14, 1969||3:21|
|3.||"After Loving You"||Janet Lantz, Eddie Miller||February 18, 1969||3:05|
|4.||"True Love Travels on a Gravel Road"||Dallas Frazier, A.L. Owens||February 17, 1969||2:38|
|5.||"Any Day Now"||Burt Bacharach, Bob Hilliard||February 20, 1969||2:59|
|6.||"In the Ghetto"||Mac Davis||January 20, 1969||2:45|
1998 CD reissue
|Track 1-12 were from the original release|
|13.||"The Fair Is Moving On"||Guy Fletcher, Doug Flett||February 21, 1969||3:08|
|14.||"Suspicious Minds"||Mark James||January 22, 1969||4:29|
|15.||"You'll Think of Me"||Mort Shuman||January 14, 1969||4:00|
|16.||"Don't Cry Daddy"||Mac Davis||January 15, 1969||2:48|
|17.||"Kentucky Rain"||Eddie Rabbitt, Dick Heard||February 19, 1969||3:14|
|18.||"Mama Liked the Roses"||John Christopher||January 15, 1969||2:47|
2009 CD reissue
|Australian Albums Chart||5|
|Canadian Top 50 Albums||10|
|French Top Albums||9|
|German Albums Chart||14|
|Netherlands Top 100 Albums||10|
|Norwegian Top 40 Albums||1|
|UK Albums Chart||1|
|US Billboard 200||13|
|US Country Albums||2|
|Belgium (Wallonia) 100 Albums||77|
|US Top Pop Catalog Albums||29|
Stand Up by Jethro Tull
|UK Albums Chart number-one album
30 August 1969 – 6 September 1969
Stand Up by Jethro Tull
|North America||June 1969||RCA Victor||stereo LP||LSP-4155|
|United Kingdom||June 1969||RCA Victor||stereo LP||SF 8029|
|North America||December 1970||RCA Victor||Quadraphonic 8-track||PQ8-1456|
|Various||May 16, 2000||RCA Records||CD||07863 67932 2|
|Worldwide reissue||July 28, 2009||RCA Records/Legacy Recordings||double CD||88697 51497 2|
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