|Regions with significant populations|
|La Colonia Tovar|
|Colonia Tovar dialect and Spanish|
|Related ethnic groups|
|German people, German Americans, German Argentines, German Brazilians, German Canadians, German Chileans, , German Mexicans, German Paraguayans, German Peruvians, German Puerto Ricans, German Uruguayans, German Venezuelans|
A German Venezuelan (German: Deutsch-Venezolaner) (Spanish: Germano-Venezolano) is a Venezuelan who is descended from Germans or a German that got Venezuelan citizenship. Most of them live in La Colonia Tovar and speak the Colonia Tovar dialect, a German-derived dialect from their ancestry, and the Spanish language.
Firsts colonization attempts
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain granted rights to the Augsburg banking families of Anton and Bartholomeus Welser in 1528 to colonize Venezuela. By 1531, the Welsers controlled the privilege. They set up a colonization scheme and sent Ambrosius Ehinger as governor to Santa Ana de Coro (German: Neu-Augsburg), the capital of Klein-Venedig in 1529. In October 7, 1528, Ehinger left Seville with the Spaniard García de Lerma and 281 settlers and they heading towards the Venezuelan coast, where arrived on February 24, 1529, at the region from Santa Ana de Coro. From there, he explored the interior looking the city El Dorado, one legendary golden city, whose myth had been developed by the Spanish. On September 8, 1529 Ehinger founded the colony of New Nuremberg (German: Neu-Nürnberg), today know as Maracaibo. The aforementioned rights were revoked on 1546 by Emperor Charles due to non-compliance with the stipulations.
Foundation of Colonia Tovar
After of those first colonization attempts in the 16th century, the Germans tended not to emigrate to Venezuela until 1842. Between 1814 and 1842, some regions of Germany suffered heavy economic losses, while its inhabitants were paying high taxes. This set of reasons caused great poverty in the country, which prompted that many Germans desire immigrate for get out of poverty. To all this must be added that the Germans had an excellent reputation as settlers. This positive image was created by pioneers in Brazil. On the other hand, Venezuela at the beginning of the 19th century, not had much political weight, so there was no fear any interference on their part.
During the second government of Jose Antonio Paez, in 1840, the Congress enacted in May of that year a new immigration law which provided for a policy of economic and cultural exchanges between Venezuela and Europe. The entrepreneurs got loans on the condition of bringing immigrants over a period of two years. Given the huge population deficit that existed at that time in Venezuela, the Minister of Interior and Justice at the time, Angel Quintero, calls for collaboration to Agustín Codazzi (traveler and geographer) for that he indicating lands in Venezuela could be eligible to attract European immigration in order to increase the productivity of the country. Codazzi thought from the outset in Germany because of their economic situation. Along with Alexander Benitz began planning an organized immigration. Codazzi made explorations in various fields owned by the family Tovar, who had offered to donate them to establish a colony. So, Codazzi started a propaganda to get them to join the project a group of people and he chose to the families of South of Germany, who then would travel to colonize the country. These families had to be masons, carpenters, blacksmiths, weavers, shoemakers and tailors, these came from the Grand Duchy of Baden and Surrounding Areas (Germany), especially came from Kaiserstuhl. These areas not only had many taxes, but also had problems related to agricultural productivity. These families left their country in 1842. Thus, the October 14, 1841, 374 people come formally Venezuelan port, founding the current La Colonia Tovar, with European structures and their particular lifestyle. He formed a company that had as partners Agustin Codazzi and Ramon Diaz, and as a guarantor to Martin Tovar y Ponte. That same year he began work on the land donated by Manuel Felipe Tovar and would serve as home to German immigrants. Once in Tovar, found that of the eighty houses promised had been built only twenty. In addition, the land had been deforested assigned. Nor was there an access road. The administrator to the settlers exploited for labor and prevented them from leaving the colony. Your situation will not improve until in 1845 the government dismissed the administrator from office. In 1852 transferred the territory of the colony families. Between 1858 and 1870, the colony was sacked twice and once was completely destroyed by the flames. From 1870 the colonists began to successfully grow coffee. In 1877, Colonia Tovar had only 200 people living there. In 1920 they numbered 850.
During the Second World War, Germany experienced the Nazi persecution, the war, the Holocaust, the destruction of Germany and the postwar period that prompted some German immigration to Venezuela. Many of these Germans settled in this country specifically influenced by the testimonies narrated by the German scientist Alexander Humboldt on this country, where he spent most of his career in the 19th century. In 1949, a group of Venezuelan and German founded the Asociación Cultural Humboldt (in English: Humboldt Cultural Association), named in honor of this German scientist. This institution, works as a communicating vessel for relationships between Germany and Venezuela, particularly through cultural events. The Germans who came to Venezuela in the second half of the 20th century, mostly worked in German companies that were set on Venezuelan soil. The telecommunications, chemical, pharmaceutical, brewery industries were the most favored destinations, occupationally speaking, for these immigrants.
In Colonia Tovar, most people speak Colonia Tovar dialect (a German dialect, said to be difficult to understand for native standard German speakers) and Spanish, basically. Most of them have lost over the years their language and culture, keeping only some customs that have remained through programs to promote and tourism in the region, considering it a differentiated area of Venezuela.
- Faust. Hansjörg Mau. Posted by Meyster, in Jan 1, 1980.
- Das Imperium der Welser
- Carlos Ivorra. "1543-1547" (in Spanish). Universidad de Valencia. Archived from the original on 12 February 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- Migracion Alemana a Venezuela (English: German Migration to Venezuela), Posted by Historia. Retrieved January 7, 2012, 0:25.
- Miradas alemanas hacia America Latina(In Spanish: Germany Looks to Latin America). Retrieved January 7, 2012, 13:20
- venezuelavirtual: La colonia Tovar: alemania criolla. Posted in MiPunto.com Retrieved January 7, 2012, 0:32
- Los alemanes en Venezuela (In Spanish: The Germans in Venezuela), posted by Karl Krispin. Consulted in April 23, 2012, to 2:35 pm.
- http://www.revistatravesias.com/numero-64/articulos-principales/alemania-en-venezuela.html Travesías: Inspiración para viajeros (English: Cruises: Inspiration for travelers)