Goa liberation movement
The Goa liberation movement was a movement that sought to end the 451 years of Portuguese colonial rule in Goa, India. The liberation movement gained mass momentum in the early 20th century, galvanising between 1940 and 1961, and continued to build on the smaller scale revolts and uprisings of the preceding century. The struggle was conducted both within Goa and beyond, and was characterised by a range of tactics including nonviolent demonstrations, revolutionary methods and diplomatic efforts. Although Portuguese rule in its Indian colonies ended when India invaded Goa in 1961 and incorporated the territories into the Indian Union, the annexation was recognised by Portugal only in 1975.
- 1 Portuguese possessions in India
- 2 Revolts against Portuguese rule
- 3 The freedom movement
- 4 Annexation of Goa
- 5 Subsequent events
- 6 Films
- 7 See also
- 8 Gallery: Goa freedom fighters
- 9 References
Portuguese possessions in India
The Portuguese colonised India in 1510, conquering many parts of the western coast and establishing several colonies in the east. By the end of the 19th century, Portuguese colonies in India were limited to Goa, Daman, Diu, Dadra, Nagar Haveli and Anjediva Island.
Revolts against Portuguese rule
Many Goans living under colonial rule resented the presence of the Portuguese colonialists for their brutal policies and mandates, and their relentless campaigns to convert the predominantly Hindu Goans to Christianity. Despite 14 revolts against Portuguese rule (the final attempt in 1912), none of these uprisings were successful in ending the colonial era. The failure of these uprisings to affect meaningful change was attributed to the lack of a broad, active support base and their localised nature.
The freedom movement
Early 20th century
The abolition of the Portuguese monarchy in 1910 raised hopes that the colonies would be granted self-determination; however, when Portuguese colonial policies remained unchanged, an organised and dedicated freedom movement emerged. Luís de Menezes Bragança founded O Heraldo, the first Portuguese language newspaper in Goa, which was critical of Portuguese colonial rule. In 1917, the "Carta Organica" law was passed, overseeing all civil liberties in Goa.
In reaction to growing dissent, the Portuguese government in Goa implemented polices which curtailed civil liberties, including censorship of the press. Strict censorship policies required any material containing printed words, including invitation cards, to be submitted to a censorship committee for screening. The Portuguese governor of Goa was empowered to suspend publication, close down printing presses and impose heavy fines on newspapers which refused to comply with these policies. Many Goans criticised the curtailing of press freedoms, stating that the only newspapers and periodicals the Portuguese permitted them to publish were pro-colonialist propaganda materials.
Menezes Bragança organised a rally in Margao denouncing the law and, for some time, the Goans received the same rights as mainland Portuguese. However, the Portuguese Catholic Church strongly supported pro-colonial polices and attempted to influence Goan Christians to oppose the liberation movement. The Portuguese Patriarch of the Catholic Church in Goa issued over 60 official letters to the priests of the archdiocese, instructing them to preach to their congregations that salvation lay with the Portuguese and in dissociating themselves from cultural-political relationship with the rest of India.
In 1928, Tristão de Bragança Cunha founded the Goa National Congress. At the Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress, the Goa Congress Committee received recognition and representation in the All-India Congress Committee.
In May 1930, Portugal passed the "Acto Colonial" (Colonial Act), which restricted political rallies and meetings within all Portuguese colonies. The introduction of this act politically relegated Goa to the status of a colony. The Portuguese also introduced a policy of compulsory conscription in Portuguese India, which contributed significantly to growing resentment against the colonial government.
The Portuguese government pressured the Indian National Congress to disaffiliate the National Congress (Goa); however, in 1938, Goans in Bombay city formed the Provisional Goa Congress.
By the 1940s, the Goan liberation movement had gained momentum, inspired by the Indian independence movement, which had entered its crucial phase, as well as the 1946 British announcement to grant India independence, after which Indian leaders focused their attention on the freedom movements in Portuguese India and French India.
When Bragança Cunha was arrested in 1946, A.G. Tendulkar became the president of the Goa Congress and organised a meeting in Londa (outside Goa). On 18 May 1946, despite being threatened at gunpoint, Ram Manohar Lohia held a demonstration in Margao. Ram Manohar Lohia's arrest at this demonstration motivated people to hold large-scale protests in support of the independence movement, which resulted in large-scale arrests and the incarceration of over 1,500 people. Goan leaders, including Bragança Cunha, Purushottam Kakodkar and Laxmikant Bhembre were deported to Portugal for their participation in the independence protests.
From October to November 1946, a series of satyagrahas (non-violent civil-disobedience actions) were held in Goa; however, many of the leaders of these actions were arrested. With the arrest of the leadership, much of the momentum of the movement was lost and, subsequently, the Goa Congress began to operate from Bombay.
During the mid-1940s, a number of new political parties emerged in Goa, each having a conflicting agenda and perspective in relation to achieving Goan independence and autonomy. These political parties advocated for vastly different policies including Goa's merger with Maharashtra state, Goa's merger with the southern Indian state of Karnataka, independent statehood for Goa and autonomy within Portuguese rule.
Mahatma Gandhi sensed that an independence movement with such disparate perspectives would be ineffective and could undermine the struggle for liberation; hence, Gandhi suggested that the various independence factions should attempt to unite under the broad guise of civil liberties. In response to Gandhi's suggestion, the different Goan political factions met in Bombay in June 1947 to formally launch a campaign demanding that the Portuguese government "quit India". The Goan leadership believed that with the end of British colonial occupation, an end to Portuguese colonial occupation would logically follow. However, on 3 August 1947, Lohia[clarification needed] announced that Goa's independence would not coincide with Indian national independence and that the Goans would have to continue their struggle, "not just for civil liberties, but for freedom itself".
The failure of Goa to achieve independence within the national independence struggle, in conjunction with mixed signals from the new national Indian leadership in New Delhi and harsh repression by the Portuguese, led to a temporary lull in the Goan liberation movement. Similarly, the partition of India and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 diverted the focus of the national Indian leadership from the liberation struggles in the Portuguese and French colonies.
Following national Indian independence, a separate demand for independence was raised by Dr. Froilano de Mello, a prominent Goan microbiologist and MP in the Portuguese National Assembly. De Mello sought independence for Goa, Daman and Diu as autonomous state entities within the framework of a Portuguese commonwealth, similar to the British Commonwealth.
Demand for autonomy
Within Goa and Portugal, periodic demands for autonomy for Portuguese India continued. In July 1946, a public meeting was held which openly petitioned the Salazar administration to grant autonomy to the Estado da India. The meeting was facilitated by José Inácio de Loyola, and inspired the formation of a committee chaired by Uday Bhembre to pursue autonomy. Bhembre's committee failed to provoke a response from the Portuguese administration, and subsequently the last demand for autonomy was made by Purushottam Kakodkar in early 1961.
In December 1947, independent India and Portugal established diplomatic ties. In January 1948, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru met the Portuguese consul and raised the issue of Goa's integration into the Indian Union. The Portuguese, who valued their strategic Indian colonial outposts, were unwilling to negotiate and by 1948, the Goan freedom movement had virtually disbanded.
In January 1953, the Indian delegation in Portugal (a representative body of the Indian government), sought to negotiate with Portugal on the issue of its territories in India. The Indian government offered a direct transfer; however, the Portuguese refused and diplomatic relations between the two countries deteriorated. On 11 June 1953, the Indian delegation in Lisbon was closed and diplomatic ties were formally severed. In July 1953, Nehru stated that the Indian government's position involved French and Portuguese colonies in India integrating into the Indian Union. Despite Nehru clearly stating India's policy in relation to colonial outposts, Portugal and France refused to cede their colonies. Subsequently, India launched a campaign through the UN in an attempt to persuade the Portuguese to leave India peacefully.
Azad Gomantak Dal, a revolutionary group, vowed to fight the Portuguese using direct action strategies. Azad Gomantak Dal successfully carried out raids on police stations and factories, ambushed military patrols, attacked troops stationed at the border and blew up ammunition dumps. However, in response to the group's revolutionary tactics, the Portuguese increased their military presence by bringing in white and African troops to quell the insurgency.
The Goa Liberation Army, founded by Shivajirao Desai, an Indian army officer in the 1950s, attempted to utilise revolutionary tactics and direct action strategies to challenge Portuguese colonialism. It blasted Sesa Goa's Sonshi mine, which caused temporary suspension of the mining activity of the Portuguese. The Goa Liberation Army was credited with many other blasts and raids, and played a pivotal role in defending the bridges at the time of Indian invasion.
1953 onwards: intensification of Satyagraha movement
In 1953, Tristão de Bragança Cunha formed the Goa Action Committee to coordinate the various liberation groups working independently in Mumbai. Goans and non-Goans offered Satyagraha in solidarity with the struggle.
In Goa, the freedom movement had evolved into two camps, which advocated distinct liberation strategies. The National Congress Goa utilised peaceful satyagraha tactics, while Azad Gomantak Dal advocated revolutionary methods. On 15 August 1954, a mass satyagraha was instigated; however, despite the use of non-violent civil disobedience protest strategies, the Portuguese authorities assaulted and arrested many participants. P.D. Gaitonde was arrested for publicly protesting Portuguese colonialist policy.
A year later, another protest was organised on the same date. The Jana Sangh leader, Karnataka Kesari Jagannathrao Joshi, led 3,000 protesters including women, children and Indians from Maharashtra state, through the Goa border. The security forces baton charged the protesters and opened fire on the satyagraha, resulting in several deaths and hundreds of injuries.
As Portugal was now a member of NATO, the Indian government was reticent to react to the situation. NATO member nations had a pact to protect each other in the event that any member state came under attack from an external force. Although the NATO treaty did not cover colonies, Portugal insisted that its overseas interests were not colonies but an integral part of the Nation of Portugal. Hence, in order for India to avoid NATO involvement in Goa, the Indian government was impeded from speaking out against Portugal's response to satyagraha protest actions.
In 1954, the Goa Vimochan Sahayak Samiti (All-Party Goa Liberation Committee), was formed with the aim of continuing the civil disobedience campaign and providing financial and political assistance to the satyagrahis. The Maharashtra and Gujarat chapters of the Praja Socialist Party assisted the liberation committee, motivated by an agenda for independent Goa to merge into Maharashtra state. The liberation committee and the Praja Socialist Party collaboratively organised several satyagrahas in 1954–55.
The Portuguese government appealed to various international powers, charging India with violation of Portugal's territorial sovereignty due to the actions of the Satyagrahas in crossing Portuguese Goan borders. Nehru was subsequently pressured to announce that India formally disapproved of the Satyagrahas.
Nehru's denouncement of the Satyagraha severely impacted on the independence movement. Following Nehru's professed lack of support for the satyagrahi, a satyagrahi plan to cross the Goan border at Terekhol Fort attracted very few supporters. Despite the low turnout, a small group managed to cross the Goan border to successfully occupy the Terekhol fort overnight.
With the exception of a small number of satyagrahas and the activities of the All-Goa Political Party Committee, lacking the support of the national Indian government, the freedom movement lost its momentum. Pro-independence advocacy actions were sporadic and few were willing to involve themselves in the movement. On 18 June 1954, Satyagrahis infiltrated Goa and hoisted the Indian flag; however, the demonstrators and suspected sympathisers were arrested, and anti-colonialist activists Dr. Gaitonde and Shriyut Deshpande were deported to Portugal.
Annexation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli
On 21 July 1954, the United Front of Goans (led by Francis Mascarenhas) forced the Portuguese to retreat from the colonial enclave of Dadra, a small landlocked territory bordering Nagar Haveli. A group of volunteers from the National Movement Liberation Organisation (NMLO), an umbrella organisation involving revolutionary groups Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Azad Gomantak Dal, led an attack on Nagar Haveli on 28 July 1954, and liberated it on 2 August. Despite successfully liberating the territories, India did not immediately assimilate these enclaves into the Indian Union. For some time, both enclaves functioned as de facto independent states, administered by the Varishta Panchayat of Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
The successful annexation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli provided the dormant Goa liberation movement with renewed vigour and motivation to continue the liberation struggle. On 15 August 1954, hundreds of people crossed the Portuguese Goan borders, defying a ban by the Indian government on participating in Satyagrahas. The Portuguese responded to the action by injuring and fatally shooting many Satyagrahis.
The Portuguese responded to the Satyagrahas, which continued throughout 1955, by sealing Goa's borders in an attempt to curb the growing support for the movement. By 1955, the Indian government had developed a clear policy on Portuguese Goan territory, which supported the liberation movement. Between 1955 and 1961, six political parties were formed to advocate for an end to Portuguese colonial rule. These parties included Azad Gomantak Dal, Rancour Patriota, the United Front of Goans, Goan People's Party, Goa Liberation Army and Quit Goa Organisation.
Many Goans reportedly felt that the Portuguese were deliberately misleading the international community by portraying Goans as Luso-Indian or Portuguese. Following his release from prison, P.D. Gaitonde conducted a series of international lectures to challenge this notion. With increased support from the international community and Portuguese African colonies instigating an armed struggle against the Portuguese, the policy position of the India government was able to became more hardline.
In 1961, India proclaimed that Goa should be liberated "either with full peace or with full use of force". In August 1961, India began military preparations and, following Nehru's announcement on 1 December 1961, that India would not remain silent in relation to the Goan situation, Indian troops were strategically stationed close to the Goan border.
Annexation of Goa
With few options left, Nehru finally ordered the Indian Armed Forces to take Goa by force. In a military operation conducted on 18 and 19 December 1961, Indian troops captured Goa with little resistance. The governor-general of Portuguese India signed an instrument of surrender.
Major General Kunhiraman Palat Candeth was appointed military governor of Goa. In 1963, the Parliament of India passed the 12th Amendment Act to the Constitution of India, formally integrating the captured territories into the Indian Union. Goa, Daman and Diu became a Union Territory. Dadra and Nagar Haveli,which was previously a part of the Estado da India, but independent between 1954 and 1961, became a separate Union Territory.
In October 1962, Panchayat elections were held in Goa, followed by assembly elections in December 1962. On 16 January 1967, a referendum was held in which the people of Goa voted against merger with Maharashtra. Portugal recognised Goa's accession into the Indian union only in 1974. In 1987, Goa was separated from Daman and Diu and made a full-fledged state. Daman and Diu continued as a new Union Territory.
Due to an unabated influx of people from all over India to Goa, the native Goan people have begun to fear for their identity and culture. There are growing calls for the government of India to grant Goa Special Status so that the local government can regulate in-migration and stop the sale of land to non-Goans.
Saat Hindustani (translation: Seven Indians) is a 1969 film written and directed by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas. The film portrays the story of seven Indians who attempt to liberate Goa from Portuguese colonial rule.
Gallery: Goa freedom fighters
- "Liberation of Goa". Retrieved 2009-06-01. "The struggle for Goa’s liberty was two fold – from within Goa and from the outside Goa – which was conducted by the Indian Government."
- "History Of Goa – Goa's Past". Retrieved 2009-06-01. "The success of the post independence Goans struggle for freedom from Portugal owed as much to the efforts of the Indian Government who cut off diplomatic ties with Portugal as to the work of freedom fighters ..."
- "Liberation of Goa". Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- Amelia Thomas (2009). Goa and Mumbai. Lonely Planet. pp. 45. ISBN 978-1-74104-894-0.
- Harding, Paul (2003). Lonely Planet. Lonely Planet. p. 224. ISBN 1-74059-139-9, 9781740591393 Check
- Janaka Perera, Goa's Liberation and Sri Lanka's Crisis, Asian Tribune, 18 December 2006 
- Sakshena, R.N. (2003). Abhinav Publications. p. 156. ISBN 81-7017-005-2, 9788170170051 Check
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- Teotonio R. de Souza, "The Church in Goa: Giving to Caesar What is Caesar's?" para 5 
- Professor Froilano de Mello, MD (1887–1955): A short biography of his life and achievements – Goacom.com
- Leitao, Lino (Friday, 23 December 2005). "BLOOD, NEMESIS AND MISREADING QUITE WHAT MAKES GOAN SOCIETY TICK by Ben Antao, review by Lino Leitao". Retrieved 2009-05-23.
- P S Lele, Dadra and Nagar Haveli: past and present, Published by Usha P. Lele, 1987,