Health systems management
||It has been suggested that this article be merged into Health administration. (Discuss) Proposed since March 2012.|
Health systems management or health care systems management describes the leadership and general management of hospitals, hospital networks, and/or health care systems. In international use, the term refers to management at all levels. In the United States, management of a single institution (e.g. a hospital) is also referred to as "Medical and health services management" "Healthcare management"  or Health Administration.
In the United States, the first modern health systems management program was established in 1934 at the University of Chicago. At the time, programs were completed in two years – one year of formal graduate study and one year of internship. In 1958, the Sloan program at Cornell University began offering a program requiring two years of formal study, which remains the dominant structure in the United States and Canada today (see also "Academic Preparation").
Health systems management has been described as a "hidden" health profession  because of the relatively low-profile role managers take in health systems, in comparison to direct-care professions such as nursing and medicine. However the visibility of the management profession within healthcare has been rising in recent years, due largely to the widespread problems developed countries are having in balancing cost, access, and quality in their hospitals and health systems.
Academic Preparation 
A master's degree is considered the "standard credential" for most health systems management positions within the United States. There are multiple recognized degree types that are considered equivalent from the perspective of professional preparation. The Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Management Education, (CAHME) oversees accreditation master's-level programs in the United States and Canada on behalf of the United States Department of Education, and has accredited programs of numerous degree types, including Master of Business Administration (MBA), Master of Health Administration (MHA), Master of Public Health (MPH, MSPH, MSHPM), Master of Science (MS-HSM, MS-HA), and Master of Public Administration (MPA).
Professional Organizations 
There are numerous professional associations related to health systems management, which can be subcategorized as either personal or institutional membership groups. Personal membership groups are joined by individuals, and typically have individual skill and career development as their focus. Larger personal membership groups include the American College of Healthcare Executives, the Healthcare Financial Management Association, and the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society. Institutional membership groups are joined by organizations; they typically focus on organizational effectiveness, and may also include data-sharing agreements and other best-practice sharing vehicles for member organizations. Prominent examples include the American Hospital Association and the University Healthsystems Consortium.
See also 
- Acronyms in healthcare
- Health care / Healthcare system / Health care provider
- Health center / Clinic / Hospital
- Medicine / Doctor's visit / Nursing
- Philosophy of healthcare
- Health policy
- Universal health care
- Medical classification
- "World Health Organization - Management".
- "Bureau of Labor Statistics".
- "ACHE Health Management Careers website".
- "University of Chicago - Graduate Program in Health Administration and Policy".
- Stevens, R. (1999). "In sickness and in wealth: American hospitals in the twentieth century." Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Haddock, C. C., & McLean, R. D. (2002). "Careers in Healthcare Management: How to Find your Path and Follow It." Chicago: Health Administration Press.
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2006). "Rising health costs put pressure on public finances, finds OECD." Retrieved January 20, 2009 from the OECD Web site: http://www.oecd.org/document/37/0,3343,en_2649_201185_36986213_1_1_1_1,00.html
- "Bureau of Labor Statistics - Occupational Outlook Handbook entry".
- American College of Healthcare Executives
- Association of University Programs in Health Administration
- Healthcare Financial Management Association
- Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society
- Healthcare Leadership Alliance
- Journal of Health Administration Education
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development - Reviews of health systems
- World Health Organization - 'Making Health Systems Work' series